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:,r-h 




STANFORD I'NIVERSITY LIBRARIES 




MYSORE 

A GAZETTEER COMPILED 
FOR GOVERNMENT 

REVISED EDITION 



B-LEWIS RICE. C I E., MR AS 

Feihvo of Ike Universily of Madras ■ Director of Arckaological Researches 
laic Director of Public Instruction in Mysore and Coorg 



VOL I 
MYSORE IN GENERAL 



ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE AND COMPANY 
2 WHITEHALL GARDENS S-W 

MDCCCXCVII 



MYSORE 



>Z.r.-. 



- ^ 



/.i 




When the former edition of this work was published, I h'tile 
expected to be called on, twenty years later, to revise iL And Mysore 
in the interval has undergone such great and radical changes, and so 
much has been added to our knowledge of its past by recent discoveries, 
that what appeared in the prospect a comparatively easy task has proved 
IQ be in reality one of considerable difficulty, and involving for its com- 
pletion a longer period than was anticipated, especially as I have been 
at the same time engaged on other duties of an exacting nature. 

HTiile the general arrangement of the work in the original edition 

has been adhered to, nearly e^-ery part has been either entirely 

re-written or greatly altered and extended. But the present edition is 

confined to the Stale of Mysore, and does not, as before, include Coorg, 

In the first volume, the section on Geology was in the press before the 

apfxiintment of Mr. Bruce Foote to Mysore was known to me or he 

had arrived here, otherwise I would gladly have handed over that special 

subject to him for revision. His views are, however, quoted in the 

Addenda at the end of the second volume. Most parts of the sections 

on Flora, Fauna and Ethnography have been entirely re-written in 

accordance with the latest information. So also, in an especial manner, 

the chapters on Histor)' and Literature : the former having been greatly 

added to in both the most ancient and the most modern periods; while 

the latter is almost entirely new. The chapter on Administration has 

been revised throughout and brought up to date with as much fulness 

ts could be done in the space at disposal. The Appendix on Coins is 

mostly new. In the second volume, there has been a close and general 

revision of local details, the topical changes of recent years having been 

both frequent and extensive. In the Glossary at the end have been 

included new terms of the Revenue Sur\ey. 

Of the country which forms the general subject of the work, it 
cannot be denit;;d that public interest in it has much increased since 
the former edition of this work appeared, its enlightened progress and 
its prominent position as a chief Native State in India having excited 
general attention. But, apart from this, there are not wanting in the 



VI 



PREFACE 



country intrinsic elements of attraction which have given it importance 
in the past. On first joining the sen'ice here I was considerably dis- 
appointed to be told, on inquiring from persons sup|>osed to be 
acquainted with the subject, that Mysore had no history, was quite a 
modern State, and virtually unknown before the wars with Haidar and 
Tipu brought it into prominence. As regards its language and literature, 
also, I was led to suppose that the language was merely a rude dialect 
of Tamil, and that literature it had none. Of the accuracy of these 
views I had doubts at the time, and how completely opposed ihey were 
to actual facts the present work will, it is hoped, serve to make clear. 
Tor the researches in which I have been for long engaged have brought 
to light a body of evidence which carries back the history, with scarcely 
a break in the sequence, as far as to the 3rd century n.c., while the 
language is found to have been highly cultivated at probably an earlier 
dale than any other South Indian vernacular, and to be replete with a 
literature of great volume and interest. 

If there be any truth in the observation that small countries with 
diversified and distinctive physical characteristics have played the 
greatest [xirt in the world's history, and given rise to its most distin- 
guished men, — ^Cireece, Palestine, England and others being quoted as 
instances, — Mysore, it seems to me, may fairly claim a pbce in the 
category. Not only does she abound in the picturesque features of 
lofty mountains and primeval forests, of noble rivers and mighty 
cataracts, but — to mention only a few of the products specially pertain- 
ing to her — she yields by far the most gold of any country in India, and 
her treasure in the past, carried off to the north by Musalman invaders, 
may have found its way to Central Asia among the spoils of Tartar 
hordes ; she is the peculiar home of the sandal and also of teak, a 
•special haunt of the elephant, rears a famous and superior breed of 
horned cattle, supplies as the staple food of her people the nutrient grain 
of nigi, was the cradle in India and is still the chief garden for coffee 
cultivation. Thus in every department of the natural world she may 
claim some pre-eminence. In the fine arts she has produced mar\-cl- 
lous examples of architecture and sculpture. In relation to humanity, 
again, she has been to the two greatest Hindu reformers a home for 
the monastery of one, and an asylum to the other. Nearly every form 
of faith, from Buddhism and Jainism to Islam^ has here had its day, 
and she is now known as having largely adopted and still strongly 
holding a special cult of native origin not conforming to Brahmanism. 
The Malndd region of Mysore has been the birthplace of royal races 
dominant in the south — the Kadambas, the Hoysalas, and perhaps also 
the Vijayanagar sovereigns. In modern times, the great general of the 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 



On the termination, in May 1799, of the last English war ivith 
Mysore, and ihe restoration of the Hindu Kdj, which followed, it was 
resolved by the East India Company tn obtain a topographical survey 
and general statistical account of the Territories that, for many years 
preceding, had been the scene of political events which attracted a 
bige measure of attention not only in India and the East, but also in 
England, France, and other European countries. 

Dr. Francis Buchanan (who subsequently assumed the name of 
Hamilton) was accordingly deputed, in February 1800,^ by the Governor- 
General, the Earl of Mornington, afterwards Marquis Wellesiey, to 
travel througli and report upon " the Dominions of tht Raja of Mysore, 
and the country acquired by the Company in the late war from the 
Saltan, as well as that part ot Mabbar which the Company annexed to 
their own Territories in the former war under Marquis Cornwallis." He 
set out on this journey from Madras on the 33rd April iSoo, and 
completed it on the 6th July iSoi. His report was written from day 
to day, while travelling, in the form of a Journal, which, on completion, 
was transmitted to England and placed in the library of the East India 
House. On the recommendation of the learned Or. (afterwards Sir 
Charles) Wilkins, the Librarian, its publication was sanctioned at the 
end of 1805, hut the manuscript went to press apparently without the 
knowledge of its author. *' Soon afterwards," says Dr. Buchanan, in 
bis introduction, " my duty having unexpectedly brought me to 
England, I was agreeably surprised to find that my Journal had 
obtained a reception so favourable. It is true I wished to have 
abridged the work before publication, and altered its arrangement ; but 
as the printing had commenced before my arrival, and as luy slay in 
England was likely to be very short, I could not undertake such altera- 
tions. I have therefore contented myself with revising the manuscript, 



* Then already well known 
Cfaitueocig. 



for his valuable botanical researches in Burma and 




X PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

and the superin tendency of the press has been entrusted to Mr. Stephen 
Jones.** 

The work appeared in [807, in three quarto volumes, under the title 
of A Journey from Madras ihrough the Cmmtrits of Mysore^ Canara 
and Malabar. Ever)- page teems with valuable infonnation, but the 
disjointed style, inseparable from the nature of a daily journal, makes 
it difficult to consult, and it is much to be regretted that the accom- 
plished author had not the opportunity of throwing the work into a 
more suitable form for publication. It was reprinted, in two volumes 
octavo, at Madras in 1870. 

While Dr. Buchanan was engaged in these travels, Colonel Colin 
Mackenzie— eventually Surveyor-General of India, and well known to 
Orientalists for his antiquarian collections in Southern India* — was 
commissioned by the Governor-General to make a Survey of Mysore. 
He was allowed only three assistants, wth a medical officer as surgeon 
and naturalist In spite of many obstacles, however, the survey was 
continued till 1807. The result was not alontr a valuable contribution 
to geographical knowledge, but considerable materials were acquired of 
the statistics and history of the country. These were recorded in folio 
volumes transmitted to the East India Company. Copies of eight 
volumes, attested by Colonel Mackenzie's signature, are deposited 
among the records of the Mysore Residency. The most novel and 
important of the discoveries made by him was that of the existence of 
the sect of Jains in India, which he was the first to bring to notice. 

The first surgeon and naturalist attached to the Mysore Survey was 
Dr. Benjamin Heyne, whose papers on a variety of subjects relating to 
this and the neighbouring countries were published in Ixjndon in 1814 
(also by the recommendation of Dr. Wilkins, Librarian at the East 
India House) under the title of Tracts^ Historical and Staiisticaiy an 
India. Subsequently, the gifted Or. John Leyden* was attached ta 



* Including, according to the catalogue by Prof. H. H. Wikon, 1,568 manuscripts 
of literary works 2,070 local tracts, 8,076 copies of inacriptions, 3,150 translations, 
2,709 plarjt and drawings, 6,218 aiins, and 146 images and antiquities. 

* " lie rose,'' as Sir John Malcolm, Resident of Mysore describes, *• by ihe pt>wcr 
of native geniua, from the humblest origin to a very distinguished rank in the literar)' 
world, llis studies included almost every bianch of human science, and he was 
alike ardent in the pursuit of all. The greatest power of his mind was |jerhops 
shown in his acqui&iUoD of modem and ancient languages. ..." 

His end was most sad. On the conquest of Java in 181 1, he accompanied the 
Coveinar-General, I»rd Miaio, to that island, and hearing at Uatavia of a librar>- 
conlaintng a valuable collection of Oriental manuscripts, hastened to explore it. The 
long low room, an old depository of effects belonging to the Dutch (Jovernnienl, had 
been shut up for iw>me time, and the confined air was suongly impregnated with the 
poinonous quality which has made Balavia the grave of so many Europeans. With- 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

the Sun-cy in the same capacity, but beyond a few anecdotes and 
verses in his Poeiicai RemainSy published in Ixjndon in 1819, I 
have (ailed to meet with anything of his specially about this Province, 
though it is stated that " he drew up some useful papers, which he 
communicated to the Government, relative to the mountainous strata 
and their mineral indications; as to the diseases, medicines and 
remedies of the natives of Mysore, and the peculiarities of their habits 
and constitution by which they might be exposed to disease ; as to the 
dififetent crops cultivated in Mysore and their rotation ; and to the 
languages of Mysore, and their respective relations," Heyne's observa- 
tions were confined to the north and east ; Leyden's papers, if traced, 
would give us information regarding the south and west. 

Colonel Mark Wilks, distinguished as the historian of Mysore, at 
which Court he was for a time Resident, published his well-known work 
under the title of Historical Sketches of tfu South of India^ in three 
volumes quarto ; the first of which appeared in London in 1810, and 
the two last not till 1817, owing to his appointment during the interval 
as Oovemor of St Helena, which office he held until the imprisonment 
on thai island of the emperor Napoleon Buonaparte. " It displays," as 
an old reviewer justly observes, " a degree of research, acumen, vigour, 
and elegance, that render it a work of standard importance in English 
literature." A reprint, in two volumes octavo, was published in Madras 
in 1869. 

Some monographs drawn up by officers of the Mysore Commission 
soon after the assumption of the Government by the British in 1831, with 
kindred papers, were printed in 1864 as SeUetions from the Records. 
In 1855 a Genera! Memorandum was prepared by Sir Mark Cubbon 
for the Marquis Dalhousie, and since that time Administration 
Reports have been regularly issued every year. 



ooi the precaution of having it aired, he rushed eagerly in to examine itti trnuuret, 
was fctrcf) in consequence wiih a morul fe^'er, and died on the aSlh August, after 
ihree lUys* illness, in the 36th year of hts age- 

Souihcy wished " ihat Java had remained in the hands of the enemy, mi l.eydcn 
were nlive,** while Sir Walter Scnit paid ihc following tribute to hi* iiiemor)- in the 
Ztfrt/ ^ the Isks .-^ 

His bright and lirief career is o'er, 

And mute his tuneful strains ; 
Quenched is his lamp of varicii lore, 
That loved the light of song to pour ; 
A distant and n dca<Liy shore 

Has Leyden's cold remains. 

The centenary of Leyden's birth was celebrated with public rejoicings in 1875 at 
his native village of DcDholm» on the bonks of the Te^iot, in Scotland. 



xn 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 



Other sources of information exist,' for a good deal has been written 
in connection with Mysore during a century back, much of it partisan ; 
but the aboii'e were some of the chief pubh'c and authentic materials 
accessible for a work which had become a desideratum, namely, a 
Gazetteer of Mysore brought up to date, presenting in a handy form 
and within a moderate compass all that was of interest in relation to the 
natural features, resources and productions of the country ; its history, 
population, industry, administration, and any other subjects that had a 
claim to be treated of in such a handbook. 



The first step taken towards supplying the want was in June 1867, 
when a circular was addressed by Mr. Saunders, CB., the officiating 
Chief Commissioner, to the Superintendents of Divisions^ directing the 
compilation, for each District, of a Gazetteer similar to one then lately 
published of the Bhandara District in the Central Provinces. In 
pursuance of these orders, during the next two years, nine manuscript 
volumes were prepared. Only two, howe^'er, came to be printed; namely, 
one for Mysore District, by Mr. H. Wellesley ; and one for Kolar, I 
presume by Mr. Krishnaiengar, C.S.I. Of the remainder, those for 
Bangalore and Kadur were not completed ; the one for Shimoga bears 
the signature of Captain Gordon Gumming ; that for Hassan of Major 
W. Hill ; that for Tumkiir of Major C. Pearse ; and that for Chitaldroog 
of Mr. Krishna Rao. The subsequent Reports on the Census of 
November 1871, by Major Lindsay, naturally superseded most of the 
statistical information contained in them. 

The design to appoint an editor who should bring out one work on a 
uniform plan was next adopted, and e\'entually, in 1873, with the 
sanction of the Government of India, it was proposed to me to under- 
take the compilation of the Gazettrer of Mysore and Coorg. A 
personal acquaintance more or less with every part of the two countries, 
gained in the course of official duty ; a familiarity with the local verna- 
culars ; and some measure of information regarding the literature and 
ancient histor)* of this part of India, derived from antiquarian studies; 
led me to anticipate the work with interest. But being, at almost the 
same time, raised lo the head of the Educational Department, I found 
that the labours of a new office which is no sinecure, left little leisure for 
the extra duty imposed upon me. I was therefore forced to be content 
for some time with making tours to such parts of the country as I had 
not recently visited, and collecting information from various quarters. 

' I would particuUrly mention Eastern ExperiencHy by Mr. L. Bowring, C.S.L, 
late Chief Commissiancr, published in London in 1871. 
' A ptragraph relating tu Coorg is here omitted. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 



xm 



However, when in 1874 Dr. Hunter, Director-General of Statistics, 
who is charged with the editorship of the Imperial Gazetteer for the 
whole of India, visited Bangalore, I was able to lay before him the 
plans I had formed for the work, and at his request undertook to 
prepare for Mysore a manual of each District separately, which I had 
not at first intended, as it seemed to involve a certain degree of repetition. 
I am now glad that I did so, as it obliged me to go more minutely into 
several subjects. Dr. Hunter again paid a visit to Bangalore in January 
1876, when a part of the work had been printed, and in his report to 
Govrmment was pleased to express the strongest approval of what had 
been done, and his " sense of the high value of the materials that had 
been supplied." 

The Gazetteer has thus finally taken the shape of two volumes 
devoted to Mysore (and a third to Coorg). Of the former, the first 
treats of Mysore in general, the second of Mysore by Districts, eight in 
number. A reference to the table of contents prefixed to each volume 
will enable the reader to see at a glance the arrangement and distribution 
of subjects. Volume II, it should be stited, was printed first. . . . 
In general the present work has been brought down to 1875, but in the 
portions printed after that, a few statistics of later date have been 
admitted- I had thought to append a short biographical notice of some 
of the remarkable men, both Native and European, who have been 
connected with Mysore, but feared it would extend the work loo much, 
and perhaps be considered foreign to its design. The subject, however, 
is one full of interest. 

I will not deny that the Gazetteer has caused far more labour than 1 
had anticipated, principally owing to the demands of an extensive 
Depanment, which prevented my ever giving undivided attention to 
the compiling of it. But these are conditions under which much of 
the best work in India has been accomplished, and I gratefully 
acknowledge the indulgence which has been extended by Government 
to any apparent, but unavoidable, delay in bringing the task to 
completion. 

With regard 10 all such information and statements contained in 
these volumes as I am not personally responsible for, 1 liave endeavoured 
to make a point of mentioning throughout the body of the work the 
authorities on which they are based ; and my sincere and hearty thanks 
are tendered to all who have favoured me with any information or 
asfiistaiKC, as well as to the Press. 1 may add tliat the proofs have 
been seeji, on the part of Government, by Major Tredway Clarke, 
Officiating Secretary to the Chief Commissioner, 
Bangalorb, Xmas iS^b. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. 1, 



pHTsiovL Geography 

Pbytieal Featnres;— SituAiion. Area, Boundaries, l. Naittrai 
/7n^>wttj— Malnid, Maidin, 2 ; Kwtr SysUmiy 4 ; Tanks, 7; 
Talpaigis, 7 ; Mountain Systems^ 7. 

Geology:— Metamorphic Rocks 13! Imbedded Minends, 15; 
Hatonic Rocks, 17; Volcanic Rocks, ai ; Ai|ueous Rocks, 
23 ; Older Allavtam, 26 ; Modem Alluvia, 29 ; Traverse 
Notes, 33; Aurirerous Tracts, 46; Non-metallic MineraJs, 
61. 

Meteoroloiy • — Seasons, 63 ; Tcm}x;niturc, 64 ; Rainfall, 64 ; 
KArthquakes, 65 ; C}-clone&, 65. 



1-67 



XbRA 



68-173 



FortCt Tmm :— Evergreen Belt, 68 ; Mixed Bell, 69 ; Dry Bell, 
74 : Sandal, 77 ; Tind)cr Trt-es, 78 ; Kniil Trees. 81 ; Native 
Vegeiabtes, 83; HortuHlturt :~V\ai\\% in the Lol Bayh or 
Botanical hardens, 85 ; Grasses, lOO. 

Crop! and OoltiTatlon :— Farmer's calendar. JOi ; Names of 
Crdjvi, 102 ; Areas under Cultivation, 104 ; Riigi, 107 ; 
Arare, 112; Togari, 112; Jola, 112; Sive, 114; Navane, 
ii6;Baragu, 117: Ilarakn, 117; Alsandi, 118; llunUI, 
119; Uddu, 120; Hcsitru, 121 ; W'ollclhi, 122; IluchchcUu, 
123; Haralu, 123; Sanalm, 125; Cotton, 125; Tolmccu, 
126; Si-sivc, 128; Kndalc. 12S ; Wheat, 129; Rice, 131; 
Sugar-cane. 144 ; Caidanionis, 151 ; Arcca-nut, 152 ; Cocoa- 
nui, 158: Bclel vine, 160 ; Coffee, 162; IntraUtheJ ptani$ of 
eti^namit t-a/w^; — Casuarina, 169; Cinchona, 169: Vanilla, 
171 ; Cocoa, 172; khe«, 172; Other Exotics, 172. 



Fauna 174-207 

Fera fl^Xarmx—Afammah^ 174; Destruction of wild l)casta, 
177 ; Game Law, 177 ; Elephant ke<ldaha, 179; Birdt, i8t ; 
ReptiUs^ 1S7; Fisfui^ 189; Insacts^ 190; insects useful to 
man, 194. 

Domeittc AnlmaJi:— Horses, 19S; Mules, 19S ; Asses, 199; 
Horned CalUc, Amrit Mahal, 199; Buffaloes, 204; Sheep, 
205 ; Goats, 207. 



XVI 



CONTENTS 



Ethnography 

Aboriginal and Primilivc Trit>«, 208 ; Population, 217 ; Hindus^ 
230; Caste, 221; Occu])aiions, 224: AgrtcuUural cUlsscs, 
227 ; Professional classes, 23J ; Commercial classes, 245 ; 
An.isans nnci tillage meniAls, 247 ; Vagrant minor artisans 
and performers, 255. Musaimans, 257 ; CArisiiaus, 259 ; 
Urban Population, 261 ; Character and dress of the people* 
362. 

Alphabetical liAt uf castes 



PAGI 

30S-270 



266 



• 



History 



271-453 



Legendary Period 1— Agast)-a, 272 ; Asuras and RakshosaK, 
273 ; Haihayas, 274 ; l^rasu Kama, 275 ; Rama, 276 ; 
Kishkindha, 277 ; Pdndavas, 279 ; ChantJrahasa, 283 ; Jaiia- 
mejaya, 2S5. 

Historical Period : — Mauryas, 287 ; S'itavihanas, 292 ; Ka- 
(iaiiil»as, 295 ; Mahavalis 300 : Vaiduralias, 303 ; Palhvas, 
303 ; NoIamlMit, 307 ; tiangas, 308 ; Chalukyas, 319 ; Rish- 
trakdlas, 324 ; Chatukyas, 327 ; Kalachurls, 331 ; Cholas, 
333 ; Hoysalas, 335 ; Yddavas, 343 ; Vijayanagar, 344 ; 
Palegars, 356 ; Bijapur, 357 ; Mughals, 361 ; Mysure Kijas, 
361 ; Haidar Ali, 372 ; Tipu SuUin, 398 ; Restoration of 
the Hindu Rij, 417 ; Purnaiya Uegcnt, 419: Krishna Raja 
Wixlcyar, 421 ; ReifwUion in Nagar, 427 ; Deposition of the 
Kija, 429 ; the Mysore Commission, 429 ; the Great Famine, 
439 : ihe Rendition, 441 ; the Keprcseniative Assembly, 442; 
Re\-icw of Policy of ihe Mysore Clovernmcnt, 445 ; Instrument 
of Transfer, 450. 



i 



Keligion 



Seri>cnt worship, 454; Tree worship, 4SS i M^ri or Mdra, 456 ; 
Bhtilas, 457; Animism, 457; Brahmam'sm, 4$$ ; /aini'sm, 
460 ; Bttddhism^ 465 ; Hinduism^ 468 :— Siva, 46S : Sanka- 
r^chiiry:^, 471 ; list of Sring^ri giirus, 473 ; Raniinujich-irja, 
474 ; Harihara, 475 ; Llng^iyits, 476 ; Madhvichirya, 477 ; 
Sitinis, 477. Jsiam, 479. Ckriiiianitjf, 480 ; Roman Caih* 
oUc Mission, 482 ; I'rotestant Missions, 484. 



454-487 



Language and Literature 

KAnnad&i 488 ; its Dialects, 489 ; Periods. 490 ; Written 
Character, 491 ; Relationship, 492; Literature, 495; Early 
Authors and their Works 49* J Modern Authors, 501 ; 
Writing materials, 503 ; Muhamtnadan publicatiuns, 5^3 • 
European publications, 504. 



48S-S05 



Art akd Industry 

Raa Irtai— Stone Monuments, 506; Satipturt, 509; ArcJkittc 

/*«T,— Buddhist, 510; Jain, 510 ; Dravidian, 512; Chalukyant 
513: lUlcbid, 514; Belur, 518: Soimnalhpur, 519; 
Maln^td, 519; Saracenic, 5J0 ; Lingiyii, 521. Engravings 
522 ; fVM/J-carvsrtg, 52a; InUid work, 523. Afust'i, 523. 

lodosbrlal kriH—Me/aUurgy ; Gold-mining, 524 ; Gold and 
Silver, 528; Iron and Sieel, 530; Brass and Copper, 535; 
Mnnu/ot/uret, 535. TextiU h'abriis, 535 ; Cotton, 536 ; 
Wool, 537 ; Carpet*. 537 ; Silk, 538 ; Mills aud Factorits^ 
539; Dyc», 540; Goni, 541. Oil-prening^ 541. Soap and 
Candles, 544. Glass-making, %^\. Carpentry and Turnings 
547. Sugar and Jag^dry, 547 ; Sugar Works, 550. Ltathtr- 
dresftHg, 552. A'artk salf, 553. Cojfee IFaris, 554 ; j9r/f-4 
and Tile Works, 554 ; Paper-mills, 554. 

Trades and Commerce, 555; Imports, 556; Exports, 558; 

Jnint-Slock Companies, 56a 

Wa^M aad Frieei : —Wages, 561 ; Prices, 563; as aflected by 
the seasons, 563. 



Admisistratiom 573-798 

Under the early Hindu Rulers, 573; the Village Twelve, 574; 

Revenue S);>l«:ni, 576. 

Under the Vyayaoagar Sovereigns, 57S ; Civil and Military 
departmenit, 579 ; Village ofiicers, 579 ; T^nd rent, 582 ; 
Cttstoms and taxes, 583 ; pjitablishmcnts, 586 ; Justice, 587 ; 
Heads of Dei^artmcnts, 587 ; Potioe, 588. Carnaiic Bijapnr, 
588 ; Sira, 589. 

Under the Rajaa of Hyiore, fto., 590; Departments Tormed 
by Chikka Deva R.-lj.i, 590 ; hi« revenue regulationi, 591; 
new taxes, 592, Bedmtr, 593 ; Sivappa Nayak's shist and 
prahar |»lti, 594. ffaidar Ali^ 59S- Tipti Sultany 595 ; 
new system, 595 ; military regulations, 596 ; fleet, 596 [ 
commercial regulations, 597 ; regulations of revenue, 599 ; 
police, 599. 

Under Fornalya, 1799-1610. — Settlement of IVlegars and the 
Army, 600; lam) assessment, 602; civil dejKirlmcnts, 604; 
justice, 605 ; revenue, 607 ; Court of Adalat, 610. 

Under Krishna Raja Wodeyar, 1811-1881.— A^W Revenue, 
611; revenue procedure, 6i3 ; rusums, 615; rates of 
kand^yam, 6t6 ; land tenures, 617 ; village rent, 620 ; Sdyar^ 
622 ; in Nagar, 624 ; in Ashtagram, 625 ; in liangalore, 627 ; 
PAntk Bdb, 627, Justite .—Cix-il, 629 ; Criminal, 631 ; 
punishments, 633 ; jails, 637 ; police, 637. 



I 




CONTEISTTS 

Under the Myiore CommUsiOD. 
Hon-Regulatlon Byttem, 1631-1BS5, 639; Larut fCevenue, 

640; revenue tilTux'K and setllement, 643; Na(jar, 647; 
Manjarabad, 652 ; Siiyar, 653 ; remisaons in Nagar, 657 ; in 
Axhtagrem, 658 ; in Hangnlnre, 659 ; in Chiul(lrtw>j», 660. 
Juitiee^ 661 ; Courts, 662 ; procedure, 663 : appeals, 664 ; 
Panchiyals. 666 : fees and fines, 667 ; jlpas penchayats, 669 ; 
Critninal Justice, 671. 

Transition Period, 1836-1862, 674 ; new dcpanments 675 ; 
revision nf M.thaiarfa, 676 ; the Commission re-organiud, 
677 ; Justice, 670 : Police, 6S0 ; Jails, 681. Revenne, 681 ; 

Finance. 6S2 ; Military. 682. 

Kefulatlon ByBtem, 18e3~lB81« 683. Civil De/xtrt Hunts :— 
ReTenae and Finance, 6S3 ; State Rrvemte, 685 : Iji-nd 
teniire-s, 6S6 ; Inam tenures, 690 ; Kcvenuc Survey and Settle* 
menl. 692 ; Inam setilcmeni, 696 ; Muzr^yi {tettleinent, 700 ; 
Land Rrvenui, 701 ; Coffee halat, 702 ; Forests, 706 ; Ahkari, 
70S; Si>-ar, 711 ; Muhatarfa, 712; Salt, 713 ; Stamps 714 ; 
Anche or Tost Office, 714; IjkoI Funds^ 714; Munici|»l 
Funds, 715 ; State Expendittirt, 718.— Law and Jaitlofli— 
Leffislation, 721 : Courts, 723 ; System of JudiMturc, 734 ; 
CiWI Justice, 726 ; RcRistr^tion, 726 ; Criminal Jualice, 727 ; 
Prisons, 72S; Police, 730.— Public Worki, 733 ; Railway, 
744.— Public Instruction. 745.— Medical, 733. .Military 
Oeparlmenli, 75S ; British Siilwidiary Force, 758 : Mysore 
Local Force. 759 ; Silahdars, 760 ; Barr, 762 ; Bangalore 
Rifle Volunteers. 762. 



rada 



Since the Rendition In 1881. 

Fonn of Administration, 763 ; Council. 763 ; Representative 
Assemhiy, 763. Adminisiration of tht Latid, 764 : Topo* 
graphical Survey, 764 ; Revenue Survey and Settlement, 
764 ; Inam scttlcmcnl, 764. Protttliou, 765 ; l-cgislation, 
765; police, 766; Criminal Jiwtice, 76S ; Prisons, 769; 
Civil Justice, 770; Ke)<ulration, 771 ; Municipal Administra- 
tion, 771 ; Military, 772. Pnxiuction and DiitribiitionyTiy, 
Ai^riculturc, 773 ; Weather and crops, 773 ; Forests, 773 ; 
Mines and Quarries, 774 ; Manufacture and Trade, 774 ; 
Public Works, 775 ; Railways, 777 ; Post-office, 779. 
Kcvtmu ami Finance, 779 ; Provincial Funds, 779 ; Revenue, 
780 ; E)i|X'ndilure, 785 ; I^->cal Funds, 786 : Agricultural 
Banks, 787 ; S:(vin(j5 Bnnks, 787 ; State Life Insurance, 787. 
P'iial Statistic ami Meiiieal Services, 7S8 ; Ririhsaml Deaths, 
7S8 ; Medical Relief, 789. InstructiaH, 791. Archeolo^, 
796. Miaellanmrn, 797 j Muzri}!, 797, 



CONTENTS xix 

PAGB 

Appendix 799-813 

Coins, Wel^ti ud NeMores :— Coi'/i^, 799; Lead coins, 799; 
Gold coinst 801 ; Silver coins, 805 ; Copper coins, 807 ; 
Accounts, 808. iVetghts, 809. Measures .'—Grain Measures, 
810 ; Land Measures, 810 ; Measures of Time : — Eras, 81 1 ; 
Years, 812. 

Addenda et Corrigenda . . . . . . . 815 

Index 819 



LIST OK MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Xap of Kyiore PocHet in cover 

Seological Sections p. 13 

a. In about Latitude 1 5° N. 

b. ., „ 13° N. 

From Jalarpat to Shik&rpur 36 

Geological Hap of Boathem India 62 

Physical and Indnttiial Hap of Mysore i6:{ 

Sketch Map of Mysore in about 450 300 

». » ..750 314 

1050 335 

1625 357 

Map of Peninsolar India to illustrate the History of Mysore . 368 

Specimens of Mysore Coins j^ 

Plate i. I..ead and Gold coins 802 

,, ii. Gold, Silver, and Copijer coins .... 807 




MYSORE 



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 



The State of Mysore* occupies a position phj^sically well defined, in 

the South of India ; and has been termed a rocky iriangk-, a not inapt 

: description. It is a table-land, situated in the angle where the Easteni 

[And Western Ghat ranges converge into the group of the Nilgiri Hills. 

'West, south and east, therefore, it is enclosed by chains of mountains, 

on whase shoulders the plateau which constitutes the country* rests. On 

ihe west the l>oundar)- approaches at one part to within lo miles of the 

SCSI, but in general preser\'es a distance of from 30 to 50 miles from the 

^cottst : on the east the nearest point is not less than 120 miles. The 

'loutliem extremity is 250 miles from Cape Comorin. The northern 

frontier is an exceedingly irregular line, ranging from 100 miles south 

of the river Krishna on the west to 150 on the east 

The country extends between the parallels of 11' 38' and 15" 2' 
north latitude, and between the meridians of 74* 43' and 78° 36' east 
longitude, embracing an area of 29,305 square miles, as detcrmine*i by 
fthe SuTveyor-Oeneral of India from the recent survey on the one-inch 
(It is therefore nearly equal to Scotbnd, whose area is 29,785 
Sqnare miles.) The greatest length north and south is about 230 
miles, east and west about 390. 

' The name is thai of the capital, pro|)erty A/atsiir, for A/oAisJitir, — from mahhUfi, 
Saoft- for bufialo, reduced in Kan. to matsa^ and rJrw, Kan. for town or counU^'. — 
[tttu^ ci>intnc[nt>ra[c& ihc destruction of MahtshAsura, a minotaur or iHiffalo-hndct) 

oastcr. by Chamundi or MAhbiho-sura-niardani, Ihe form under which the consort 

' Sava is war%hi{>]>ed as the tutelary goddess of the Myiiore rn)^] family. 

I-Ixeept in a passage in the Mahawanso, where it U called Mahi-shu-mandalai the 
•lotignfttkm of the country throughout Hindu literature is Karndu or KarnitaUa (fur 
derivation see chapter on Language), which properly applied to the country above the 
IflMiK. But the MuhammadanA included in the name their concjucsls below the Ghaii 
B» well, and the English, going a step further, erroneously restricted it to the low 
ecamcry. Hence Guiiaiic and Canara now designate, in European worlcs ol 
Eeognphf, rcgioni which never bore tho« names; while Mysore, ihc pn*i>ei 
Kafoilaka or Camauc, is not so calleil. 



i 



■ 



^'EOGRAPMY 



It is surrounded by the Madras Presidency on all sides, except on 
part of the west, where the Bombay Presidency northwards and Coorg 
southwards form the boundaries. The Madras Districts bordering on it 
are Bellary and Anantapur on the north ; Kadapa, North Arcol and 
Salem on the east ; Coimbatorc, Nilgiris and Malabar on the south ; 
South Carura on the west. The Bombay Districts of Dhanvar on the 
north and North Canara on ilie west complete the circle. Coorg 
inter\-enes between the adjacent parts of South Canara and Malabar on 
the south-west. 

The general elevation rises from about 2,000 feet above the sea level 
along the northern and southern frontiers to alxiut 3,000 feet along the 
central water-parting, which separates the basin of the Krishna from 
that of the K-dv^ri and divides the country into two nearly equal parts. 
But the surface is far from preserving the even character suggested by 
the designation of table-land. For the face of the country is every- 
where undulating, much broken up by lines of rocky hills or lofty 
mountains, and scored in all parts by udlas or deep ravines. There is 
probably not a square mile in the whole superficies absolutely flat or 
level, the slope of the ground ranging from 10 to 20 feet per mile in the 
more level portions, and as high a.s 60 and 80 feet elsewhere. 

The country is longitudinally intersected by single or aggregated 
chains of hills, running chiefly north and south, or in a direction nearly 
parallel to the two coasts. They lie at uncertain and unequal distances 
from each other, and accordingly form sometimes wide and somctimea 
narrow valleys. Isolated peaks of massy rock, termed by Europeans 
droogs} rearing their heads to 4,000 or 5,000 feet above the level of the 
sea, stind forth like sentinels on every hand ; mostly crowned with the 
remains of fortifications, whose position, with the advantage of an 
unfailing supply of water at the summit, rendered theixi wellnigh 
impregnable strongholds. Besides these, chisters or piles of naked 
rocks, composed of immense rounded boulders, are frequent ; large 
fragments being often delicately poised, like logging stones, upon some 
projecting point ; appearing as if a touch would overturn them, and yet 
sometimes supporting a shrine or manda/xi, 

Natural divisions. — Mysore naturally divides itself into two separate 
regions, each of which has well-marked and distinctive features. 

Of these theMalnild,* or hill country, lies to the west, and is confined 
to the tracts bordering or resting on the \^"eslern Ghats. It is a land of 
magnificent hill and forest, presenting alternations of the most diversified 

* Properly dur-ga, a Sanskrit word meflning diJjkuU gf access^ and denoting 
hiU-fort. 
' Kan. .l/'i/r, liill ; niidu, district, region. 



antl charming scener)'. A fertile soil and perennial streams clothe the 
valltii-* With verdanl culti^-ation. The shtltered hillsides are l^eautiful 
with waving woods, which give shade to numerous plantations of coffee 
Higher up are swelling downs and grassy slopes, dotted over with park- 
like groups of trees. Alx)ve all, the gigantic mountains rear their 
towering crests in everj" fantastic furni of peak. Human dwellings are 
few and far between A cottage here and thtre, picturesquely situated 
on the rising ground bordering the rice-fields, and hidden amid planta- 
tioos of areca palm and plantain, marks the homestead of a farmer and 
his femily. Towns there are none, and villages of even a dozen houses 
rare. The incessant rain of the monsoon months confines the people 
to ibear own farms. Hence each householder surrounds himself with all 
he needs, and succeeds in making himself to a great extent indei>endoni 
of the external world. The conditions of this isolated life are insupporl 
able to immigrants from the plains. 

But by far the greater portion of the Province, or all to the east and 
north of a line from (say) Shikarpur to I'eriyapaina, continued along 
the southern border to the Biligirirangan hills, belongs to the division 
of Maiddn, Bail shfme, or ojien countr)-. Although much of the in- 
termediate region partakes of the characteristics of both, the transition 
from the Malndd to the Maiddn is in some places very marked. Dense 
ircstfi, which shut in the view on every hand, give place to wide- 
ling plains : the solituy farm to rlu^tering villages and populous 
to«m9. Man meets with man, the roads are covered with traffic, and the 
mind feels relief in the sympathy of numljers. 

The means of water-supply and the prevailing cultivation give the 
iractcr to the various parts of the open country. The level plains of 
fillluvul black soil, as in the north, growing cotton or millet ; the districts 
irrigated by channels drawn from rivers, as in the south and west, dis- 
playing the bright hues of sugar-cane and rice-fields ; the lands under 
tanks, filled with gardens of cocoa and areca palma; the higher-lying 
nndulaiing tracts of red soil, as in the ea.st, yielding ragi and the 
LOommon associated crops ; the stony and wide-spreading pasture 
mds, as in the central parts, covered with coarse grass and relieved 
liy shady groves of trees. The aspect changes with the seasons, and 
in the dry and cold months, when the fields are lying fallow, 
a dreary and monotonous prospect, speedily assumes under the 
first operations of the plough the grateful hues of tilLige ; which, under 
influence of seasonable rains, give place in succession to the bright 
rdure of the tender blade, the universal green of the growing crops, 
the browner tints of tlie ripening grain. The scene meanwhile is 
of hfc, with husljandmen, their families and cattle engaged in the 

B 2 



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 



labours of the field These arc prolonged in stacking and threshing 
until the cold season again sets in and the countr)' once more assumes a 
parched and dusty aspect. 

Rivtr systems. — The drainage of the country-, with a slight exception, 
finds its way to the Bay of Bengal, and is divisible into three great river 
systems ; that of the Krishna on the north, the Kd^ ^ri on the south, the 
two Penndrs, and the Pdl.ir on the east. The only streams flowing to 
the Arabian Sea are those oi certain taluqs in the northwest, which, 
uniting in the Sharavati, hurl themselves down the Clhats in the mag- 
nificent falls of Clersoppa ; and some minor streams of Nagar and Man 
jarabad, which flow into the Gargila and the NetravatiJ 

A line drawn east from Balldlrdyan durga to Nandidurga (Nundy- 
droog) and thence south to Anekal, with one from Devaraydurga north 
to Vavugada, will indicate approximately the watershed separating the 
three main river-basins. From the north of this ridge flow the Tunga 
and the Bhadra, rising in the Western Ghats and uniting in the Tunga- 
bhadra, which, with its tributarj' the Hagari or Vedavati, joins the 
Krishna beyond the limits of Mysore in Srisaila near Karnul. From 
the south of the line, the Hemavati (with its affluent the Yagachi), the 
LokapAvani, Shimsha, and Arka\-ati flow into the Kaveri, which, rising 
in Coorg and taking a south-easterly course through the country, re- 
ceives also on the right bank the Lakshmantirtha, the Gundal, the 
Kabhani and the Honnu Hole before quitting the territory. From the 
east of the line, m the immediate neighbourhood of Nandidurga, spring 
three main streams, fomiing a system which lassen has designated "die 
Trijrotamie dcs Dckhans," namely, the Uttara Pindkini or Northern 
Penndr (with its tributaries the Chitravati and Papaghni), which dis- 
charges into the sea at Nellore ; the Dakshina Pia^kini or Southern 
Pennir,' which ends its course at Cuddalore ; and between them the 
Pildr, whose mouth is at Sadras. A continuation of the east and west 
line through Nandidurga to Sunnakal will mark the water parting be- 
tween the first and the other two ; which, again, are div^ded by a line 
passing from Jangamkote to Bowringix^t and the Betardyan hills. 

More accurately descrit>ed, the axial line or *' great divide" which 
forms as it were the backbone of the countr)-, starts from the north of 
BaI1.4Inlyandurga and runs easi-by-north to near Aldur. Thence it 
makes a bend, first, northwards up to the western extremity of the Baba 

' The course of each river k dcscrit»eci in detail in Vol. 11. 

* Its name below the Cihats appears to be Poni'Ar ot Panuitr, golden rirer» ir 
Iwing the Tamil for river. It woult) be vcr>- convenient were geographers to agree 
uixm restricting the name Penno. to the northern stream and that of Ponna to the 
southern. The fonner is also called Tenner (written Pennair), &m being the Telugu 
for ri\-er. 



Budan range and then souifa-east, passing between Bclur and Halebid, 
down to Sige Gudda in the north of the Hassan taluk. Krom tins 
point it strikes across the map in an east north-cast direction, rounding 
the souUiem extremities of the Harahalli and Hagalvadi hills, up to 
near Kortagiri, where it encountere the great meridional chain of 
mountains. Following the range south, past Devardydurga to near 
Dodbele, it resumes an east-north-easterly course to Nandidurga and 
continues the same to the frontier near Sunnakal Geographically it 
lies between the parallels of 13^ 10' and 13" 25'. 

A line projecied north from the west of Kortagiri up through Pavu- 
gada to the frontier, and one south from Nandidurga by Bangalore to 
Anekal, mark pretty nearly the limits of the respective river-basins in 
the transveric direction. This water-parting falls between the meridians 
of 77' 10' and 77* 30'. 

The basin of the Sharavati, which runs to Hondvar on the Canara 
coast, occupies the west of the Shimoga District. It may be defined 
by a line drawn from Kodachddri south-east to Ka\'alcdurga, ihencc 
nonh-east by Humcha to Masarur, and west-north-west by Anantapur 
and Ikkeri to Talgupi»a. The streams between Kodachddri, Ravale- 
duTga and the Agumbt ghat westwards, run down to Kondapur ; and 
those of western Manjarabad, to Nfangalore. 

The following statement contains an estimate of the total length, 
within the Prownce, of the main rivers with their principal tributaries ; 
and the total area of the catchment basin under each river-system 
within the same limits : — 



1 Riw Symn 


To»l 


Length oC Rivers 


TopUAmiof BuIm 








Mild. 


Squmf« Mil«». 


KfUKnit 






61 1 


11,031 
9.4B6 


Kivcii ... 






646 


N. Pennai 


.. 




167 


2,280 


S. Pcnnir 


■•>• ... 




32 


i,54« 


WIAf ..- 






47 


1.036 


SbuBvati and wot cotst rivers 




103 


1,881 



Owing to either rocky or shallow beds, none of the Mysore rivers is 
navigable,^ but timber floats are carried down the Tunga, the Bhadra, 



' Ffom the following statement tn Buchanan it appears that Haidar atlemplcd to 
ttsh oiT^tinn on the Tunga. *' I'rum Alangalore liaidar Iirotighl lo Shimoga 
aupcnter>i, ami l»uiU a numlicr nf lighlersof about eight ions burthen. Thcj* 
Urong and Aai-l>ottomcd ; Imi, as ihe greater port of them Iiavc l>ccn allowed to 
on the bank where they wctc liuilt, I doubt nut thai the>' were found very 
Th« attempt is, however, no impeachment on the sagacity of lloidar, who 



PHYSTCAL GEOGRAPffY 



and the Kabbani at certain seasons. Most of the streams are fordable 
during the dry months, or can be crossed by rude bridges formed of 
logs or stones thrown across from boulder to boulder. During floods, 
and when freshes come down, traffic over the streams is often susj>ended 
until the water subsides. But throughout the rainy season they are 
generally crossed at the appointed ferries by rafts, basket boats, canoes, 
or ferry boats. Men also sometimes get over supporting themselves on 
earthen [lOLs. 

The ieppa or raft is formed of bamboos lashed together, and merely 
affords an unsteady footing, the water washing freely through. The 
harighlu or coracle is a circular basket of stout wicker-work, composed 
of interlaced bamboo laths and covered with buffalo hides. It is 8 or 
lo feet in diameter, with sides 3 or 4 feet high.^ A smaller one, which 
holds only two people, is used for crossing some jungle streams. The 
rfiJw or canoe is a dug-out, or hollowed log pointed at the two ends. 
The siUt^da, or regular ferry lx)at,* is formed of two canoes secured 
together, with a platform or deck fastened upon them, and has sides 
turning on hinges which, let down, form a gangway for loading and un- 
loading. All these craft are propelled by a long liamlwo pule, and are 
dependent for their course upon the currents. But paddles are some- 
times used with the canoe. 

Though useless for purposes of navigation, the main streams, espec- 
ially the Kiiv^ri and its tributaries, support an extensive system of 
irrigation by means of channels drawn from immense dams, called 
anicuts,™ which retain the upper waters at a high level and permit only 
the overflow to pass down stream. These works are of great antiquity, 

having iKcn educated in a place remote from e%'ery kind of navigation, could have no 
idea, of what boats cmild perform, nnr of what oKslaclcs would (>revrnt their utilit)'. 
To attempt dragging aaylhing up such a torrent zs the Timga would Ik v;uii ; but, 
after ha^Hng seen the boats, and known that &omc of them have been actually navigated 
down ihc river, I have no doubt of its Iwing practicable lo carry tiown (U>ats ; and on 
these perhaps nwuiy bidLy articio of cuuiraerce iiii^hl Ik: transpcirteti" 

' Hermlotus notices, as one of the most remarkable things he had seen at Bab}ion, 
boats of a consiruciion so exactly similar, that the de^tcrijitian of one would precisely 
answer for ihc other, with the single difference of substituting willow for Imnlxio. 
These boats carried the produce of Armenia, and " the parts aliove .Assyria," down 
the Kuphmtes to Babylon ; and each Xtoiax along with its cargo carried a few asses for 
the pur|)t>s« of conveying the returns by a shorter ovcilanil route. Boats of the 
description noticed by Herodotus, although apparently unknown in Greece at thai 
pertotl, were in after ages commonly used in Italy on the To ; and in Britain in the 
time uf C..t:»ar. Boats of the Kunc materials but of diifcrent shape arc used at this 
lime in South Wales, nnH the north-wc-t of Ireland ; in the former counir)* they are 
named <arracU, in the latter u»rra/;^rA.— Wm.ks. i, 257. 

- Tlic mention oi omrffa^ ttcurs in the I'eriplus. 

* Fioiu Kan. anc ^afu, b«-ilh meaning tlam, dyke, or embankment. 




HYDROGRAPHY 



^^Rotracted a thousand years ago; while the most recent, with few 
otceptions, are not less than three centuries old. " The dreams which 
rtvealed to favoured mortals the plans of these ingenious works (says 
Wilks) have each their appropriate legend, which is rtlated with rever- 
ence and received with implicit belief." The channels or kAhh thence 
drawn, meander over the adjoining tracts of countr)* on either bank, 
roHowing all the sinuosities of the ground, the total length running 
being upwards of 1,200 miles.* 

'["here are no natural lakes in Mysore, but the streams which Rather 
from the hillsides and fertilize the valleys are, at every favourable 
point, embanked in such a manner as to form series or chains of 
reservoirs, called tanks,- the outflow from one at a higher level supplying 
jthc next lower, and so on all down the course of the stream at a few 

e» apart. These tanks, varying in size from small ponds to extensive 
likes, are dispersed throughout the country to the number of 38,080 ; 
and to such an extent has ihis principle of storing water been followed 
ibat it would now require some ingenuity to discover a site suitable for 

new one without interfering with the supply of those already in 
ence: The largest of these tanks is the Siilekere, .40 miles in cir- 
cumference. Other large ones are the Aypnkere, Madaga-kere, Masur- 
Maibga-kere, Vyasa samudra, Himasdgara, Moti Talab, &:c., of which 
accounLs will be found elsewhere (Vol. 11). 

The ipring-hcads called tnlpargis form an important feature of the 
bydrography of the north-east. They extend throughout the border 
itgioBs situated east of a line drawn from Kortagiri to Hiriyur and 
Molkalmum. In the southern parts of this tract the springs may be 
tap{»cd in the sandy soils at short distances apart, and the water rises 
close to the surface. Northward the supply is not so plentiful. In 
l^arugsda a soft porous rock has to be cut through l:)cforc reaching the 
water, and in the other laluqs of the Chitaldroog District hard strata of 
rock have sometimes to be perforated. When the water is obtained, it 
tt cilher conducted by narrow channels to the fields, or a kapiU well is 
consinicted, from which the water is raised by bullocks. 

Mtmntain systems. — From the gigantic head and shoulders, as it were, 
of ' ' Nilgiri group, which commands the southern frontier, are 
OC' Tth like two arms, in a north-west and north-east direction 

fespectively, the Western and Eastern Ghat ranges, holding within 

* The ttflicutJ and dumnds arc fully described under the respective rivcre in 

Vtii. n. 

» Air* is the general name in Kannsda, but ko(ay ianftt *"<* o^l^" 1"">* *'* 
appfieO to crrtain descriptions. 



8 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 

their mighty embrace the mountain -lotiked plateau of Mysore- The 
hills of this tahle-Iand, though rarely in continuously connected chains, 
arrange themselves into systems crossing the country longitudinally, in 
directions more or less parallel with the Eastern and Western Ghats 
according to their proximity to one or the other; and attaining their 
greatest elevation between 13 and 13 J degrees of north latitude, along 
the north of the watershed line dividing the Krishna and Kiv^ri river 
systems. 

The best defined of these ranges is a belt, from 10 to 20 miles wide, 
running between the meridians of 77 and 77J, from the Biligirirangan 
hills aa tlieir western limit, through Kankanhalli nortliwards up to 
Madgiri, and on to the frontier by way of Pa\'ugada and Nidugal. It 
separates the eastern from the northern and southern river-basins. On 
the west, a somewhat corresponding range, not more than 10 miles in 
width, runs north along the meridian of 755 from Ballilrayan-durga up 
to beyond Shikarpur, having on its east the loop of the Baba Budans, 
projecting as it were like some Titanic bastion guarding the approaches 
to the Malnid or highland region formed by the congeries of hills and 
mountains which intervene between the range and the Ghats on the 
west. 

Intermediate between the two internal ranges above described is 
placed a hilly belt or chain, with considerable intcnals between its com- 
ponent parts, tending to the east on the south of the central watershed 
and to the west on the north of it, so as to form a very obtuse angle in 
traversing the centre of the country. Starting from the Wainad frontier 
at Gopalswami betta, between Gundlupet and Heggadadevankoce, it 
passes by Seringajxitam and Nagamangala to Chunchangiri, where, 
exchanging its easterly for a westerly course, it reappears to the west of 
Kibbanhaili in the Hagalvadi hills, and crossing in a continuous belt 
through the middle of the Chitaldroog District, quits the country to the 
north of Rankuppa. 

In the northern section of the territory, where the distance between 
the Ghat ranges, and by consequence between the intermediate belts, 
continues to increase, the intcnal is occupied by minor ranges. Of 
these the most important is the Nandidroog range, commencing near 
the hill of that name and stretching northwards by Oudibanda to Penu- 
konda and the Anantapur countrj'. In the west, a similar medial chain, 
but of tower ele^'ation, passes from the eastern base of the Baba Budans 
south of Sakrepatna, up by Ajimpur, the Ubrani hills and Basvapatna, 
between Honnali and Male Bennur, along the right bank of the Tun- 
gabhadra, to the frontier, where it meets lliat river. 

Viewing the mountains as a whole, the Eastern and Western Ghat 



lO 



IS" 



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 
WESTERN SYSTEM 



75" 



14 



Chandragutti, 3,794 



Kalvarangan hill, 3.388 
Govardhangiri, 1,730 Karadi betta, 2,725 



Kodadiadri, 4.411 

Kavaledurga, 3,058 



Hanuman betta, 2,507 



Hill at Sulekerc, 2,695 



Hanuman dui^a. 3,181 
Ubrani hilts, 2,891 



Koppa durga, 3,960 
Lakke parvata, 4,66a 
Kondada betta, 3,907 



Woddin guddrt, 5,006 
Varaha pan'aia, 4^78l 

Merti gudda. 5.451 
Kudure niukJia, 6,215 

Ballalrayan durgn, 4,940 



Kate gudda, 4,540 
Karadi gudda, 4.533 
Siskal betta, 3,926 
Jenkal betta, 4,558 
Murkan gudda, 4.265 
Devar betta, 4,906 



Subrahmanya 

or l^ishpa giri, 5,63d 



Baba Budaa Range Kalduij^ 3,183 

Hebbe betta, 4.385 

Kalhatti giri, 6,155 

Devinunman gudda, 5,906 

Baba Budan giri, 6,214 

Rudra giri, 5.692 Sakuna giri, 4,653 

Mulaina giri, 6,317 Garudan giri, 3.680 



Maharajan durga, 3,899 



Bettadpura hill, 4,389 
_ ^ 



r Chain 



77* 



MOUNTAIN SYSTEMS 

PASTERN SYSTEM 

78' 



Santigndda. 3,595 

/atinga Ramesvara hilt, 3.469 

Nunke Bhairava hill, 3.033 



hin, 3.731 

betta. 3,381 



1^5 



c. 3.339 
a. 3.803 

3.374 
3.2*5 



luDs. 3.543 



Nidugal. 3,773 Itikal durga, 3.569 

Pavugada, 3,036 

Midagesi durga, 3,376 Dokkal konda, 3,807 

Madgiri duiga, 3,935 Gudibanda, 3,361 

Channarayan durga, 3,744 Mudimadagu 

Koitagiri, 3.906 Haribaresvar betta, 4,133 4.528 

Sunnakal, 4, 

Kalavar dui^, 4,749 
Devaray durga, 3,940 Chanrayan betta, 4,763 Ambaji durga, 4,399 

N'andi durga, 4,851 Rahman Ghar, 4,337 
Nijagal, 3,569 Brahmagiri, 4,657 

Dibgiri 

HaUur betta, 3,341 



— '4* 



,339 



^231 



"83. 3.589 
579 

S.190 

du, 2.383 

beaa, 3.489 



iihiD. 4,770 



Sivaganga. 4.559 
Bajran durga, 3,499 

Hutri durga, 3,713 
Savan dur^. 4,034 
Hulyur durga, 3,086 

Banndighatta, 3,271 
Ramgiri. 3.066 
Sivangiri, 3,931 
Mudvadi durga, 3,131 
Banat man betta, 3,422 
Kabbal durga, 3,507 



Koppa betta, 3,831 



Kurudu male, 
Kolar hills, 4,026 3>3i2 



Tyakal hills, 3,704 Betrayan konda, 
3,006 
Yerra konda 
3.359 



ii3* 



Biligirirangan Hills 

Biligirirangan betta, 4,195 
Matpod bill. 4,969 
Punajur hill, 5,091 



12 



GEO LOGY 1 



The great ranges of the Western and Eastern Ghats, logellier with the 
intervening table-lands, may be regarded as part of one magnificent 
elevation of Plutonic rocks by a succession of efforts, during a period 
which may be termed Plutonic, breaking up the hypogene schists 
and in some instances uplifting aqueous beds of a more recent origin. 
The true general direction of this elevation is nearly N. 5° W, though 
the apparent directions of the lateral chains on its flanks are to the east 
and west of north resj^^ctively. 

The surface of the table-lands between these chains has a general in- 
clination easterly by south towards the Bay of Bengal, into which the 
principal rivers empty themselves. This gentle inclination, often assisted 
by cross lines of elevation, determines the great drainage lines of the 
country. The singuhr appearance of the detached hills and clusters of 
hills, which above the Ghats are seen abruptly starting up from the flat 
plains with little or no tah', have been sometimes com[>ared to a table 
with teacups here and there reversed on its surface, a not inapt though 
homely illustration. 

The bare extensive surfaces of the granitic, trappean and hypogene 
rocks in Southern India afford on a grand scale exposes^ not to be sur- 
passed in any other portion of the globe, of the protean aqjects under 
which these rocks present themselves. The very absence of those fossi- 
liferous beds which so thickly encrust the surface of a great portion of 
Europe and nwny other parts of the world, is in itself a subject of in- 
teresting research ; and the geologist may in the peninsula of India 
advantageously study a huge and disjointed muss of the nether-formed 

* Chiefly &om articles by Capiain Ncwboltl, F. I<-S., on the " Gcolog)- of Southern 
India."-Hj. R. A. S. viii, ix, xii.) 

[NoiK, — When compiling the first edition^ I applied to the Gcolc^cal Surrey of 
India for inrurmaiiun on the gealof^y of My.sare, and vnu infunncd in reply that, us 
the country had not been 8ur%-eycdf nothing was known uf its geolog)-. Heing thus 
thrown on my own resources, I dwcovered the articles from which ihis chapter w.ts 
taken. Their vaUie has since been rccogniicd by the Cieologica.1 Sur\*ey, for Mr. 
W. T. Blanfortl, in the Introduction to the first edition of the ** Manual of the 
Gtology of India" (p. Ixxii}, writes as follows : — 

NrtvMti, 1844-1850. — This account refers to the southern iiart of the I'eninsuU 
alone ; Imt it is the work of one of the best, if nai actually the tx-'st, of the earlier 
Indian geologists ; and it has the iwculiar advantage aver all other summaries 
published up to the present time, that the author poiscssttl an extensive jiersonfll 

acfpiaintnncc with the countrj* descril>c<i Most of the ohscr\-ations recorded 

in the summary are admirable; and altogether the paiier ii so %-aluablc^ that the 
neglect with which it has been generally treated is not easy to understand.] 



m 
el< 
wl 

ar" 
T 
th 
at 



cl: 

b) 
cc 

hi 

pi 

Wl 

he 

ro 
pa 

wl- 
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ad 



1 

Inc 

[ 
Inc 
the 
thr. 
uk 
W. 
Gei 
i 
alo 
Im 
pul 
acq 
in 



Tl 
inter 
eleva 
whic.' 
and : 
The 
the 3 
and 

TI 
clina 
princ 
by CI 
coun 
hills, 
plain 
with 
honi) 

Tl 
rock* 
passe 
whic 
liferc 
Euro 
teres' 
advaj 

» C 

India. 
[Nc 
India 
the « 
throw 
taken. 
W. T 
Geolo 

alone 
Indian 
publi* 
acqua 
in tH« 
negle- 



u 



rodts which constitute the frnmework of our planet, and which 
here present themselves almost divested of integument, weathering 
ondcT the alternations of a vertical sun and the deluging rains of the 
troi>i'>. 

Metamorphio Rooks. — H)'pogene schists, penetrated and broken 
up by prodigious outbursts of plutonic and trappean rocks, occupy by 
hi the greater portion of the superficies of Southern India. They con- 
stitute the general buik of the Western Ghats from between the latitude 
of i6* and 17* N. to Cape Comorin ; and from the northern base 
of the Eastern Ghats to their deflection at latitude 13° 30' N. They 
arc ixvlblly capped and fringed in the Western Ghats by lateritc, 
and in the Eastern Ghats by sandstone, limestone and laterite. They 
fonn the basis of the valley of Seringapatam and of the table-land of 
Hysone. 

The inequalities and undulations of the surface, though originating 
HI the dislocations and flexures of the metamorphic strata at the periods 
of their upheawl, have been evidently modified by aqueous erosion 
and hy the faster weathering of the softer members of the series, — 
such as mica and talcose schists, — the softer clay slates and shales ; 
which, crumbling and washed away, have left their harder brethren 
standing out in relief on the face of the country. Where we see 
gneiss, hornblende schist and quartzite rising in parallel ridges sejKi- 
rated by valle>-s, we generally find the valleys occupied by the softer 
members of the series, often deeply covered with debris from the 
ndgci. 

Where gneiss rises above the general level of the surrounding plain, 
its elevations may be distinguished from those of granite, which the hills 
of thick-bedded varieties of gneiss sometimes assimilate, by their greater 
continuity and uniformity of altitude ; their tendency to a smooth dome- 
ihaded outline : and greater freedom from precipices and disrupted 
masses. Near lines of plutonic disturbance, however, these distinguish- 
ing marks are less i>erceptible. 

Elevations of mica and talcose schists obtain, generally, a less alti- 
!wlc than those of hornblende or gneiss j and have a more round- 
backed and smoother contour on the whole. Yet the outline in detail 
is jagged, owing partly to these rocks weathering in larger, more angular 
or less concentric fragments, often leaving abrupt steps and small preci- 
pices. Hornblende and gneiss are seen rising, as in the Western Ghats 
and the Nilgiris, to the height of 8,000 feet above the sea's level The 
former is recognized by its bold sharp ridges, often precipitous, but 
orely presenting conical peaks. 

Hills composed entirely of actinolite or chlorite schist are seldom 



14 



GEOLOGY 



met with ; those of qiiartzite have long crest-like outlines, often running 
smoothly for some distance, but almost invariably breaking up into large, 
angular masses, sometimes cuboidal : the sides of the crests are usually 
precipitous. Hills of clay slate are distinguished by a smooth, wavy 
outline, separated by gently sloping valleys. Outliers or detached hills 
of this rock are usually mammiform. But, as before remarked, all these 
normal crystalline rocks, when near lines or foci of plutonic disturbance, 
frequently undergo great changes in physiognomical aspect ; and in lieu 
of the smoothly rounded hills of clay slate, and its gently sloping vales, 
smiling with fertility, we behold it cleaved into sterile, rugged ravines 
and rocky precipices. 

Gneiss is usually found lowest in the series: next to it mica and 
hornblende schist, actinolite, chlorite, talcose and argillaceous schist, 
and cr>'stalline limestone, in due succession : but to this rule there are 
numerous exceptions. All these rocks, except crystalline limestone, 
Iwve been observed resting on granite without the usually intervening 
gneiss. The strata are often violently contorted or bent in waving 
flexures, particularly in the vicinity of plutonic rocks ; and much irreg- 
ularity occurs in the amount and direction of dip throughout the 
hypogene area. In the Western Ghats it is usually easterly, and at 
angles varying from lo" to 90 . At the summit of the Ghats near the 
falls of Gcrsoppa, the gneiss dipped at an angle of 35" to the N.E. 

But the hornblende schists do not always dip from the plutonic rocks 
— in many instances the dip is towards them : a fact indicating that the 
strata have been disturbed at some previous period, or that they may have 
suffered inversion ; which is known to be the case in beds of more 
recent origin. While the dip of the two great lines of elevation, viz., 
the East and \Vest Ghats, is generally westerly and easterly, or at right 
angles with the direction of the strata, that of the minor cross ranges is 
usually southerly. Numerous irregularities and exceptions, however, to 
this general rule occur, particularly near the northerly and southerly 
great synclinal line of dip on the table-lands between the Eastern and 
Western Ghats, and near localities where it is traversed by the cross 
lines of elevation. The intrusion of trap dykes has also caused much 
diversity in the dip. These irregularities will always prove obstacles in 
tracing out with accuracy the synclinal dip line between the Eastern and 
W'esteni Ghats. 

Gneiss and hornMendt schist are by far the most prevalent rocks of 
the scries: to gneiss the other members maybe termed subordinate. 
Near its contact with the granite it commonly assumes the character of 
what has been styled granitoidal gneiss, losing its stratilied appearance, 
and not to be distinguished in hand specimens from granite. Spherical 



I 



AfETAMORPHIC ROCKS 



15 



and oral masses of granite, rcscmblinp boulders, are sometimes 
observed impacied in the gneiss. Veins of reddish compact fels^Kir, 
felspar coloured green with actinolite, epidoie or chlorite, with and with- 
out quartz; also of milky quartz with nests of iron ore, mica and 
hornblende are very common in gneiss : also dykes and veins of granite. 
All these veins arc of older date than the intrusion of the greenstone 
dykes which invariably sever them. ParticuLir varieties of gneiss prevail 
in different districts. These rocks not only abound in nests and veins 
of rich magnetic and oxidulated iron ore, but in thick interstratified 
beds and mountain masses of these minerals. 

Xtua schist is found sparingly distributed o\er the whole of the 
hypogene area in thin beds. It is found in the greatest abundance and 
purity* in the western [wrts of Mysore. A vein of granite in it is rare, 
though abounding in those of quartz. Talcost, chhritk, and actinoUtic 
srhisfs are still more sparingly distributed : the first is seen in the west 
of M)-sore. Fine varieties of aclinolitic schist occur in the Western 
Ghats at the falls of Gersoppa ; and it is pretty generally distributed in 
thin beds over Mysore. HombUnde schist ranks next to gneiss in 
extent and thickness of beds, and is seen washed by the sea at the 
bases of the Eastern and AVcsttrm Ghats, forming some of the loftiest 
peaks of the latter and supporting large level tracts of table-land. 
This rock varies from the compact structure of basalt to the crj-stalline 
texture of granite, and to that of porphyr>', and may be seen from 
iuninx of a few lines in thickness, [massing into buds forming mountain 
nosses. The principal constituent minerals arc hornblende and felspar. 
Qaartz, garnet and mica are frequently mixed Large beds of compact 
/lUtJkxr, generally of a pinkish hue, with a little quartz and a few scales 
of mica, quartzite and milk quartz, having a similar direction to that of 
gnoss, occur, forming low ranges of hills. Chy state does not occupy 
a large surface of the hypogene area. It occurs at Chiknayakanhalli, 
Chitaldroog, and in parts of the Shimoga District. 

Imbedded Alinerals. — Chert is pretty generally distributed, also the 
common garnet ; the latter occurs in the greatest abundance in the 
Kjoiem Ghats, but is also found in the K.empukal river at the Manjara- 
bad Ghat : black garnet and treraolite occur in the granitoidal gneiss 
of Wurralkonda (Kolar District). Epidoie and actinolitc are found 
Bsually in quartz and felspar veins. Indianitc occurs sparingly with 
corundum, fibrolite and garnet in gneiss and hornblende schist in the 
vaUcy of the Kaveri. Corundum is found in Mysore in talc, mica, or 
hornblende schist associated with iron ore, asbestus, and sometimes 
indianiie and fibrolite. It occurs imbedded in the rock in grains and 
crysiaU, Its principal localities are Gollarhalli near Chanra\-patna, 




GEOLOG y 

Mandya near Seringapntam, Begur, Bannerghatta, Bagepalli and other 
places.^ Fibrolite occurs but rarely with indianite and corundum. 
Kyanite occurs in gneiss with tremolitc, pearl spar, bttler spar, almandine 
and staurolite. Steatite occurs in the taU^osc schists in the west of 
Mysore ; as also potstone, in beds of considerable size and veins, and 
more or less dispersed over the whole hypogene area ; occasionally 
associated with nephrite. Magnesite, an almost i>ure carlwr^ate of 
magnesia, occurs in the \'icinily of Hunsur. Mica is found universally 
diffused. In some parts of the Western Ghats and on the table-lands 
to the east, this mineral and talc are found in plates large enough for 
windows and lanterns, for which purpo.se the) are used by the natives, 
as also for ornamental devices and for painting on. Chlorite is rarely 
found uncombined with felspar, silex, or hornblende. Nacrite or scaly 
talc is here and there met with. Adularia is found in the gneiss at 
some places. Albiie or cleavlandite occurs occasionally throughout the 
gneiss districts, as also tourmaline or schorl, both black and green. 
Sulphate and sub-sulphate of alumina are occasionally found in thin 
incrustations and efflorescences between the layers of the soft ferruginous 
.sbtcs into which the hornblende and mica schists pass. 

Iron pyrites or sulphuret of iron is distributed in small proportions 
in the hypogene rocks ; but the oxides, l>oih magnetic and h^matilic, 
exist in extraordinary abundance, fonning masses and large interstrati- 
6ed beds in the mountain chains. In gneiss these ores frequently 
replace hornblende and mica ; alternating with quartz in regular layers. 
Magnetic iron ore with polarity is found in the massive state on the 
Baba Budan hills. Micaceous and specular iron ores are less common. 
A dark magnetic iron sand is usually found in the beds of streams 
hanng their origin among hypogene rocks, associated with gold dust 
and sometimes with mcnaccanite. Iron ore slightly titaniferous is 
found over the whole hypogene area. The black oxide of manganese 
associated with iron ore is found sparingly in the hills. Antimony 
occurs in the Baba Budan hillSj and at Chitaldroog. 



1 Attention having been drawn lo corundum as a valuable article of export, and on 
account of ii$ possible u^e fur the manufacture of aluminium, Mr. l*ctric Hay, of 
Hunsur, has recently colIectc<l a quantity from villages to the south and west of thai 
lown. Vet)' excellent crj-smU of yellowish conmdum, wiih n brown weathered 
surface, were collected from the fields. Some tapering hexagnnal prisms up lo five 
inches in length, and a cubical piece of about four inches side, with a b]cx:k weighing 
300 lbs., were sent liy him to the Madras Museum. I_)r. VVarth, of the Geolo^pcal 
Survey, considers them of great importance as indicating the probahiliiy of a large and 
continuous yield. The quality of the quarried pieces i^ vcr)- little inferior to that of 
the crystals. The specific gravity of the large crystals was 4'02 and of the rock 
corundum 3*80. 



IMBEDDED MIiVERALS 



W 



Ores of silver have been said lo occur in Belli Bella near Attikuppa.* 
Ainslie stales that Captain Arthur discovered this metal in small 
quantities in M>*sore» both in its native state in thin pbies adliL-rinj; tti 
some specimens of gold crystallized in minute cubes, and mineralized 
with sulphur, iron and earthy matter, forming a kind of brittle 
sulphuretted siher ore. 

Gpid has long been found in the alluvial soil bordering on the 
Betarayan hills in Rolar District. The geognostic position of gold in 
this and other localities appears to be in the primary schists, viz., gneiss, 
mica slate, clay slate, and hornblende schist, particularly near the line 
of their contact vrith granite or basaltic dykes, wht-re we generally find 
the tendency to siliceous and mctaUic development unusually great. 
The gold is almost in\-ariably discovered either in thin veins or dissem- 
inated in grains in the veins and beds of quartz, associated with iron 
ore and sometimes platinum, and alloyed with small proportions of 
«ilvt-T and copper, or in the tracts of alluvial soil, beds of clay and 
sand5, with the washings of primary rocks. Mining operations were 
carried on here by the natives from a remote period and abandoned. 
But since 1875 gold mining has l>een revived on a large scale by 
European enterprise, and what was virtually a desert waste has thus 
been converted into a populous and thriving industrial centre. The 
details of these operations will be found farther on under Industrial 
Arts. 

Platonic Rocks. — Graniu prevails throughout the great hj-jjogene 
uacts, sometimes rising abruptly from the surface of immense level 
pbins in precipitous peaked and dome-shaped masses ; sometimes in 
km steppes ; sometimes in great heaps of amorphous masses ; at others 
with sharp outlines, obscured and softened down by a mantle of the 
bypogcne schists which have accompanied its elevation. This latter 
occurs most frequently in continuous mountain chains, such as the Ghats ; 
but to view this rock in all the boldness of its true physical contour, we 
most approach the detached ranges, clusters, and insulated masses that 
bfcak the monotony of the table-lands. Here we find but little 
re^Urity in the direction of elevation. In many clusters the granite 
appears to have burst through the crystalline schists in lines irtcgularly 
mdiating from a centre, or in rings resembling the denticulated periphery 
of a crater. 

The most remarkable of the insulated clusters and masses of granite 
on the table-land of Mysore are those of Sivaganga, S.<vandroog, 

* Bot ifr. Bruce Foote, of the Geolt^cal Survey, reported in 18S7 as follows ; — 
**I Kardied the hill most carefully and could not find the slighlest trace of any ore of 

C 




t« 



GEOLOGY 



Hutridroog, Nandidroog, Chandragulti, and Chitaldroog. The rock 
of Kandidroog is almost one solid monolithic mass of granite, rising 
1, 800 feet above the plain and upwards of 4,800 feet above the sea ; 
that of Si\*aganga is nearly as high. These masses have usually one or 
more of ihcir sides precipitous, or at such an angle as to be inaccessible 
except at few points. Most of them, like that of Sivandroog, are so 
steep as to admit of little vegetation, and present surfaces of many 
thousand square feet of perfectly naked rock, in which the veins and 
mineralogical structure are beautifully laid bare to the eye of the 
geologist. 

It is not to be understood that granite is to be met with only in this 
abrupt amorphous form. On the contrary, it is sometimes found in 
immense undulating layers like lava, rising little above the general 
level of the country, separated by fissures and joints, and running for 
a considerable distance in a given direction like a regular chain of hills. 
The horizontal fissures often impart a pseudo-stratified appearance, and 
when crossed by others nearly vertical, give the whole the semblance 
of some huge wall of cyclopean masonry. The cuboidal masses com- 
posing these walls weather by a process of concentric exfoliation into 
spheroids. This process occurs often on a grand scale, and the ex- 
foliated portions compose segments of circles of many yards radii. 
This decay of lofty granitic masses produces some of the most 
picturesque features of an Indian landscape; its strange columnar piles, 
irecs^ and logging stones, which far excel those of Dartmoor in grandeur 
and in the- fantastic forms they assume. Some of these piles are held 
together in the most extraordinary positions, and the blocks composing 
them are found connected by a feispathic siliceous and ferruginous 
paste, the result of the decay of the upper masses, washed down and 
deposited around the joints by the action of the rain. There they 
stand ; some tottering on their base, leaning over and threatening every 
instant to topple down upon the unwary traveller; others erect, amid a 
ruin of debris at their feet, — silent monuments of the process of the 
surrounding decay. Sometimes the summits of the higher elevations 
are coiiijjosed of immense monolith peaked masses of granite, which 
split vertically ; the separated portions are often known to descend 
from their lofty position with the rapidity and thunder of an avalanche. 
As the rocks waste from the summit, at their base will be usually 
observed a tendency to a re-arrangement of the component panicles 
of the rock going on in the debris there accumulated. At Chitaldroog 
may be seen, at the base of a granite cliff which tops one of the hills, 
a porphyritic-looking mass thus formed of a reddish clayey paste, 
imbedding reddish crystals of felspar. 



i 



PLxrromc rocks. 



19 



Almost every variety of this rock is found, but the prevailing granite 
U composed of feJspar, quartz, mica and hornblende. Quartz, felspar 
and hornblende, the syenite of some mineralogists, is also common, and 
runs into the ordinary granite. That beautiful variety called protogtne, 
in which talc, or chlorite, or steatite replaces the mica, is not very 
common in India, but is met with in a few localities in the west of 
Mysore. In all these cases chlorite and talc are the rcpbcing minerals, 
ihe former predominating. Pegmotite, granite composed of quartz and 
felspar, is frequently met with ; but the variety called graphic granite is 
rare. Schist granite never occurs as a mountain mass, but is found in 
veins or patclics imbedded in ordinary granite. The same may be said 
of actinolitic granite, or granite in which actinoltte replaces mica. The 
latter usually is most frequent in homblendic granite, and the actinolite 
passes by insensible gradations into hornblende. The felspar of actino- 
litic granite is usually fiesh or salmon-coloured. Porphyritic granite, or 
granite ha\'ing large crj-stals of felspar imbedded in ordinary or small- 
gnined granite, is common. The rock of Siivandroog affords a good 
exunple of the prevailing variety. It is composed of a granite base of 
Mspar, quartz, mica and hornblende, imbedding long pale rose-coloured 
oystaU of felspar. Fine granite porphyries are less frequently met with : 
a beautiful specimen occurs in a brge vein or dyke which traverses the 
gneiss in the bed of the Kdv^ri at Seringapatam, nearly opposite the 
aillyport close to which Tipu was killed. It is composed of a basis of 
compact reddish and salmon-coloured fels[>ar and a little quartz, 

kbedding lighter-coloured cr)'Stals of the same, with needle-shaped 
lis of green tourmaline 

TTie great prevalent mineralogical feature in the granite of Southern 
India is its highly ferriferous nature. The mica and hornblende 
w frequently replaced by magnetic iron ore in grains, veins, and 
beds ; and sometimes by fine octohedral crystals of the same, with 
polarity. 

Most of the minerals and ores described as occurring in gneiss are 
also found in granite. 

The ordinar>' granite b traversed by veins of granites both finer and 
lugcr grained : the former pass into eurite, a rock in which all the com- 
ponent minerals of granite are mingled together in one almost homo- 
geneous paste. The minerals composing the larger grained veins arc 
often in a state of segregation and cr>'^tallization. The mica, instead of 
^tiered in minute scales throughout the substance of the rock, 
laes collected in large plates nearly a foot in length (used by 
natives for painting on) ; the quartz in large amorphous nodules, or 
hcxahedral pyramidal prisms of equal lengtli ; and the felspar by itself 

c 2 




30 



GEOLOGY 



in reddish byers and beds. The veins and beds of felspar are usually 
reddish, and penetrated by fissures, which give a prismatic structure : 
these fissures are often lined with compact felspar, coloured by actino- 
lite, or chlorite, or with drusy cr)stals of the former mineral, which is 
also found in nests. Milky quartz is segregated into large beds forming 
chains of hills, usually containing nests and seams of iron ore, rock 
crystal, and crystals of amethystine quartz. Both oval and lenticular 
nests of hornblende and ratca occur in granite. 

Granite is seen in veins penetrating the h}'pogene schists. Good 
examples ocrcur near Seringapntam. In many situations granite appears 
to have broken through tlie earth's crust in a solid form ; as is evident 
from the sometimes unaltered and shattered condition of the strata 
immediately in conUict. 

Eurite is found throughout the granite aiid hypogene tracts, but 
more frequently among the latter rocks, with which it often has all the 
appearance of being interstratified ; in the granite it occurs in dykes. 
The eurite of Seringajjalam may bo regarded as a type of the petrosilex 
eurites. It sometimes passes into eurite porphyr\", imbedding distinct 
crystals of laminar felspar. Dialla^e, euphotide or gabbro, occurs al 
Banavar, about eight miles westerly from Bangalore, associated with 
gneiss and mica schist. It there presents itself in low elevations, con- 
sisting of angubr rough masses of the diallage rock, half-buried in a 
detritus the result of its own disintegration. The masses have not the 
slightest appearance of stratification ; but are divided by fissures, like 
granite, into cuboidal blocks. The rock is composed chiefly of diallage 
and felspar ; the colours of the former var\'ing from light and dark grey 
to greyish green and bright green. The felspar is white and greyish 
white ; sometimes in distinct crystals, but generally confusedly 
aggregated. The general colour of the rock is light grey and 
greenish grey. The diallage at Eanavar hns more the appearance of 
a dyke or vein in the hypogene slnita than of an interstratified bed; 
but no natural section of the junction line of the two rocks presents 
itself. 

Serpentine. — Near Turuvekere a dark crystalline rock occurs, com- 
posed of a dark grey or black talcose paste, imbedding numerous small 
black cr)stals of a mineral containing a large proportion of iron, being 
strongly attracted by the magnet. It bears a beautiful polish ; the 
surface exhibiting, on close inspection, in the dark shining paste, still 
darker spots occasioned by the magnetic cr>'stals. It was quarried by 
the sovereigns of Mysore for architectural purposes, and forms the 
material of the beautiful pillars which support the mausoleum of Haidar 
at Seringapatani. This rock has been mistaken for basaltic greenstone, 



I 



'CATS 

but it may be a bed of massive ferriferous potsione — here common in 
the talc schist — elevated, indurated, and altered by one of the basaltic 
dykes that traverse the rocks in the vicinity. Geologically viewed it 
has all the characters of a serpentine ; and minera logically it resembles 
the ferriferous serpentine or ophiolite of Brongniart, which consists 
of a magnesian paste imbedding disseminated grains of oxidulated 
iron. 

Volcanic Rocka. — Basaltic greenstone is universally distributed. It 
pre\'ails in hypogcne areas, diminishes in those ocaipied by the diamond- 
sandstone and limestone, and totally disappears in districts covered by 
Uicrile and deposits of a more recent epoch. It is most developed in 
the stretch of table-land between Bangalore and Bellary. It never 
occurs in continuous overlying sheets like the newer trap, but pene- 
trates in dykes the rocks just described, up to the age of the latcrite. 
These dykes often terminate on reaching the surface of the rock, or 
before reaching it ; while others project from the surface in long black 
ridges, which, originally like a wall, have since tumhled into both 
globular and angular fragments by disintegration. Most of the blocks 
usually remain piled up on the crests of tlie elevations, while others 
have lodged on their sides or rolled down to their bases. Many of these 
blocks have a peculiar metallic or phonolithic sound when struck ; the 
well-kno^vn "ringing stones" west of Bellary afford a good example. 
These black bare ridges of loose stones, stmding out in relief against 
the light-coloured granite or gneiss rocks, add another striking feature 
to the landscape of the plutonic and h>'pogene tracts. They often 
cross the country in a thick network, particularly between Nandidroog 
and Bagepalli. 

In many cases the protrusion of the basaltic greenstone above the 
general surface of the imbedding rock appears to have been occasioned 
by the weathering of the latter from its sides. The greenstone thus left 
un-supported and ex^josed to atmospheric action soon breaks up by the 
process of fi&siu^ing and concentric exfoliation. In a few instances it 
appears to have been forced in a semi-solid state beyond the lips of the 
rent in the rock without overlapping the rock, but none of these project- 
ing dykes have remained in that solid continuous wall-like state in which 
we see the prominent dykes of Somma or the Val del Bove. Their 
height above the general level of the country rarely exceeds eighty feet. 
The direction of the main dykes appears generally to coincide with that 
of the ele^-ation of the mountains ; but if we trace any dyke, the general 
direction of which in a course of many miles may be north and south, 
«e ihall find it to zifi-zag and curve in various directions at different 
pans of its course. Fragments of granite and gneiss, both angular and 




GEOLOGY 



of a lenticular form, are sometrmes entangled and imbedded in the 
basalt ; and liave been mistaken for veins or nests of these rocks. It is 
evident that, in many instances, the granite and h>'pogene rocks were 
solidified prior to the great eruptions of basalt that burst up from below 
into their seams and fissures, and that the molten fluid imbedded all 
loose fragments of rock, &c, lying in them. It is probable that many 
of the fissures themselves were caused, or enlarged, as seen in modern 
volcanoes, by the expansion of the molten basalt and its gases from 
below, while struggling for a vent. 

The lilhologic stnjcture of this rock is as protean as that of granite. 
In the centre of large dykes we usually find it crystalline and por- 
phyritic ; and nearer the ed^'es, less crystalline and more compact ; in 
fact, e\'ery gradation of amphibolitic and augitic rocks, from basalt to 
melaphyre, in the distance of a very few paces. Near the sides, in the 
compact varieties, may be seen needle-shaped crystals of augilc, glanc- 
ing in confused arrangement here and there in the close texture of the 
basalt; while a little nearer to the centre the augite almost disappears, 
and is replaced by fme large cr>'stals of hornblende, and sometimes a 
few scattered scales of mica. Near the line of contact with gneiss, the 
basalt often loses its dark colour, and becomes of a faint green, like 
some varieties of eurite or serpentine, imbedding iron p)Tites. This 
faint green eurite is also seen as a thin vitreous and vesicular enduit on 
its surface, like the scoriaceous lava found on the surface of the dykes 
of Etna. The cavities sometimes contain a yellowish-brown powder, 
which becomes magnetic before the blow-pipe ; or small crystals of 
epidote : in one specimen was found prehnite. The surface of the com- 
I^act basalt in the dykes is often scored by small fissures, which, as in 
the Vesu\'ian dykes, divide the rock into horizontal prisms and run at 
right angles to the cooling surfaces. AU the darker varieties of basaltic 
greenstone melt into a black or dark-green coloured glass or enamel ; 
and aflcci the magnetic needle. They are composed of felspar, horn- 
blende and augiie, in varying proportions, and occasionally h>per- 
sthene. 

The minerals most common to these are, iron pyrites, garnets, epidote, 
and actinolite. These minerals distinguish them from the newer trap, 
which abounds in zeolites, calcedonies and olivine. 

The greenstone occasionally assumes the prismatic columnar forms of 
the newer basalts, or rather aj^proaches to this structure ; thin layers of 
carbonate of lime often intervene between the joints, and bet^'een the 
concentric layers of the globular greenstone. In many instances the 
basalt has a fissile structure, which, when intersected by joints, form 
prisms well adapted for building purposes. In some cases, under the 



I 



I 



AQUEOUS ROCKS 



n 



imer \\ breaks into rhomboidal fragments, the joint planes of which 
are marked superficially with dark brown or blue dendritic appearances 
on a pale yellow or brown ground. 

Rocks aliered by Dykes. — Clranile and gneiss in contact with a dyke 
usually become compact, or tough, or friable ; the felspar crystals 
lose their brightness and a portion of the water of crystallization, 
become opaque and of porcelain hue; the mica is hardened and 
loses its easily fissile lamellar character. In gneiss it may be seen 
replaced by minute crystals of tourmaline, epidote and garnet, as 
near Chanraj'patnx Limestone is converted into chert, or becomes 
siliceous; sandstone into quartz; and clay slate into liasanite and 
jasper. 

In districts most intersected by dykes a general tendency to crystal- 
Ur»e and metallic development will be remarked, as well as an increase 
in the deposition of saline and calcareous matter, apparent in extensive 
layers of kunker, and efflorescences of the carbonate, muriate, and sul- 
phate of soda. The fissures through which the springs charged with 
thtrse minerals rise, were originally caused, perhaps, by the same dis- 
ruptive forces that opened vents through the earth's crust to the molten 
basalt : and it is not improbable that these minerals and sulphates have 
their origin in causes connected with these ancient subterranean 
volcanic phenomena. Frequently no alteration is to be traced in the 
rocks in contact with dykes ; a circumstance readily accounted for when 
we reflect that the temperature of the injected rock is liable to great 
Tariaiion. In certain localities, indeed, the basalt appears to have been 
reciprocally acted upon by the rock it has traversed- 

AqueoQB Rocks. — Sandstone and Limestone. — Resting immediately 
on the hypogcne and plutonic rocks are found beds of limestone, sand- 
stone, conglomerate, ai^Ilaceous, arenaceous, and siliceous schists. 
Next to the hypogene schists, and the associated plutonic rocks, these 
limestone and sandstone beds occupy perliaps the greater portion of 
the area north of a line drawn through Sira to the west. 'I'hey are 
most frequently observed exposed in the vicinity of the great drainage 
lines of the country and occur in irregularly-shaped patches, separated 
usually by broad and apparently denuded zones of the subjacent 
hypogene and plutonic rocks. 

The tracts occupied by the limestone and sandstone beds present a 
diversified asjxtct, sometimes flat and monotonous, and at others, near 
lines of plutonic disturbance, bare, rugged and picturesque. The lime- 
stone in some situations has e\'idently been denuded of the usually 
superjacent sandstone, dislocated, and elevated several hundreds of 
feet above the general level of the surrounding country in regular 




J 



24 



GEOLOGY 



ranges, and often in highly-inclined strata. Caps of sandstone, though 
in such cases often wanting, arc sometimes seen still covering the 
limestone i>eaks. The outline of these limestone ranges usually 
presents long, flatlish-topped ridges, whose sides and summits arc not 
unfrequently covered with detached angular blocks of the rocks, with a 
grey, weathered, and scabrous exterior, resembling that of the mountain 
limestones of Europe. 

The sandstone, where undisturbed by plutonic intrusion, occurs in 
low, flat, wall-like ranges, rising at an almost similar level, rarely exceed- 
ing 500 feet from the surface of the surrounding countr)-, supporting 
table-lands of some extent and evidently once continuous. It is often 
intersected by deep fissures, extending from the summit of the rocks 
down to the base. \Vhen disturbed by plutonic force, the sandstone 
exhibits a striking contrast in its outline to the tame horizontal aspect 
it assumes at a distance from the axes of disturbance. It rises in bold 
relief against the sky in lofty rugged cross or hogbacked and crested 
hills, with precipitous mural ridges, which, rarely running at the same 
level for any distance, are interrupted by portions of the same ridge, 
thrown up at various angles with the horizon in steep and often 
inaccessible cliffs. >Vhen it crests the hypogene rocks, the lower 
part of the elevation is often composed of the latter to the height of 
about 200 to 400 feet, the slope of which iias usually an inclination 
of fix)m 15' to 2o', while that of the cap of sandstone presents a 
steep or precipitous declivity varying from 45' to 90", giving a decidt-d 
character to the aspect and configuration of the mountains and ranges 
thus formed. 

The hills of arenaceous schists are to be recognized from the more 
massive sandstones l>y their undulating, round-backed summits, and 
their buttressed and dimpled flanks; while those of the softer slates 
and shales affect the mammiform outline. 

Both limestone and sandstone beds, there is little doubt, were 
formerly of greater extent than now, and owe much of their present 
discontinuity and scattered i)ositions to the agency of plutonic 
disturbance and subsequent denudation. The tracts of countr)' 
intervening Ijetween their areas are usually occupied by granitic and 
hypogerre rocks. 

LtUerite occupies a large portion of the sujierficies of Soutliern 
India. It is found cupping the loftiest summits of the Eastern and 
\Ve.Htern Gliats and of some of the isolated peaks on the inter\ening 
table-lands. Beds of small extent occur near Bangalore and Banavasi, 
That at Bangalore extends northerly towards the vicinity of Nandi- 
droog. Hills of laterite are usually distinguished by their long, low, 



LATE RITE 



25 



flai-iopped character, assimilating those of the trap and horizontal 
sandstone formations. The lands they support are, however, not so 
mudi furrowed as those of the sandstone by water channels, a circum- 
stance a&cribable to the drainage passing rapidly olT through the pores 
of the rock. When capping detached rocks, the lalerite usually imparts 
10 the whole mass a dome-shaped or mammiform outline, or that of a 
truncated cone. 

On the surface of table-lands it is spread out in sheets, varying from 
A few inches 10 about 350 feet in tJiickness, terminating on one or two 
sides m round escarpments. Immense detached blocks, generally of a 
cuboidal shape, are often seen occurring on the flanks of the \\ esiem 
(ihais, and on the southern slopes of the Sondur hills, often separated 
and dislodged The valleys intcnening between ranges of laterite 
hills are generally winding, like those formed by the course of a 
stream, and flat-bottomed, particularly in districts where it overlies the 
Qtwer trap. 

The iaterile varies much in structure and composition ; but generally 
speaking it presents a reddish-brown or brick-coloured tubular and 
cellular clay, more or less indurated ; passing on the one hand into a 
hard compact jaspideous rock, and on the other into loosely aggregated 
gnts or sandstones, and into red sectile clays, red and yellow oclire, 
and while jwrcelain earth, plum-blue, red, purjMisli and variegated 
Uthomarges. Sometimes it presents the character of a conglomerate, 
containing fragments of quartz, the plutonic, hypogene and sandstone 
rocks and nodules of iron ore derived from them, ail imbedded in a 
ferruginous clay. The cavities are both vesicular, tubular and sinuous ; 
sometimes empty, but in the lower portions of the rock usually filled, 
or iMUtly filled, with the earths and clays above mentioned, or a 
siliceous and argillaceous dust, often stained by oxide of iron. A 
species of black bole, carbonized wood and carbonate of lime some- 
Qmcs occur, but rarely, in these cavities. Minute drusy crystals of 
quartz not uncommonly line the interior. The walls sepanuing the 
cavities are composed of an argillo-siliceous paste, often strongly 
impregnated with iron and frequently imbedding gritty jiariioles of 
quartz- 1'he oxide of iron prevails sometimes to such an extent as to 
approximate a true ore of iron, and the nodules are often separated 
and smelted by the natives in preference to using the magnetic iron 
ore, which is more difficult 10 reduce, from its greater purity. When 
ibe whole mass is charged with iron and very vesicular (not unfre- 
quently the case) it might easily be mistaken for iron slag. The 
colour of the parieUs separating the tubes and cells, which in the less 
fcnuginous varieties is a light brick red or purple, changes into a liver- 




A 



a6 



GEOLOGY 



brown, having externally a vitrified or glazed aspect ; while the surface 
of the interior cavities puts on iridescent hues. The walls of these 
cells are somctinries distinctly laminated. 

The air-exposed surfaces of laterite are usually hard and have a 
glazed aspect, and the cavities are more empty than those in the lower 
portion. A few inches or more below the surface the rock becomes 
softer, and eventually as it descends so sectile as to be easily cut by 
the native spades, but hardens after exposure to the atmosphere. 
Hence it is used largely as a building stone in the districts where it 
prevails, and to repair roads. From its little hability to splinter and 
weather (timu appears to harden it), it is a good material in fortifica- 
tions. The accumulation of the clays and lithomargic earths in the 
lower portions of the rock, which absorb some of the moisture per- 
colating from above, renders the mass soft and sectile. These earths 
doubtless existed once in the upper cavities of the rock, from which 
they have been gradually removed to the lower strata by the downward 
action of the water of the monsoon rains. They accumulate at various 
depths from the surface and form impervious beds, on the depressions 
of which the water collects, forming the reser\oirs of the springs we 
often see oozing from the bases and sides of lateritic hills and cliffs. 
Some of the tubes and cavities are cuh tfe sac, and dn not part with 
their contents ; but the generality have communication wiih those 
below them, either directly or indirectly. 

Associnted Minerals. — Nodular, reniform and pisiform clay iron ore 
occur pretty generally distributed. Large beds and nests of litho- 
margic earths, and white porcelain earths, are not uncommon. 

Older Alluvium. — The designation of alluvium is here used in it* 
extcndetl sense to indicate certain beds of gravel and sand that are 
occasionally found covered by the regiir dejK>sit, and which occur in 
such situations as not to be accountable for by the agency of existing 
transporting powers; simply prefixing the term "older " to distinguish 
it from the alluvium now forming from the disintegration of rocks 
washed down by the rains and springs, and transported by rivers and 
local inundations. 

In the valleys of the Hhima, Krishn.i, Tungvibhadra, and other 
large rivers are occasionally seen beds of alluvial gravel elevated beyond 
the highest existing inundation lines. Some of these deposits may be 
ascribable to shifts from time to time in the course of the river's bed ; a 
few to the action of rain in h>ringing down alluvium from the mountain 
sides ; but the majority a|}pear to have been accumulated under con- 
ditions not now in existence ; probably, during the slow upheaval of 
the Western Ghats and plateau of the Dekhan, when the water 



28 



GEOLOGY 



air, the lower portions of the deposit, at the depth of eight or ten feet, 
still retain their character of a hard black clay, approaching a rock, 
usually moist and cold ; when the surface dust has a temperature of 
130°. In wet weather the surface is converted into a deep tenacious 
Q^ud. 

The purest beds of regur contain few rolled pebbles of any kind ; 
the nodules of kunker we see imbedded have probably btcn formed by 
concretion from the infiltration of water cliarged with lime ; and it is 
only near the surface that the regur becomes intermingled with the 
recent alluvium of the surrounding countrj", or in its lower portions, 
where it becomes intermingled with the debris of whatever rock it 
happens to rest on, — trap and calcedonies in trappcan districts ; 
granite, sandstone, pisiform iron ore and limestone, in the plutonic 
and diamond sandstone areas. It sometimes exhibits marks of 
stratification. 

That the regur of India is an aqueous deposit from waters that 
covered its surface to a vast extent, there is littlu doubt : but it would 
be difficult to point out at the present day the sources whence it 
derived the vegetable matter to which in great measure it owes its 
carbonaceous colour, and the rocks from the ruins of which its remain- 
ing comi>onents were washed. 

Kunker. — The calcareous deposit termed kunker^ is irregularly dis- 
tributed in overlying patches. No tract is entirely free from it, with 
the exception, it is said, of the summits uf the Nilgiris. It occurs, 
however, at the height of 4,000 feet above the sea among the ranges on 
the elevated table-lands. It is most abundant in districts penetrated 
and shattered by basaltic dykes, and where metallic development is 
greatest. It is perhaps least seen in localities where latcrite caps hypo- 
gene or plutonic rocks. It occurs filling, or partially filling, fissures and 
chinks in the subjacent rocks, in nodular masses and friable concretions 
in the clays and gravels above the rocks, and in irregular overlying beds, 
var>'ing from a few inches to forty feet in thickness. It has been found 
at the depth of 102 feet below the surface of the surrounding countr)-, 
pre%'ails alike in granite, the hypogene schists, the diamond sandstone 
and limestone, and in the laterite : hence the springs which deposit it 
must bring up their supply of calcareous matter from sources deeper 
beneath the earth's crust than the limestone. 

The older kunker is usually of a light brownish, dirty cream, reddish 
or cineritious grey tint i sometimes compact and massive in structure, 



^ A ] linditstitni word .vjo but of Sanskrit ulractioD) signifying a ncxlulc of Imic 
stone or pelihle of any other rock. 




AfODE/i.Y ALLUVIA 



29 



bui more usually either of a nodular, tufaceous. pisiform, botryoidal, or 
cauliflower-like form. Its interior is somerimes cancellar, or slighily 
vesicular; but compact or concentric in the pisiform and nodular 
t-aritrties. Its interior structure is rarely radiatetl AVhen compact it 
resembles the older travertines of Rome and Auvergne. It aggregates 
in horizontal overlying masses, usually intermingled with the soil 
without much appearance of stratification. It is broken up and 
a»ed OS a rough building stone in the bunds of tanks, walls of 
inclosures, &c, by the natives, and is universally employed to burn into 
lime. 

In the banks of rivers it is often seen concreting in stalactjform 
masses round the stems and roots of grasses, which, decaying, leave 
casts ot carbonate of lime. This h'me, held in solution and suspension 
by C3dsting streams, mingling with the fine particles of sand and ferru- 
ginous matter in suspension, sets under water like pozzolana; and unit- 
ing the shells, gravel, sand, and pebbles in the bed and on the banks, 
forms a tiard and com(>act conglomerate. 

Its origin may be referred to the action of springs, often thermal, 
charged with carbonic acid, bringing up lime in solution and depositing 
it as the tt-niporalure of the water gradually lowered in rising up to the 
cartli's surface or in parting with their carbonic acid. 

Modern AIlUYla.^Whcre regur does not prevail, the ordinary soils 
distinguished by a reddish tinge, owing to the great prevalence of 
oxide of iron in the rocks of which they are, in great measure, the 
detritus. Patches of white soil occur, and arc usually the consequence 
of the weathering of beds of quartz, or composed of kunker, which 
aboimds so generally, and enters into the composition of almost every 
laricly of soil. Those white soils are cliaracterized by sterility. In 
tracts of country shaded by eternal forests, for instance the Ghats, and 
>4ub-ghat belts, a dark vegetable mould prevails, — the result of the suc- 
ee5si\'C decay and reproduction of vegetation for a series of ages, under 
the stimulating alternations of excessive heat and moisture. In such 
regions, where unsheltered by forest and in exposed situations, the 
•oil Is cither btcritic or stony according to the nature of ttie subjacent 
rodu 

At the bases of mountain ridges we usually find an accimiulatton of 
\xr^c angular blocks, composed of the same rocks as the hills down 
vhose declivities they have rolled in weathering. At a greater distance 
from the base in the plain, these arc succeeded by pohblcs, whose 
reduced size, mineral composition, and worn angles proclaim them to 
have travelled from the same source, diminishing in bulk the further we 
recede from the mountains, until they pass, by the gradations of grit 



^^ nii5 



and sand, into deposits of a rich clay or loam. Such are the gradations 
generally to be traced in the modern rock alluvia, and which strikingly 
distinguish them from the vegetable soil of the forest tracts and the 
r^ur, which are often seen in the state of the greatest richness and 
fineness of composition at the very bases of the hills and resting 
immediately on the solid rock. 

The alluvia brought down by the streams from the Western Ghats 
flowing easterly tt> the Bay of Bengal, are usually composed of silt, 
sand and gravel — detritus of the rocks over which they have passed : 
they almost always contain a considerable portion of lime derived from 
the springs which supply them, and from the limestone and kunker 
beds over which most of them flow. The alluvia of the rivers of 
the western coast are of a more carbonaceous and less calcareous 
character, owing to the greater absence of lime in the formation, and 
the dense forests and luxuriant v^etation which almost choke their 
passage. 

During the hot season, when the surface of the alluvial sand in the 
beds of the rivers and rivulets is perfectly dry, a stream of clear water 
is frequently found at various depths below them, stealing along or 
lodging in the depressions of some impervious layer of clay or rock, to* 
which it has sunk through the superincumbent sand. So well is this 
fact understood by natives, that in arid, sandy tracts, where not a drop 
of water is to be seen, they will often be enabled to water whole troops 
of horse and cattle by sinking wells a few feet deep through the sands 
of apparently dricd-up rivulets. 

The benefit resulting from the admixture of lime into soils consisting 
almost solely of vegetable, siliceous, or argillaceous matter, is too well 
known to be dwelt on here ; and it is a remarkable and bountiful pro- 
vision of nature in a country like Southern India, where limestone is so 
rarely seen in the rocks from which a great part of its soil is derived, 
that innumerable calcareous springs should be constantly rising through 
the bowels of the earth to impregnate its surface with this fertilizing 
ingredient. 

The alluvia of Southern India are remarkable for their saline nature. 
The salts by which they are impregnated are chiefly the carbonate and 
muriate of soda, which prevail so much (particularly in mining districts) 
as to cause almost perfect sterility. The carbonate appears on the sur- 
face covering extensive patches, in frost-like efflorescences, or in moi.st 
dark-coloured stains, arising from its deliquescence in damp weather or 
by the morning dews. W^here such saline soils are most prevalent there 
will be usually a substratum of kunker, or nodules of this substance, 
mixed with the soil ; and there can be httle doubt that their origin may 



J 



AfODERPr ALLUVIA 



31 



be refeired to (he numerous springs rising through the fissures or lamince 
of the subjacent rocks, some charged, as already noticed, with carbonate 
of lime, and other; with muriate of soda and sulphate of lime. The 

rbonatc of soda, like the natron of Egypt, is the result of a mutual 
romposition of the muriate of soda and carbonate of lime. It may 
be as well to remark that muriate of lime is invariably found in the 
saline soils of India, which are known to the natives by the terra ckaulu. 
The soda soil is used by the dkobis^ or washermen, to wash clothes witli, 
and hence is called washermen's earth ; it is also employed by the 
natives in the manufacture of gloss. 

Both the carbonate and muriate of soda are found mingled in varying 
proportions, in white efflorescences, in the beds and on the banks of 
springs and rivulets. 

JSi'ttrous Soi/s. — Soils impregnated with nitre are found on and around 
the sites of old towns, villages, &c. Here a vast quantity of animal 
matter must gnidually have been blended with the calcareous and vege- 
table soil : from their decum|x>sition the elcmenLs of new combinations, 
by the agency of new affinities, are generated : — nitrogen from the 
animal, and oxygen, &c., from the vegetable matter. The nitric acid 
thus produced combines with the vegetable alkali, forming the nitrate of 
potass, while its excess, if any, combines with the lime, forming a deli- 
quescent salt, — the nitrate of lime. The affinity Ume has to nitrogen 
and oxj'gen materially assists the formation of the acid by their com- 
bination. The natives of India, in their rude manufactories of salt- 
petre act upon these principles without being aware of their rationale. 
Having collected the earth from old ruins, or from places where animals 
have been long in the Iiabit of standing, they throw it into a heap 
mingled with wood ashes, old mortar, chunam, and other village refuse ; 
and allow it to remain exposed to the sun's rays and to the night dews 
for one or two years, when it is lixiviated. The salt obtained is not very 
pure, containing either the muriate and sulphate of soda or potash, o' 
nitrate and muriate of lime. 

Nitrous soils are easily recognized by the dark moist-looking patches 
which spread themselves irregularly on the surface of the ground, and 
by capillary attraction ascend walls of considerable height. 'J'hey are 
more observable in the morning before the sun has had power to dissi- 
pste the dews. 

Auriferous A/Iuvia, — The alluvium brought down by the rivers 
flowing easterly towards the Bay of Bengal is usually silt, sand, or 
calcareous matter, — detritus, as before observed, of the rocks over which 
tbcy pass j while that of the rivers flowing westerly is of a more carbon- 
aceous character. Most of these alluvia are auriferous, particularly those 




of the Malabar and Cannra coasts, but grain; 
considerable abundance in the alluvial soils of Mysore 

Betmangala Hes on the eastern flank of the principal gold tract, 
which, according to Lieutenant Warren, who examined this district in 
i8o2, extends in a north-by- east direction from the vicinity of Budikoie 
to near Ramasamudra. The gold is distributed in the form of small 
fragments and dust throughout the alluvium covering this tract. 

At Markuppam, a village about r2 miles south-west from Betman- 
gala, were some old gold mines, worked by Tipu without success. The 
two excavations at this place demonstrated the great thickness, in some 
parts, of these auriferous alluvia. They were 30 to 45 feet deep 
respectively. There can be little doubt that the auriferous black and 
white stones in these mines were fragments from the gneiss, granite and 
hornblende schist which base this auriferous tract, and constitute the 
singular ridge whitrh runs through it in a north and south direction, 
and which may be regarded as liaving furnished most of the materials 
of the reddish alluvium on its east and west flanks, and therefore as the 
true matrix of the gold. The orange-coloured stones were caused by the 
oxidation of the iron in the mica. 

This auriferous range on the table-land of Mysore may be traced to 
the Eastern Ghats, southerly, by the hill fort of Ta^nmeri, to the south 
of Kaveripatnam matha in the Amboor \'alley. Two passes, however, 
break its continuity near Tavuneri. To the north it appears to 
terminate at IMsarhosahalli : though the line of elevation, taking a 
gentle easterly curve, may be traced by the outliers of the B^taniyan 
hills, Amani konda or Avani, Mulbagal, Kurudu male, Rdjigundi to 
Ramasamudra in the Cuddapah collcctorate, a little west of Punganur. 

Ihttus. — Sand dunes are not confined to the coasts, but are seen on 
the banks of the larger rivets in the interior, as at Talkdd on the 
Kiv<5ri. During the (\vy .season, the beds of these rivers, deriving but 
a scanty supply of water from perennial springs, usually present large 
arid wastes of sand. These arc acted upon by the prevailing westerly 
winds, which blow strongest during the months of June, July, and 
August, and raise the sand into drifts, which usually advance upon the 
cultivation in an easterly direction. The advance of these moving 
hills is usually ver)' regular where no obstruction presents itself, such as 
high bushes, trees, hedges, &c., which are often planted by the natives 
purposely to arrest the progress of these invaders on their cultivated 
lands. 'I'he sand is often held together and retarded by the embraces 
of the long fibrous plants that grow up and are interwoven with its 
layers. {See account of Talkdd, Vol. II.) 




33 



TRAVERSE NOTES. 



From th< BhaU Ghat h Bttn%anga!a^ by Captam Ncwbcld^ F.RS» 

At the western foot of llic pass, and along the base of the Subrahmanya 
hill, homWcndc rock containing garnets and dark-coloured mica occurs, 
with veins of a very larfjegr.iined pranitc composed of white quartz, red and 
vbite felspar^ and silver)- mica in very larRC plates : gneiss is seen on the 
steep face of the ghat, and hornblende rock, often coated with the red clay 
and its own detritus. This formation continues to the summit of the ghat. 
At Uchchangi the formation is generally gneiss. One of the hills of this 
rock is crested by hornblende rock in large prismatic masses. Patches of 
latcrite occur covering these rucks in various localities, and a few bosses 
ef granite. 

Near Kenchamman Hoskole I crossed the llemavati, one of the principal 
tributaries to the Kiv^ri, in a canoe Ii is about fifty paces broad, wnih 
steep banks of clay, silt, and sand with mica. Near the village, mammillary 
masses of gneiss project from the red alluvial soil. This rock has here lost 
Buich of its quartz, and is of that variety of thick-bedded gneiss which in a 
hand tpccimen might pass for granite ; the felspar is often of a reddish 
line Laterite is found in this vicinity a little below the surface in a soft 
sectile state. At Hassan gneiss and hornblende schist arc still the preva- 
lent rocks. Talc slate with layers of n fine greenish potstone interstratilied 
also occurs. The mica in the gneiss near Grdma is sometimes replaced by 
laic and passes into protoginc. 

After exploring the corundum pits of Gollarhalli, 1 passed through Chan- 
ri>patna and Bellur to Hulridurga. Granite, protogine, gTieiss, lalcose and 
hornblende schists, penetrated occasionally by trap dykes, constitute the 
fonnatton, overlaid here and there by patches of laterite or kunker on which 
fests the surface soil. The latter is usually i eddish and sandy. Some- 
times these deposits arc wanting, when the substratunt consists of the 
^relly detritus of the subjacent rocks. At llelladaira a large bed of 
femigmous quartz occurs. The mass of gianite on which stands the fortress 
ii fiutridurga :s sr.mewhat saddle-shaped, and runs nearly north and south ; 
it tcnninalcs abruptly at either extremity. The northern extremity, crowned 
ly ihc ciudel, is a sheer scarp of rock nearly 300 feel high ; its base is 
ivg^cd with large precipiuited masses. The granite is similar to but less 
pirph>Tilic than that of Sdvandurga. 

From Hulridurga 1 proceeded to Magadi, and thence ascended the 
^upciidous mass of Sdvandurga. The country for a considerable disUncc 
n wild and woody, abounding with low hills and rocks, among which a 
porphyritic granite prevails. A magnetic iron sand is found in the beds of 
ahoost all the rivulets. I ascended the rock from the north-east side. The 
major axis uf the mass runs nearly east and west, and is crossed \x right 

D • 




34 



GEOLOGY 



anglc3 by a profound fissure, which cleaves the rock from smnimit to base 
into two distinct portions, both fortified, so as to be independent of the lower 
fort It is entirely composed of a granite, which from small-grained maybe 
seen passing into the large-grained and porphyrilic varieties. Some of the 
crystals of reddish felspar on the Karidurga were nearly two inches long, 
imbedded in small-grained reddish granite. 

The principal rock at T:ivarekere is gneiss, with fragments of iron-shot 
quartz, green actinulitic quartz, felspar, fragments of hornblende schist, 
gneiss, granite and basaltic greenstone scattered uver the face of the 
country, and occasionally patches of kunker. Near lUnilvar I found 
diallage rock, projecting in large, angular, scabrous blocks from the lop and 
sides of a low elcvalion. The great mass of the rock was chiefly while 
felspar and quartz. The crystals of diallage were well dcluicd, and passed 
from dull olive-grey shades to the lively decided green of smaragdite. 'I'hcrc 
was more quartz in this diallage rt>ck than is seen usually in the euphocides 
of Europe ; and the external aspect of the blocks was almost trachytic in 
its roughness. Not far hence, the gneiss with which the diallage is asso- 
ciated, apparently as a large vein, loses its mica, which is replaced by minute 
silver scales of graphite. 

Gneiss is the prevalent rock about Bangalore, penetrated by dykes of 
basaltic greenstone, and occasionally by granite, as is seen near the pctta 
and adjacent fields. The granite in these localities splits into the usual 
cuboidal blocks or exfoliates into globular matjses. It often contains horn- 
blende in addition to mica. The gneiss strata, though waving and contorted, 
have a genera! north and south direction, and often contain beds of whitish 
quartz prescr\'ing a similar direction. The strata are nearly vertical. 
Approaching IJangalore from the north-west, a bed of latente is crossed, 
forming a hill (Oydli dinne) on which stands a small pagoda. This bed 
extends northerly in the direction of Nandidroog, where laierite also occurs. 
In other situations, covering the gneiss and granite, a reddish loam is usually 
found, varying from a few inches to twenty feet in depth, containing beds of 
red clay, used in making tiles, bricks, &c. ; the result evidently of tHc 
weathering of the granite, gneiss, and hornblende rocks, h similar formation 
continues to Kolar. The gneiss is occasionally interstratified with beds of 
hornblende schist. Granite, gneiss, and hornblende are the prevailing rocks 
at Bctmangala. About eight or nine miles cast of this the Mysore frontier is 
crossed into South Arcot. Kunker occurs on the banks of the rivulet near 
the village, both on the surface and in a bed below the alluvial soil. 
Efflorescences of muriate of soda are also seen in the vicinity. 



From Seringapdlant to Coorg^ by the same. 

From Scringapatam my route lay westward over a stony, kunkerous, 
uneven, and rather sterile tract to the banks of the I^kshmantirtha. The 
formation at Hunsur is a micaceous gneiss with veins of quartz, and beds of 
the same mineral evidently interstratified with the layers of gneiss. These 
bcds> on weathering, leave the surface-soil covered with their angular and 



TRAVERSE NOTES 



Z% 



Tust-stained fragments. Glimmering hornblende rock, veined witli milky 
quarU, and a pale flesh-coloured felspar iiUcrnatc with the gneiss. The 
ou^oings of two or three dykes of basaltic greenstone are passed on the 
roadside. The surface of the country from Seringapatam gradually rises as 
it approaches the Ghats, 

The country between Hunsur and the Ghats is a succession of rocky 
risings and falls of the surface, covered for the most part with reddish alluviad 
soil, over the face of which arc scattered numberless angular fragments of 
the surrounding rocks ; especially white and iron-stained cjuartz, and occa- 
sionally kunker. Some of these alluvia have not travelled far, since we often 
find the colour of the surface-soil a true index to the nature of the rock 
beneath ; vix., dark red or coffee-coloured soil over hornblende rock and 
trap ; light red to sandy soU over gneiss and granite ; light greenish-grey 
over laic schist ; and while, or what is nearly whitet over felspar and quartz 
rocks. The quartz beds, being usually harder than their nciLthbours, are 
vritten in white bas-relief characters over the face of the counliy. They 
never weather — like the felspars, hornblendes and micaceous rocks -into 
clay, but usually break up into fragments by imperceptible fissures, into 
which water, impregnated with iron from the surrounding weathered rocks, 
soon insinuates itself and stains the rock. At length the panic les composing 
the fragments themselves lose their cohesion and break up into an angular 
gritty sand. 

At Periyapatna basaltic greenstone is seen in the bed of a nulUh crossing 
the gneiss and hornblende rock, and veined with kunker. Large blocks of 
fine red granite are seen in the ruined fort walls, brought evidently from no 
great distance. The Ghat line west of Periyapatna presents a succession of 
found-backed hills and smooth knobs, which continue to Virar.ijendrapet in 
Coorg. Their surface is covered with dark vegetable mould, and shaded by 
a fine forest, the roots of which strike into the red loam ur clay on which 
tbe vegetable mould rests. It produces excellent sandalwood. 



At the Gfrsoppa Falis^ by the same, 

TTie precipice over which the water falls affords a fine section cf gneiss 
and its associated hypogene schists, which dip easieriy and nfirtherly away 
from the Falls at an angle of about 35". The gneiss is composed of quartz 
<&d felspar, with both mica and hornblende, and alternates with micaceous, 
lalcos^ aciinohiic, chloritic and hornblende schists, imbedding (esperially 
the Utter) iron p>Tite5. These rocks are penetrated by veins of quartz and 
fidtpar, and also of a fine-grained granite, composed of small grains of white 
tispar, quartz and mica. The mass of hypogene rocks has evidently been 
»orT» back several hundred feet by the erosion and abrasion of the cataract ; 
Uic softer talcose and micaceous schisu have suffered most. Kock basins 
are frequent in the bed of the river, which is worn in the rock and rugged 
vitb water-worn rock>- masses. 



D 2 




36 



GEOLOGY 



From Jahirfiet io Shikarfiur {in iSSi),' l>y /i*- I^ruce Foote, F.C.S. 

The results of combined traverses show lliat the Mysore table-land is 
traversed by great bands of granitoid and schisloac gneiss, the southerly 
extensions of some of the great bands recognized in the South Mahratta 
countr)*. When the whole of this region shall have been gcolofjically 
examined it is more rhan probable th;il all the bands known to the north of 
the Tungabliadra will be traced far to ihe south. The traverse now to be 
described shows that three great bands of schistose rock occur on the 
Mysore plale:ui. and lliat two of these are actual continuations of two of the 
great schistose bands in Dharwar District. For convenience of description 
these bands will in the sequel be referred to as the " Dhar^var-Shimoga " 
and " Dambal-Chiknay.Tkanhnlii '' bands. Both these bands have been 
traced across the Tungabhadra, the lallcr in a chain of hills running down 
southward to Chitaldroog and ChiknayakanhaliJ, white the former forms 
another chain of hills passing Harihar and Shimoga and stretching further 
south towards Hassan. These bands arc of considerable width, the Uambal- 
Chiknayakanhalli band, which is considerably the narrower of the two, 
measuring j8 miles across where crossed by the line of section. In addition 
to their geological interest, these two bands are of importance, as within 
their limits occur several of the auriferous tracts which have of late attracted 
So much attention. The Dharwar-Shimoga band is slightly auriferous at 
its northern extremity, and streams rising on it near Bail Hongal and 
Belavadi in the Sampgaon taluq of Belgaum District iised formerly to be 
washed for gold. The auriferoys tract of Honnali lies within the same 
schistose band a Htlle to the north of .Shinioga. TTie Dambal-Chiknaya- 
kanhalli band contains the nuriferuus tract of the Kapputgodc hiHs near 
Dambal, to the north of the Tungabhadra ; while south of that river, on the 
Mysore plateau, near the town of Chiknayakanhalli, are quartz reefs reported 
to be auriferous, and which have attracted the notice of several speculators, 
who have taken up land for mining purposes. 

Tliis schistose band is seen to stretch away far to the south-south-east in 
a line of low hills, and is said to extend to Seringapatam, passing that place 
and the town of Mysore to the eastward, and then trending round to the 
south-west and continuing into south-eastern Wyndd, where it forms the 
gold-field around Devala. This tallies with Mr. King's observations in the 
Wyndd, a strong band of schistose gneiss having been shown by him to 
occur at and around Devala. in which chloritic schists occupy an important 
position, i^[y informant as to this extension of the Dambal-Chiknayakan- 
halU band was Mr. I.avelle, the pioneer gold-prospector of the present time, 
who has traced ihu band froin the Wyn.'td north to beyond Chilaldroog, I 
have no doubt but that Mr. Lavelle's observations will be fully confirmed 
when the whole of Mysore shall have been surx-eyed geologically. If the 
parallelism of strike continues between the southward extension of the 
Dharwar-Shimoga band and that of the Dambal-ChiknayakanhaUi band, 

' Records of the Geoli^ical Survey of India, Vol. XV., Part 4. 



i 



To /ac0 page 86. 



Banolore 



Kolar Qpldflttid Jal«rp«t 

Junction 




hist band. g^. Onuiltold gnalts. 



TA NEAR SHIKARPUR 



JokiLfi«rt^(iloiKnr i r« .E^lai* 



TRAVERSE NOTES 



37 



H is highly probable that the former will be found to constitute the auriferous 
tract said to exist in the nortii Wyndd. The straiigraphical relations of 
the several great bands, both granitoid and schistose, have yet to be worked 
out, for in the northern pari of the great gneissic area they were found too 
obscure to be satisfactorily explained, and it remains to be seen whether 
they represent twy or more great systems. Their position and relation are 
shown in the accompanying map and section. 

If the line of section be followed from south-east to north-west it will be 
seen to traverse a region of very typical granite-gneiss, extending from 
Jalarpet Jtinction (Madras Hallway), for a disunce of some 30 miles. This 
granite-gneiss tract forms the eastern cd^e of the great Mysore plateau, 
which is here a wild, rugged, picturesque jungle region. 

To tlic west the section crosses at its narrowest part the band of schistose 
rocks in which lies, a little to the north of the railway, the now well-known 
Kolargold-tictd, at present a scene of energetic mining work on the lands 
taken up by a number of large Mining Companies. This schistose band, 
which will be most appropriately called the Kolar schistose band, forms an 
important synclinal trough resting on the adjacent granite-gneiss rocks. I( 
is the only one of the great schistose bands whose relations to the associated 
bands of granitoid rocks have (as yet) been distinctly traced. A fullei 
account of this band with especial reference to its auriferous character will 
be given further on. {See p. 43.) 

On crossing this Kolar gotd-rield band, the section trends northerly as far 
as the Bowringpet railway station, when it bends sharp round to the xvesi 
and continues in that direction as far as Bangalore. The very broad band 
of granitoid gneiss, which extends between the Kolar gold-lield schistose 
band to the second great schistose band (the Dainbal-Chiknayakanballi 
band), forms in its eastern part an open undulating pUiin from which rise a 
few important rocky hills, as the Tyakal, lialery and \'akkaicri hills north of 
the railway. A number of small low table-topped hills are also to be seen 
at small distances from the railway, as the lieiarayan Betta, 3V miles north- 
east of Bowringpet railway station, the Pataudur hill, 2 miles south-west by 
south of the Whitefield railway station, and the low hillock crowned by a 
nuntapam about a mile north of the Maharajah's new palace at Bangalore. 
These three hillocks are capped with beds of true scdlmentai^ taterite under- 
laid by lithomargic clays. Of precisely the same aspect, both in form and 
colour, arc the Sivasamudra. Jlnnagra and Chikka Tagali hills, which lie a few 
miles nonh of the railway near the Whitefield and Malur siaiiuns. Identical 
in form and appearance also is a much more extensive development of 
uble-topped plateaus, which arc well seen from Betarayan hill, lying several 
miles to the north and covering a considerable area. The laterite at tlie 
north-eastern end of the Patandur hill is distinctly conglomeratic and con- 
tains a tolerable number of well- rolled quartz pebbles. The red colour of 
the sides of these hills and plateaus, added to their sharp-cut ubulai" shape, 
makes them conspicuous from considerable distances. No organic remains 
were found in connection with these laterite beds, and the number of sections 
examined was not sufficient to enable mc to form any positive opinion as to 



3« 



GEOLOGY 



their origin, and s^iU less so as to their geological age, — but there can be no 



ittercd 



formerly far more 



cioubt that they are th 
extensive formation. 

To the north-west of Bangalore the undulation of the country increases 
considerably, and the streams nm in much deeper channels, affording more 
numerous sections both of the surface sfjil ami sub-rock. The surface of 
the country is generally covered with a thick layer of red soil, which often 
contains a large percentage of pisolitic in>n (haematite) in segregational 
fonn. 

Thirty-two miles north-west of Bangalore the section cuts across the line 
of hills' running north and south from the K.-SvtJn river, a little east of the 
great Fiills, up to Nidugal on the fronlicr nf the Anantapur District. This 
line of hills culminates close to the section in the fine peak of Sivaganga, 
which attains the height of 4,559 feet above sca-Ievcl. Like many other 
groups of granitoid-gneiss hills in the south, these hills arc verj- rocky and 
bare, and look as if they had never been covered with a real forest growth. 

The section maintains its north-westerly course up to Tumkur, bcj-ond 
which town it turns suddenly westward and, after a course of 16 miles, 
in which remarkably few outcrops of rock arc seen, meets the second great 
band of schistose rocks in ihe line of hills rising between Hagalvadi and 
Chiknayakanhnin. This second great band of schists is the southerly 
continuation of the DambaUChiknayakanhalU schist band as delmcd above. 
The width of this extremely well-marked schistose band, which the section 
crosses at right angles, is 18 miles. The character of the scenery is 
markedly different ; smooth, grass-grown hills, gencially well rounded, with 
very few conspicuous exposures of rock, take the place of the bold rocky 
bare hill masses seen east of Tumkur. The rocks consist of homblendic, 
chloritic and ha^matitic schists cropping out at very high angles or in 
vertical beds. Several large quartz reefs occur traversing these schists, and 
one large one crosses the road some distance west of Doddiganhalli. Time 
did not allow of my doing any prospecting here, but several prospectors 
have slated that their researches were rew.^rded by the discover)" of gold in 
appreciable quantity both in the quartz and by washing the local soils. The 
extension southward of this schist band may be traced by the eye for many 
miles, owing to the very characteristic features of the low line of heights 
which extends south in the direction of Seringapatam. That they extend 
still further south and then trend south-westward into the south-eastern part 
of the \V"yn:td m:iy be assumed as a fact on the strength of the information 
kindly furnished by Mr. Lavellc. The contact of the schists and granitoid 
gneiss is unfortunately concealed by superficial deposits at the places where 
the section cuts across their respective boundaries ; but the impression left 
in my mind by the general appearance of the localities was that the schists 
were overlying the granitoid beds, and the same relation appeared to me to 
exist in the Dambal gold-field, as far as its western boundary is concemed. 

' The* ex|>re$^on line <>f hills is used in preference lo the term chain, as there is 
little cuniinuity of high ground, the hilU Iwing mostly quite detached and separated 
in some parts by coniidcrahle sjnccs. 



I 



TRAVERSE NOTES 



The eastern bound.iry of the schist band was not traced near Dambal and 
Cadag, but further north it is completely hidden by the tremendous spread 
of cotton soil there prevailing. Passing on a little lo the south of wes: from 
the schistose band the section runs across a granitoid-gneiss icjjion, and 
^xer passing Tiptur crosses the watershe<l between the K^veri and Krishna 

^Jiydiological basin^i, the section trending more and more north-westerly 
long a rapid descent. It leaves the high, picturesque, granitoid hill masses 
of Htiekal Gudda and Gardangiri to the right, and beyond Banavar skirts 
Lfae eastern boundar)* of the third or E)harwar-Shimoga schist band for 
several miles, but does not actually leave the granitoid rocks till it has 

ipassed Kadur by some six miles. The rocks of this granitoid band, which 
ly for convenience be called the Mulgund- Kadur band, offer no 
speciality calhng for remark. Like the hilly region running casi of Turn- 
kur, the hills may preferably be described as forming a line ratlicr than a 
chain, for they occur in numerous detached mosses. 

As Just mentioned, the section gets on to the third schistose band six 
mdcs to the north-west of Kadur, and here the schists arc mostly chlorilic 
pate colour with intercalated more highly siliceous bands, ranging from 
rhtoritic gneiss lo quartzitc. To the south of the road the quartzites 
increase much in development and rise into a high ridge with a great cliffy 

jKarp on the eastern face of Coancancul pe.ik, Further west, to the south 
the high Piad, rises a considerable hill of very rugged nature, which, 
when seen from a distance, presents great resemblance to a typical granitoid- 
goeiss hilt On closer approach the rock is seen to have a very coarsely 
mottled structure, which turns out to be due to the presence of enormous 
nombcrs of wcU-raunded pebbles of a granite or compact granite gneiss. 
Thesixc of the included stones ranges in the part I examined from small 
pebbles to small boulders, all enclosed in a greenish-grey fi>liated chloritic 
matrix. The thickness of the conglomerate here exposed must be very 
;neat, as proved by the size of the hill which goes by the name of the Kal 
Oniog. To the north, the beds are soon lust sight of under the local 
itlavium of the Kushi river, and they are not seen to reappear conspicuously 
in ibe hilly country on the north side of the valley. To the west of the great 
. onglomerate beds follow more schistose beds, and, as seen on the hill slopes 
Mxith of the road, a great scries of quartzites. Near Tarikere, and to the 
north-west of it, very few exposures of rock are met with as far as Benkipur, 
but the few that do show through the thick woods which here cover every- 
thing, prove the country to be formed of schistose members of the Gneissic 
Series. About four miles north-west of Tnrikcre the road crosses a very small 
DQtcrop of typical h."cmatite schist, striking in a northerly direction. A good 
(Jeal of rock shows in the bed of the Bhadra river at and above Benkipur, 
but the forms seen arc not very characteristic, and at the lime of my passing 
':rerjihing was obscured by a thick byer of slimy mud left by a high fresh 
in the river. This part of the section would be very unsatisfactory were it 
no* that the schistose character of the beds forming the line of hills extend- 
ing northward parallel with the valley of the Bhadra shows quite clearly the 
cxscnsioo of the rocks seen south-cast and east of Tarikere. Between Ben- 



4«> 



GEOLOGY 



Icipur and Shimoga very little rock of any sort is seen, but about half-way 
across the Doab, between the Tunga and lihadra nvcrs, a band of fine- 
grained grey granite gneiss is crossed, while to the east and south of 
Shiiuoga town arc several conspicuous lar-jc masses of a chloritic variety of 
granite gneiss. The exact relation of these granitoid outcrops to the great 
schist series further east I had not the opportunity of determining, and am 
not quite certain whether they represent tlic eastern border of another great 
granitoid band, or whether they are pait only of an unimportant local band 
of granitoid rock. I am inclined lo think the latter will be found the real 
condition of things when the country comes to be fully surveyed. The short 
space of lime at my commund prevented my making a d»?tour to settle this 
point. Here, too, the extent and thickness of the jungle growth greatly hide 
the general surface of the country along the road, while the rainy or misty 
character of the weather tended much to obscure the appearance of hills at 
but very moderate distances. Though the exigencies of ddk travelling com- 
pelled me to make the ddtour to yhimoga instead of following the line of 
schistose beds northward from Ucnkipur, I am perfectly satisfied as to the 
fact of these schists continuing northward, and joining those wliich ciossihe 
united rivers furming the Tungabhadra, a few miles below tlie junction of 
the Tunga and Hhadra. The country here is much freer from jungle, and 
many ridges of rock, consisting of quartzites and chlorite schists with rocks 
of intermediate character, can be traced for miles. This part of the section 
extends from the bank of the river for rather more than 20 miles, — from 
the travellers' bungalow at Ilolalur north-westward to the Tavankal-beita 
Trigonometrical Station, six miles east-by-south of Shikarpur. Along ihe 
13 miles of rcmd between Shimoga and Holalur but little is seen of the 
older rocks, the road lying close to the left bank of ihe Tunga and Tunga- 
bhadra, and passing almost entirely over the river alluvium which at and to 
the north-cast of the Holalur bungalow forms a coarse bed of rounded 
shingles, rising a considerable height above the present high llood level of 
the united rivers. 

The most striking features, both orographically and geologically, of this part 
of the Mysore country are the quartzite outcrops, which are numerous, but 
of which only the principal ones require notice. Of these the best marked, 
longest and highest culminates in the Kalva-Uanganbetta, a fine hill rising 
some 1,200 feet above the plain, and 3,388 feet above sea-level, 16 miles 
to the north of Shimoga. The out-crop of the great quartzite beds forming 
this ridge has a distinct dip of some fx>°-65'' (on the average) lo the north- 
east. The quartzites are underlaid by a schistose (chloritic) series, the south- 
western extension of which was not ascertained. Overlying the quartzites, 
which are generally flaggy in character (but which here and there become so 
highly charged with scales of pale green chlorite as almost to lose their 
quartzitic character, and pass into chloritic gneiss), are local beds of true 
conglomerate, — the first I have met with or heard of in the gneissic rock of 
the peninsula. The conglomerate has evidently imdergone considerable 
metamorphosis, but its real character and truly clastic origin cannot be 
doubted when carefully examined, ^tany of the included pebbles appear to 




HONNAU GOLD FIELD 



41 



■ froi 

I 



hai-e been fractured by the great pressure undergone, but their truly rounded 
charaaer is quite distinct and unmistakable. The beds seen by me and 
traced for several hundred yards, arc exposed a little way up the slope of 
Kalva-Kanganbeita peak, and a liiilc to the north-west of a small, but rather 
coosptcuous, pagoda, which stands in a little recess. The included pebbles 
in the conglomerate consist chiefly of quartz, a. few of gneiss, and some of 
what appeared an older quartzite. A second intended visit and closer 
cxanunation of thU very interesting bed was prevented, much to my sorrow, 
by bad weather. The second in importance of the quartzite ridges has its 
easteni extremity in the bed and left bank of the lirst west-ioeast reach of 
the Tungabhadra below the Kudali Sangam, or j\mction. West of the new 
higb road from Shimoga 10 Honnali the quartzite beds rise into the Phillur 
Gudda (liiU), and beyond that rise again into a considerable hill some 400 
to joo feet high, and may be followed easily for several miles to the north-west. 
The quartzitic character is then in great measure or entirely lost by the rock 
becommg highly chlontic,and the beds can no longer be safely distinguished 
from the surrounding mass of chloritic schist. In the north-westerly part 
this Phillur (iudda ridge several pebbly beds were observed intercalated 
ween the more or less chloritic quartzite. They differed from the Kalva- 
Raoganbetta beds in being less coarse and having a more chloritic mattix, 
bat had undergone about an equal amount of metamorphosis. \ consider- 
able number of quartzite ridges are intercalated between Phillur Gudda 
ridge, and the southern end of the KaU'a-Ranganl^tla ridge, which 
icxminatcs in the Nclli CiudiU Trigonometrical Station hill, seven miles west- 
north-west of the Kudali Sangain. To these ridges may be ascribed the 
cEistencc of the group of hills they occur in, as but for their greater durability 
And rc&isting power to weather action, ihey would certainly have been worn 
down to the low level of the purely chloritic part of the schistose band, both 
to the north-west and south-east. Unless there has been an inversion of 
tlie strata on a rather large scale, or faults exist which were not obvious 
during the rapid 5ur\'ey, the Kalva-Ranganbetta quartzitcs underlie all the 
beds to the northward of it. Another series of overlying quartzilesis shown 
to the north-north-west of Kalva-Ranganbetta; but the relation between it 
4nd the upper beds just described could nt>t be determined without a much 
more close examination of the district, more especially as the space between 
the two sets of outcrops is very largely and closely covered by spreads of 
rejjur. The chloritic schists offer no specially interesting features, and 
ihcy arc not, as a rule, well seen, except on the slopes of the hills, the 
general face of the country being much obscured by red or black soil, which, 
bfKh of them, occur in gre^U thickness. 

Hannmli GoLi-fi^ld.—Ovi^ remaining point of great interest is the large 
number of important quartz veins, or reefs, which traverse the belt of 
cfaloiitJc rocks overlying the Kalva-Ranganbetta quartzitcs. Tliey are the 
•ourcc of the gold occurring in the thick red soil which covers the whole 
face of the low-lying country, and which has been washed for gold, certainly 
fcrr several generations past, by several families of Jalgars residing at 
Palavanhalli. The gold is so generally distributed through the red soil that 



4« 



GEOLOGY 



it is clear that many of the reefs must be auriferous, and the quantity found 
is suflficicnl to justify strong hopes that a proHtable mining industry may be 
developed by working the richer reefs. Several of the series of reefs close 
to Devi Kop, a little village 31 miles east-3oulh-easE of the Kalva-Rangan- 
betta, had been carefully and deeply prospected at the time of my visit by 
Mr. Henr\- Prideaux, M.E., and in one case certainly with very marked 
success. The quartz in this case was found vcr>" rich in gold, which was 
visible in grains and scales scattered pretty freely throngh the mass. The 
quartz in many parts had a quasi-brecciated structure with films and plates 
of blue-green chlorite occurring along cracks in the mass. Near the surfnce 
the chlorite, with which \vere associated imall inclusions of pyrites, had 
often weathered into a rusty-brown mass. The reef which at the time of 
my visit was regarded as the most promising, and to which the name of 
TurnbiiU's reef had been given, is one of a scries of three thai can be traced 
with some breaks for a distance of six miles nearly parallel with the great 
quartzite ridge of the Kalva-Rangant>etta, the true strike of the reef being 
from N. 40* W. to S. 40'' E. Another important set of three reefs having 
the same strike occurs about half a mile north of the Hrst series, but they 
are not visible for such a long distance, their north-western course being 
covered by the thick spread of cotton soil. To the south-cast they, or at 
least one of them, can be traced across the Nyamti nullah, which divides the 
gold-field in two. Out-crops of vein-quartz in a line with a south-easterly 
extension of this set of reefs are to be seen north and east of Palavanhalli. 
Numerous other quartz reefs having the same strike occur in the south- 
eastern half of the gold-field, c..^,, a set of four, ralher more than a mile north- 
east of Palavanhalli, and several others to the north of Dasarhalli and south 
of Kuntra. A few reefs were also noticed whose strike was dilTerent from 
those above referred to. They represent two other systems of fissures, the 
one running N. f E. to S. 5^ W. ; the other, W. 5" N. to E. 5" S. Several 
of both these series are of very promising appearance, the " back of the 
lode " bearing considerable resemblance to that of Turnbull's reef. The 
greater number of the reefs in the Honnali gold-field are well-marked 
examples of these fissure veins. 

During my stay at Dev; Kop. I watched the results of many washings 
both of crushed quartz and of the red soil taken from many localities and 
various levels. The great majority were highly satisfactory. The Jalgars, 
or local gold-washers, seem to be a fairly prosperous set of men, so their 
earnings must be fairly remunerative They confine their attention, 
as far as t could ascertain, pretty generally to the high-lying red soil banks, 
between Devi Kop and the Nyamti nulLih. The head Jalgar, a vcr>* 
intelligent old man and dexterous gold-washer, informed me that the best 
day's work he had ever done was the finding of a small pocket in the gneiss 
which contained about Rs. 80 of gold in small grains and scales. I 
Rathered from him that he had not found anything beyond the size of a 
"pepite." The position of these auriferous banks near Devi Kop would 
admit of hydraulic mining over a considerable area by a system of dams and 
channels to bring water from the Nyamti nullah^ but tlic question of the 



44 



GEOLOGY 



westerly, and affords one of the clearest proofs of the synclinal character of the 
schist band. To the southward the hamalilic beds appear to coalesce, the 
synclinal being pinched together, but I had no opportunity of following up 
the eastern boundar}- of the schistose band. The western boundary is a 
very conspicuous feature, a bold rocky ritlgc running up into the lofty 
Malapan Helta peak, the highesi summit in this part of the country. 
South of Malapan Bella the ha^matitic beds appear to lose their importance 
and no longer form the most striking feature of the schistose band, and 
micaceous and chloritic beds abound. Owing to the ^eat extent of jungle 
and the rugged character of tlie country, their general relations were not to 
be made out completely in the sliort time at iny disposal. The beds run 
south into the Salem District, and i}robably occupy the valley lying east and 
north-east of Krishnagiri and, not improbably, extend on towards and past 
Darampuri. A subsidiary ridge of lower elevation, which branches off irom 
the western side of Malapan Bctta westward and then trends south-west 
and finally soutb-south-wcst, also consists of schistose beds of similar 
character, amongst which a hicmatitic quartzitc is the most conspicuous. 
The relation of these latter beds to the Kular gold-licld synclinal fold is 
quite problematical, but ii is very probable that several important faults 
have caused great dislocation of the strata first along the boundaries of 
the main synclinal fold. The stratigraphy of the several spurs radiating 
from Malapan Konda is very complicated and interesting and well worthy 
of careful consideration. 

The auriferous quartz reefs which have attracted so much attention he in 
the broader part of the synclinal fold north of the railway. None of any 
importance were seen by me in the tract south of Malapan lictta. The 
intermediate tract I had no opportunity of examining closely, but i did not 
hear of the existence there of any of interest or importance. The reefs 
make very little show on the surface as a rule ; in many cases, indeed, the 
whole b.ick of the reef, or lodes, has been removed during the mining opera- 
tions of the old native miners, whose workings were on a rather large scale 
considering the means they had at command. Much also of the surface is 
masked by scrub jungle, or by a thick coaling of soil, often a local black 
humus. The reefs arc so very inconspicuous that I have not attempted to 
show them on the map. Their run is north and south with a few degrees 
variation either east or west. The hade of the reefs is wcstei'Iy in most 
cases, as far as they have been tested by the shafts sunk. The angle they 
make with the horizon is a very high one, on the average not less llian from 
85° to 87°. Much has been said about the reefs in the Kolar not being true 
fissure veins, but I was unable to find any good reason for promulgating this 
view, and several mining engineers of high standing and great experience, 
as Messrs. Bell Davics, Raynor St. Sleplien, and other practical miners well 
acquainted with the locality, have nu hesitation about calling them " fissure 
veins" or *' lodes." The quartz composing ihc reefs is a bluish or greyish- 
black diaphanous or semi-diaphanous rock, and remarkably free from 
sulphides (pyrites, galena, &c.) of any kind. The gold found is very pure 
and of good colour. Several washings of crushed vein stuff were made in 



A 



TRAVERSE .YOTES 



45 



my presence at the Urigam and Kolar mines with really satisfactory results, 
the quantity of gold obtained being very appreciable. The samples operated 
oa were not picked ones. 

The principal new mines now in proj^ess form a line stretching from south 
to north on the e:»i:ern side of an imaginary axis drawn along the centre o( 
the svncJinal fold, and this line coincides with that followed by the *' old 
men," many of whose abandoned workings arc being extended to greater 
depth than they had the power of attaining to without stcam-pumping 
machinery. 

Numerous large dykes of dioritic trap are met with traversing the gneissic 
rocks of this region. One set of them runs north and south with a variation 
of about 5"* cast or west. The other runs nearly east and west The 
presence of these dykes will offer formidable obstacles to the mining works 
iQ some places, and it will probnbly be found that the intrusion of these great 
^neous masses has added considerably to the metamorph'sm of the schistose 
along the lines they traverse. As already mentioned, the schists are most 
ily altered along the central axis of the synclinal fold, and the largest of 
north and south dykes shows a very little to the cast of the synclinal axis. 
The Kolar schistose band is the only one as to the exact stratigraphical 
icUtion of which to the granitoid gneiss any positively conclusive evidence 
had been obtained ; but there is reason to believe that at le^st three of the 
schistose bands to the westward of it, I'/s., those of Sundur, near Bcllary, of 
Dunbal-Chiknayakanhaili, and of Dharwar-Shimoga, are similarly super- 
imposed on the granitoid rocks. Whether the superposition is a conform- 
able or an unconformable one, is a point that has yet to be determined by 
tanhcr investigation ; at the Kolar gold-field, however, the relation between 
die schistose synclinal and the underlying granite gneiss appears to be one 
<f distinct conformity. The Hospet end of the Sundur schist band certainly 
presents ever>' appearance of being the acute extremity of a synclinal basin. 
The south-eastern extension of this band is as yet unknown, but there is 
good reason to expect a considerable extension of it to the south-eastward of 
Bcfltry. 

The remarkable length of the Dambal-Chiknayakanhalli and Uharwar- 
Shioioga bands precludes the idea that they can be each a simple synclinal 
laU, rather may they he expected to prove a succession of synclinal and 
■rtkliii i1 in (Echelon, with their contact boundaries not unfrcqucntly cotn- 
adiBg with faults. The geographical position of these great bands confirms 
aadamplthes the evidences to the fact which I specially pointed out in my 
Memoir' on the East Coast from latitude 15" N. northward to MasulJpalam, 
dot the Peninsula of India had been greatly affected by tremendous lateral 
forces acting mainly from cast to west and thrusting up the gneissic rocks 
ato huii^e folds. These great foldings have undergone extensive denudation, 
xad the softer schistose beds especially have been entirely removed from 
hije tracts of country which they must have formerly covered, if any of the 
hoods now remaining really represent (as they in all probability do) portions 
of once continuous formations. 

' Memoirs, " Geological Survey of India," Vol. XVI. 



J 



GEOLOGY 

The schisio'!c bnnds having only been m.ippcd at different points, their 
gcner;il width, as shown on the annexed sketch map, is orly hypothetical, 
and it is very possible that at intermediate points they may either spread out 
or narrow considerably. Their relation to the schistose gneissics of the 
Carnatic Proper has yet to be made clear, and it is not at all unlikely that a 
third subdivision will have to be recognized in the crystalline rocks of South 
India— a subdivision which will include the rocks of a character intermediate 
between the typically schistose rocks and the t}'pically granitoid rocks of 
Mysore and the South Mahratta country, namely, the massive gneissics of 
the Carnatic, in whicli the ferruginous beds arc magnetic, not ha;matitic. 



From Ke^ori oh Auriferous Tracts in Mysore {in 1887), fiy th£ sanu. 

These tracts lie widely scattered, but may be conveniently grouped {for 
the purpose of description) in three groups corresponding to the three 
principal divisions of the great Auriferous rock series' which traverses 
Mysore in great bands in a j^encrally north-norlh-wcsterly direction, and 
forms such important features in the geological structure of the table-land. 
These three groups may be appropriately termed the Centraiy the West- 
Ceniral^ and the IVestfrn groups ; the Eastern group being formed by the 
Kolar gold-field {see above, p. 43). The central group belongs to the 
Dambal-Chiknayakanhalli band of my former paper : and the western group 
to the Dharwar-Shimoga band of the san»e. The west-central gniup 
includes a number of small outlying strips of schistose rocks, some, if not 
all, of which arc of the same geological age as the great schist bands lying 
to the east and west. 

{Xanjanj^i'id to JnQaiiir.) 

Central Croup. — The rocks seen at Jiulj;crCj 7 miles south-west of Nan- 
jangUd, arc very gneissic in their general aspect, but they are very badly 
seen on the top of the ridge where the old workings arc situated, and it is 
possible the hornblendic b«ds there occurring may belong to a very narrow 
strip of the auriferous schists (Dharwars), an outlier of them in fact, and 
probably faulted in along the strike of the underlying gneissic rocks. The 

' Rocks of the same geological iige as the auriferous rocks of M)'sore occur lar^y 
in other parts of Souih Intlta, Iwth north, east, and soulh-wcst of Mysore, and to 
classify such a widdy-dcvclopcd system, it was necessary to have a crjilcctive name 
for them. The name of Dharwar rocks was therefore given by me to these rocks, 
on the usual principles of geological nomenclature, namely, fur their liaving been 
first recognirctl as a separate system after the study of their represcnuiives in the 
Collcctorale of Dharwar (Bomlwy I'residency), where they occur very largely and 
typically, and underlie the imixiriant town of Dharwar. The use of thi<: r\anic in this 
report has, however, !>een deprecaled on the plea that it might lead to confuMon in 
the minds uf readers unfamiliar with South Indian geography. [ have therefore 
avoided using it wherever this wns possible, but geologists who may peruse my report 
will understand that the aUcrnntivc terms which I h.ivc nsc<l, " .\urifcrous *' or 
*' Schistose rock scriest" really mean formations of the Hharwar age. 



AURIFEROUS TRACTS 



47 



quartz re^fs here seen are small and coincide in direction with the norlh-lo- 
s<iutfa strike of the cmintrj* rock, or deviate a liule (j^-S") to the cast-uf- 
north. The quartz exposed in the principal old working is highly fcrrugin- 
CM», being full of scales and films of impure hxmatite (specular iron), but 
contains no pvrites or other sulphides. North of the old working the reef 
is tut ofT by :. broad band of a highly decomposed f;ranttc rock containing 
iroch pink fel&piir. The counlr> between Holgere and Mysore is composed 
of micaceous gneiss uith a fcv» bands of hornblendic scltisl and potstone, 
ith no quartz reefs of any importance, and the small show of gold obtained 
Mr. Lavcllc from washings in the Kadkolc nullahs must have cornc from 
veins loo small In size to be worth mining. 1 could not trace any connec- 
tion bciwccu the Holgere auriferous rocks and the great Chiknayakanhalii 
»d, the former must therefore be considered as a mere small outlier, if 
Ih^ are really of Dharwar age. The line of high ground commencing on 
the nonh bank of the Kiiv^ri river near Sh^f/ihii((i consists mainly of 
quartzites and hornblendic schists belonging to the Uharwar series and 
forming a narrow band (from 2 to 3 miles in width), which extends north- 
imrxl, widening very pradually as it is followed up. A number of small 
(prartz veins occurs running in the direction of the strike of the beds, here 
oeari}* due north and south. The quartz is very while and "hungry-look- 
mg " and very few minerals are to be found in iL Those noted were blackish- 
greenish mica and a white decomposing felspar, the fonper not infrequently 
in distinct six-sided prisms. These included mincrats show but very rarely 
and at wide inter%'als, but here and there Ijccome numerous and convert the 
\tm into a trtie granite, a rock in which gold very rarely occurs in any 
quantity. Fragments of good-looking blue quartz were noticed scattered 
about ihe surface to the south-west of Siddapur village, but on tracing them 
ap 10 their true source they were foimd to be derived from typical granite 
^das. As far as surface indications go, this tract appears a very unpromis- 
iajf one, and quite undescr\'ing of consideration when so many really pro- 
mising tracts remain as yet unprospected. The course of the extension of 
the Chikna>-akanhalli schist band south of the K^vtfri is yet undetermined, 
buc as «cen from the top of the Kartga^ta Trigonometrical Station, it appears 
to go southward, passing east of the granitoid mass of Chimundi hill ; 
-ifortunately want of lime prevented my determining this point, which is one 
f considerable interest geologically. HonnnbfJla is a hill lying a milennd 
a half south by west of NSgamangala, and farming the central part of an 
"utlier o( the auriferous series on the western side of the Chiknayakanhalli 
and. The mass of the hill consists of hornblendic schist overlaid by 
iloritic schists. A crashing made in the small nullah draining the north- 
isi face of the hill just within the eastern boundar>' of the auriferous rocks 
jsrve a good show of gold of medium size and excellent rolnur. 1 noted one 
Urge bluish quartz reef on the high north spur of the hill which struck me 
ft» northy of being tested in depth. At picseni merely the back of the lode 
is exposed, and but to a very small depth, so it is impossible to test the 
rtal quality of the stone. This reef i-uns through the chloritic schists. 
Gifif^u^a forms the northern extremity of the outlier, and shows chloritic 



A 



4S 



GEOLOG Y 



and homblendic schists, exiensioiis of the Honnabetta beds. The ridge of 
the Girigudda is traversed by a pale gieen dioritic (?) trap. The north end 
of the outlier dies away rapidly northward of Girigiidda, and disappears 
northward of the nulbh. A careful washing in the small stream draining 
the cast side of Girigu(^da, at a spot about a quarter of a mile eastward of 
the hill, gave a fair show of medium fine gold. The presence of trap rock 
among the schists is a favourable indication for ihc presence of gold. The 
whole outlier, which extends 7 miles from Girigutldn southward to Maradipur, 
with a width of a little more ih;m a mile across Plonnabetia hill, is deserving 
cf very close examination, and the reefs of being prospected to some depth. 
About 2 miles nurth of Girigudda and within the gncissic area lies Huhnan- 
aUtla^ a low hill on the ridge of which occur several fine reefs which are 
being tested in depth by the Mysore Concessions Gold Company. The 
question— Are the quartz reefs occurring in the gneissic rock profitably 
auriferous as well as those occurring in the Dharwar scries ? (to which all the 
important gold-jtelding reefs at present known unquestionably belong) — 
will doubtless ere long receive a definite answer from the results of these 
deep prospectings, and I sincerely trust it will be a very favourable one, as, 
if so, many other reefs of great size and beauty running through the gneissic 
series may probably also prove to be gold-yielding. Much of the quartz 
turned out at Hulmnndibclta is good looking, bluish in colour, contains 
some pyrites, and encourages the hope that it will prove auriferous at 
depths not reached by superficial weather action. lialMff/a, a large hill 
some three miles north of N.lgamangala, has been reported auriferous, but the 
statement is highly improbable, the whole mass of the hill except the southern- 
most extremity consisting of granitic gneiss. A band of schistose rock extends 
from the southern spurs southward for a couple of miles till hidden by the 
alluvium of the Nrtgamangala stream. Large reefs of quartz were noted on 
either side of Haltibetta ; they are very improniising, the quartz being verj' 
white and free from included minerals. In miners' parlance, they are very 
hungrj'-looking. At Kniinj^anhaili the old native workings occupy a con- 
siderable area on which old dumps stood thickly, showing that a large 
amount of washing had been done. A very good showof gold was obtained 
by washing the dumps, but no reefs, large enough to be worth mining, could 
be found. Further south, however, fine reefs are to be seen pretty 
numerously, running north and south in the strike of the chlorilic schists.' 
A narrow strip of \ery typical auriferous schists crosses the road a mile and 
a half west of the bridge over the Shimsha on the Hassan- Bangalore road, 
and may be seen stretching away north and south to a considerable distance, 
a strongly-marked bed of jaspery hicmatite quartzitc forming a distinct ridge. 
This strip of schists is faulted against the gneiss along its eastern boundar}- 
about half a mile to the cast. The noithem extension of the schists crosses 
the Shimsha and is lost sight of in the broken ground cast of ihe river, but the 
southern extension can be traced to the high ground north of Ankanhalli. 

1 The strike of the schistose heels here tends considerably casiwartl, and they 
appear to extend towards Kunigal, iiislcfld of ninning nearly due south down to 
NigunangAla, as [ had furmerly tissumcd on imperfect information. 



ScmCb d 




ACR/FEHOl'S 



of Ar iie highly characteristic harrnatite b.ind rcapjw.irs ant! 

forma a m^ii .'^, continuing for s«\tral miles till almost abrc.isl of 

ifac Narasimbaswami pagmla hill The ^Testern boundarj' of this hand of 
Ubararars Is in all probabitit)- also a faulted one, several hundred feet In 
thickness of chlohtic and homblendic schists l>ing between the ha:malite 
bed ukI the gneiss near Xalkundt, while to the north, where the ha-riiaiite 
bed crosses the Uani^alorc road (ij miles «cst of the Vcdiyur bridge), it 
shows dose up to ihc gneiss. Tlie schistose rocks nppear to spread out over 
a considerable area eastward of the Narasimhaswami hills, and may very 
Kkely reach as far as the line of granite-gneiss hills east of the Shtmsha. A 
line of considerable hills, showing all the characteristics of the auriferous 
%neSf is seen to stretch southward for many miles some little distance west 

KantgaL These iiKks, if really belonging to the auriferous scricj, repre- 
ihe beds deHected eistward or south-eastward near Kaddb.!, and as such 
worth examination. The old workings on HonHthA^ hill, near Chik- 
JcanhalU, lie a few yards down the eastern slope and just within the 
bouoduy of the auriferous schist area, the crest of the ridge being lormed 
by gneiss on which rests the basement bed of the schist series, which is here 
a quartzttc. The old workings, which consist only of small shallow pits sur- 
rouadcd by dumps, extend southward for nearly a mile along the watershed, 
and at (he south end of the area they occupy have followed some east and 
•tst reels across the boundary into the gneissic area. The reefs arc white 
wd "hungry-looking.*' and the old miners seem to have found no great 
cncouragcmenl, for they have made no extensive excavations. The principal 
mi. on HonncbagI hill runs N. is^-jo* \V., but trends southward ; at the 
M»th end of the ridge it is about 5 feet thick. Overlying the basement 
tpnnntc on Honncbagi hill comes a scries of schists, horneblcndic, chloritic 
ad nucaceous, which occupy the space up to the fool of the hil)s, where they 
inmerlaid by argillites and a great thickness of ha:matitic schists, locally 
*enr rich in iron, and giving rise to the formation of sub-aerial breccias 
•liich assume n, lateritic appearance from the action of percolating rain- 
•i r Quart! reefs of rather more promising appearance than those on 
■ oimfjbogi hill occur here and there in the schists, and arc probably the 
of the gold obtained from the streams draining this tract. A set of 
made by me near the north-^rasl end of Honnebagi hill in the main 
ooilah and its branches gave very fair shows of medium fine gold of ex- 
teilent colour. Tests by crushing and washing quarti from two of the trial 
pitt recently sunk on Honnebagi hill gave no show, but this is not conclusive, 
«fct HMrii being from too small a depth and the quantity of quartz to be 
*t*ted by hand-crushing being necessarily insufficient for a reliable test. 
TTw reefs at KadekaigudHn, t\ miles N.N.E. of Chiknayakanhalli, like 
ifccMit Honnebagi, all lie within the schistose area though ver>- near the 
and like them run in the strike of the countr>' rock, which is 
\tTf neariy north-west by-north. The quartz is white in colour, but a 
deal iron-shot along the lines of fracture, I could find no enclosed 
except a little chlorite and obuined no show from crushings, but a 
refill washing made in the stream draining the north-west end of Kade- 

E 



1 



50 



GEOLOGY 



kaljTiitlda gave a fair show of rnlhcr fire gold. On the slope of tlie hill above 
the ijrcat reef just mentinned arc chlorite schists and an associated flow of 
dioritic trap, both favouraVe to the presence of jjold, and other reefs of 
better quality may vt-r>- likely be hidden under the talus which covers the 
slope verv generally. A washing of material collected in the nullah draining 
the north-east side of Kadekalgudda gave no results. A washing of the 
alluvial deposit on the banks of the nvillah draining the eastern side of the 
main ridge east of Chiknayakanh.dii, close to the Uodrampur temple, gave 
but a poor show of gold ; this, however, is not surprising, as the east flank of 
the range shows but very few quartz reefs of any sire ; the country is almost 
entirely formed of grey crystalline limestones with very numerous siliceous 
partings in the form of quaruitc, which here and there attain to the magni- 
tude of distinct beds. The limestones are much contorted, so their true 
thickness will be hard to ascertain by measurement, but they are certainly 
several hundred feet in thickness ^"d cover a large area stretching away In 
the south-east. A snmll show of similar limestones shows on the western 
side of the range just opposite the mouth of the gorge east of Ballenhnlli 
which cuts so deeply into the hilU. The range here unquestionably forms 
a synclinal fold, the axis of which corresponds \viih the crest of the range 
To the north the limestones arc replaced by schists and argillitcs as above 
mentioned, while to the south the tract at foot of the range is so thickly 
covered with deep red soil derived from decomposition of the hirmatitic 
schists on the summit of the ridge that the low-lying schists are completely 
obscured, for the red soil, which contains local conglomerate and breccia 
beds, is not cut through by the streams now flowing westward from the hills. 
A washing which I had made in the nullah south of .Sondenhalli gave a 
small show of gold. 

A great gap intervenes between the ChiUnayakanhalli gold-field and the 
next metalliferous locality in the central group — Belligudda copper mine, close 
to Chitaldrnog. The intervening area is geologically a Urrn incognita^ in 
which a geological surt-ey would assuredly find mineral tracts of impor- 
tance. Beili^uiiiia is n fine hill lying some 5 miles south-east of Chitaldroc^, 
on the western flank of which are four large open pits and several small 
shafts and short galleries sunk in clay schist in order to extract copper ore, 
which occurred there in the form of malachite or green carbonate. From 
the nature of the workings the ore appears to have occurred in pockets, not 
in a regular loUe. and the pockets to have been worked out bodily, nothing 
remaining but thin films of a ver>- poor earthy form of the carbonate 
deposited in the joints and cr.icks of the schists. A fev.- fragments of 
quartz with small particles of rich malachite were picked out of the atlle 
tipped down the very steep side of the hill, but no trace of any other ore or 
metal could be discovered after ver>' careful search. A'fl/i'wartu/tand Ctidda 
RangazninnhalU arc two auriferous localities at the south-cast and north- 
east extremities, respectively, of a tract of schistose rocks lying between 3 
and 4 miles north of Chitaldroog. The country rock is varied, consisting 
of dark chlorilic schists overlaid by beds of quartzite, and these again by 
various schists. Quartz reefs are rare, or else covered up by the extensive 



I 



I 



AVRTFEROUS TRACTS 



5t 



tAlu5> but the washings made were very successftil and yielded gold in 
relatively lar^ge quantity and excellent quality. Taking all things into con- 
sideration, this tract is one of the most promising 1 have seen. The 
quantity of gold obtained was so good that the country north-west and 
north of the little Kotemaradi, and agnin to the north-east of Guddarangav- 
vanhalli deserves to be most closely tested by costeaning and deep 
prospecting. The nature of the country rock, chloritc-schist with associated 
dioritcs, is all that can be desired, and there are no ostensible difHculties of 
a nature likely to hinder the opening up of mines, should rich reefs Ix; dis- 
covered on further prospecting. About 14 miles north of Guddarangavvan- 
halli lies the small hill known as Homutntaratii^ to the west and south-west 
of which are several fine reefs and numerous small veins of quartz cropping 
up through the soil which hides the country rock. The hill consists of a 
drab or yellowish gritty schist, passing into argillite in parts. Immediately 
east of the hill is an outcrop of gneiss, the eastern extension of which is 
masked by a great spread of cotton soil. The dip of the schists is easterly, 
but at a very high angle, and the two rock scries are separated by a fault 
)n»4iDdar>'. A careful washing in the little gully which drains the south and 
west sides of the hill gave a very fine show of coarse gold, which can only 
have come from a very little distance and is doubtless derived from one or 
more of the reefs above referred to. The gully which flows round the 
eftsiem side of the hiU cuts some 13 to r 5 feet into tlic decomposing gneiss, 
and has exposed several smalt reefs of very blue quartz. This spot had 
c%ndenily been a favourite place of resort of the Jalagars in olden times, for 
two very large dumps are to be seen on the western bank of the gully, 
A washing of material collected in the bottom and banks of the gully gave 
A vtry fair show of fine gold ; this may, however, have come from reefs lying 
«ilh)n the schist area, as the gully rises within it on the north side of the 
bill. With regard to this gold-yielding loc.ility, I quite agree with Mr. 
luvelle that it is one of very great promise. Honnamaradi is the most 
oorthcrly auriferous locality at present known in the Chiknayakanhalli band, 
which continues its north-north-westerly course for a few miles beyond 
jagalur, and then crosses the frontier into the Bellary District. The 
Chiknayakanhalli schist band sends off a north-westerly branch some 6 or 
7 miles south-west of Chitaldroog. This branch also continues its course 
into the Uellary country, and passes close east of the well-known 
Uchchangi-droog, a very conspicuous granite- gneiss hill crowned by a large 
fori. Several groups of hills rise out of this band, one of them occurring to 
lJ>e north of the high road leading from Chitaldroog to Davangere. At the 
north end o( this latter group lies the village of Halckal, after which this 
end of the hiUs is called the Halckalgudda, and between it and the village 
lies tJie auriferous locality known by the same name. The Halekalgudda 
kills consist of thick and gritty, locally conglomeratic quartzites. with 
nKceous, micaceous and chloriiic schists. No reef or veins show on the 
oonlwm slope above the gold-crashing place, but an area of several acres 
■hews very numerous old dumps, showing that the surface soil had been 
krscky turned over. The washing made here gave a good show of 



E 2 



A 



N 



mndcmlely coarse gold. Some fine lai^c good-looking reefs, running in the 
strike of tlie rock, occur, crossing the footpath which leads from Halekal to 
Guminanur, 3 miles south-wesi-by-soiiih. West of these is a great flow of 
dioritic trap intercalated between the upper and lower schists. Though not 
so promising as Kotemnradi ;ind Honnamaradt, Halckalgudda is yet 
deserving of the closest investigation. 



1 

.«(■»»>• ■ 



{Mysore to Bannvar.) 
H^est-Central Group. — As already stated, the auriferous localities 
included in this group occur all in small detached strips or patches of 
schistose rock scattered over the older gneissic series. They are really 
remnants of the once apparently continuous spread of schistose (Dharwar) 
rocks which covered great part of the southern half of the Peninsula. After 
this great series of rocks had Ijeen deposited, the crust of the earth on 
which they rested underwent tremendous lateral pressure, and they were 
crumpled into a series of great foldings running up and down the Peninsula 
in parallel directions. After this ihey were exposed to tremendous erosi%-e 
forces and in parts entirely worn away, and the underlying old gneissic rocks 
again laid bare. The small outliers are then nothing more than little 
patclies and strips of the younger schists which have escaped erosion cither 
from the superior durability of the rocks composing them, or from their 
having been let down by fractures of the earth's crust, technically knoK'n 
as faults, to a lower level than surrounding parts of the gneiss, and thus 
escaped in some measure the full action of the eroding agencies, whatever 
they may have been. The most southerly of these outliers in this group 
is the little gold-field of SonmihaUU iS miles south-west of Mysore. 
The shape of this auriferous tract is roughly a narrow oval, forming the 
flattish top of a low rise running north and south. The workings extend for 
about 2^ miles north and south. I estimated the length of the oval at 
3 miles, but this may possibly he an undcr-cstimate, as the countr>" is 
much obscured by low jungle, especially to the south and east. Tlie country 
rock consists oi' chloritic and other schists overlying very trappoid horn- 
blendic rock. The old workings are numerous but none of ver>' great size, 
and all seem of great age, judging by the highly- weathered condition of the 
rocks exposed in their sides. All of ihem are much overgrown by jungle, 
and one has to cut one's way through a dense tangle to get right into them. 
The shape of the working appears in every case to have been due to the 
run of the reefs worked upon. These reefs very probably contained visible 
gold, which induced the old miners to take out all the quartz they could 
raise, leaving only here and there masses which they considered unpro- 
ductive or, in a few cases, too large and massive to be dealt with 
conveniently. In many cases, both here and elsewhere, the whole lode has 
been removed as far as can be seen, and the nature of the lode can only be 
g\ies5ed at from fragments of quartz left behind, and it is at present 
impossible to form any opinion about the value of the property. 
If the old pits were completely cleared out, the lode would in most 
cases be rediscovered and could then Ix; properly tested in depth. 




AURIFEROUS TRACTS 



53 



dT the sides of all t!tc principal workings south of SonnahAllt 
washed and gave at best bat very small shows of gold. 
Half a mile east of Sonnahalli village, a very large reef is exposed on the 
lop of the ridge ; it does not look very promising, but seems worth deeper 
prospecting than it has yet undergone. I did not attempt a crushing, as I 
could not find any good-looking stone from a sufficient depth. This reef 
has a run of N. 5' W. At the foot of the north-eastern slope of the Sonna- 
halli betta or hiH, a large reef has been exposed and to some extent worked 
out by a series of pits of moderate size. The quartz is white and barren- 
looklDg. The line of old working at Ktirimatidanhaili commences about 
\\ mile:s east nf Sonnahalli betta, and extends northward for about a mile. 
Thcs have been sunk in pale pink gncissic-looking fclspathic schists, but 
associated witli them are some hornblcndic and ferruginous strata which bear 
a £ur resemblance to characteristic members of the auriferous schist 
series, and they may, provisionally at least, be regarded as belonging to tL 
Tbcy form a narrow strip about 2 miles in length on the flat top of a ridge 
east of Karimaddanhalli village. The rock forming the casing of the reefs 
is geoerally chloritic near the contact, but not so at the distance of a yard or 
two. In the most southerly working the reef is not seen in the pit at 
prescot and seems to have been entirely removed, but this cannot be 
decided unless the pit were entirely cleared of jungle and diibris. Fragments 
of qttari2 remaining are white but much iron-suiined, and contain a few 
V ' nail cubes of pyrites. The great working east of Kanmaddan- 

h., c has been excavated along the course of a large reef running 

•ery ncuty due east and west In colour this reef is vcr>' white, but parts 
are niucb iron-stained, and it contains many cavities both cubical and 
incpalar in shape, the latter containing a decomposed chloritic mineral and 
itc A few cubes of pyrites were noticed and some specks of 
lical pyrites. About \ mile to the northward of the great working 
ices a line of smaller old works which extend right down to the 
ead of the Cijayanvaddargudi lank, a good mile to the north. Many 
fctfe are exposed running in various directions north, south, east, west, 
noftfa-cast, south-west, &c. &c., and ail are white and hungry-looking, and 
JBtlodc hardly any accessory minerals, small chloritic and harmatiuc 
hidttsions excepted. Some of the reefs are large, from 6' to 3' or 10' thick. 
The country rock here consists of hornblcndic and chloritic schists, the 
bxter in very small quantity. Many washings were made and gold obtained 
in. Dearly ever)* case, but only tn small quantity. Xnt a vestige of free gold 
wu seen in any of the reefs, cither here or anywhere else. If it existed, 
the old miners were very careful to remove every atom of the gold-bearing 
qosrtz. About i of a mile north-east-by-cast of NKtdapufihalU is a line of 
qM vorkings of limited extent, sunk in pale greenish-brown chloritic schisL 
From the southern working, a fair-sued pit, the whole of the reef has been 
nmoired. in the more northerly workings, some shallow pits and a long 
shaBov trench, a good-sized quartz reef is exposed to the depth (at present) 
of 5 «r 4 fieet at the utmosL The quartz is white, but shows a fair number 
4- cuixk« filled with eartliy limonitc, probably derived from the decompo- 



54 



GEOLOGY 



sition of enclosures of chloriiic minerals. Pyrites is very rare, occurring 
only in very minute cubes or specks. Bright sp.inglcs and films of red 
lia-mntite are common. Several washings were made from scrapings of the 
pit sides, and in each case restilted in a small show of rich-coloured gold. 
This concludes the survey of this group south of the K.-iveri. 

Tlie well-known Beilihetta and its environs contain a considerable number 
of large and well-defined reefs, to which a large amount of attention had 
been paid by the old native miners. BeUibetfa, or the silver hill, is the 
highest of a group of moderate- si xed hills rising on an outlier of the auriferous 
series, rather more than 30 miles N.W. of Scringapatam, and 3J S.W. of 
KrishnarAjpet. The principal old workings are situated on the northern spur of 
Bejjibetia, and consist of several large pits and a variety of smaller ones, with 
several small shafts and passages. Some are a good deal obstructed by jungle 
growth and all to a great extent choked up with ddbris, which makes it quite 
impossible to be certain as 10 the depth they were carried to. Dumps are 
numerous but not proportionate in extent to the size of the workings, so it is 
probable that much of the auriferous quartz was carried away to be reduced 
to powder elsewhere. The mass of BcIIibc^a consists of chloritic schist, the 
beds of which dip westward at a high angle, the strike being slightly west-of- 
north. They show considerable contortion. They arc underlaid to the east by 
a bed of very coarse steatitic schist, on which the village of tCatargatta :»tands. 
Therun of the majority of the reefs is a little west-of-nortli, but one or two run 
east and west. To the south-west of Katargaiia village is a vcrj- large reef of 
pale blue and white quartz v/hich extends north-westwaid up to the slope and 
appears to join the set o^ reefs on top of the northern spur of Bellibeita in 
which the great workings have been carried on, but a considerable space 
between them is covered up by debris and talus at present and the con- 
nection cannot be proved positively. No workings have been made along 
the lower part of this great reef, but to the south and soutii-wcst of it I 
noticed a large number of small workings and dumps. A not vcr>' important 
series of old shallow works with dumps occurs on the ridge north of 
BeUibet]a, and here washings gave a very poor show of ^jold. A large and well- 
marked reef forms the crest of this ridge, but it is ver)- white and hungry- 
looking and contains no enclosures but a very little chlorite. The country 
rock is a curiously felted fibrous hornblende schist, with a small admbt- 
ture of chlorite. A few hundred yards to the south-west, in the jungle on 
the left bank of the stream flowing into the little Katargaiia lank, a bare 
sheet of ver)' light- col cured rocks, apparently a quartzitc, is exposed, on which 
are many score of small saucer-shaped liolcs, evidently made by pounding 
the quartz to reduce it. None of the " mullers " or hammers used in the 
process were found here. Haifa mile north of Katargatta village lie some 
im|Jortant quartz reefs and a large number of old wtjrkings. The reefs form 
the edge of a ledge formed by the eastern ridge of the auriferous rocks, 
Bejlibctta being the western ridge rising out of the outlier. The reefs, which 
are very large and well-marked, consist of pale blue and bluish-white quartz. 
I saw no indications of any recent deep prospecting along these reefs, the 
eastern of which is exposed for nearly a mile and the western for about ^ 




I 



I 



AURTFEROUS TRACTS 



55 



mile. About j of a mile xo the northward of the&e ureal reefs is a line of old 
rkings. They are mostly large trenches, so greatly filled up with soil and 
thai no signs of any reef can be made out. They present every 
"appearance of great age. Tiie countr>' rock is also almost entirely masked 
by soil and vegetation ; when seen, it consisted of a talcosc liornblende 
schist. \*ery little quartz is seen lying about, and it looks as if llie lodes had 
bc«n extracted bodily. I cannot continn Mr. Lavelle's asserted discovery of 
silver ore on Bellibeita, having been unable to find any sort or kind of 
argentiferous mineral there ; still there can be no doubt that it is a gold- 
field of very gre;it promise and deserving of the closest exammalion by deep 
pruspectmg on an ample scale. The great reef on BcUibeita, if proved 
suftciently auriferous, could easily be mined to considerable dcptli by 
simple quarr^'ing, and for this reason among others 1 think Dewan 
t'umiah's want of success in mining for silver here was clue to the want of 
one rather than any other cause. Very near the northern extremity of the 
Bellibetta outlier is a small group of small shallow pits and dumps. They 
Uc on both sides of the Mysore-Hassan road, about ^ of a mile north-west 
of Pura. Xwo small reefs were noted, but neither of thcni looked promising, 
they being while and hungry. The country rock cast of the road is a re- 
markable hornblende schist, which shows a very pretty felting of the fibre 
in stellate points with curved radiations. North of the liellibena outlier 
comes a tract of micaceous granite-gneiss, with some hornblende schist 
bands and occasional trap-dykes extending up to and beyond the famous 
\iin temple of S'ravan Helgola, and some four miles further north-cast, 
where' what appears to be a tiny outlier of the auriferous rocks 
shows close to the little village of Kempinkote in Channarayapatna 
taluq The Kempinkote workings consist of one huge pit close 
to the village, a small pit about yoo yards to tlic soutli-ea&t, and 
three or four small shallow excavations a mile to the north-east. The 
great pit, which is by far the largest excavation of the kind I have 
Ken in India, is dug out of homblendic and steatitic schists, a good 
deal contorted but having a general strike to the northward. Not a 
trace of any reef is visible in situ, and but very few lumps of quartz remain 
in the pit. This may very likely be explicable by the fuel that it contained 
free gold, and tliat every good-looking bit was carried off long ago to be 
cnisbed elsewhere. 1 examined every bit of quaitz I could sec, but had not 
ibe good fortune to find any free gold. A washing of the scrapings of the 
sule near a small exjiosure of the steatitic schist gave a very rich show of 
gold in proportion to the quantity of stuff waslied. The gold was very fine- 
grained and of excellent colour. A washing at the small pit to the south- 
east gave a very poor result. The countr>* rock here is also a steatitic schist 
t«r>- similar to that of the big pit. A few small lenticular masses of bluish- 
■tute quartz occur on the east side of the second pit, but are loo short to 
be regarded as true reefs. The small excavations lying to the north-east of 
Kempinkote have been made in chloritic schist abounding with small cubical 
cavities full of reddish limoniie. U is impossible to offer any positive 
(^tiaion as to the Kempinkote gold prospects, no reef being visible in the 



A 



S6 



GEOLOGY 



great pit. The latter should be cleared out to see whether the reef has been 
entirely worked out or not. The length and width of the great pit is *o 
great ihat it is quite possible the old miners really descended to a great 
depth before stopped by water or other diflicultics they could not compass 
with their limited mechanlc:il appliances. The great size of the old work- 
ing shows, however, that the old miners found the place worth their atten- 
tion for a long period. Overlying the chloritic schist which forms the main 
mass of the low rise south-east of NuggUuiUi is a iliin bed of ha^inatitic 
schist, the debris from which forms a wide-spread talus. This iron-strewn 
knoll appears to be the southern termination of the Tagadur-betta outlier, 
unless the auriferous rocks make a considrrable sweep to the west, for the 
rocks along the direct path from Kcmpinkofe to Nuggihalli belong lo the 
gneiss. To the northward the ha;matiie band thickens considerably, and 
may be traced for nearly a mile, and may very likely represent the great iron 
beds which form the crest of Tagadurbctla itself. The rock shown in the 
quarr>' about ij miles N.N.E. of Nuggihalti is of doubtful geological age, 
and is separated from the Tagadurbctta band of the auriferous schists by 
a band nearly 2 mi!es in width of granite gneiss. The workings described 
by Mr. Lavelle as occurring one mile north of the village, were not seen by 
me^ nor are any indications of them given on his maps. Two pits I was 
taken to at about i to ]( of a mile W. and N.W. by W. of Nuggihalli, appear lo 
me to have been quarries fur rubble stone, not excavations made for any 
mining purposes, for no signs appear either of reefs or dumps in either case. 
They are situated just within the western boundary of the schist outlier, 
and lie near the path leading from Nuggihalli to Virupdkshipur. A mile 
and a quarter N.N.VV., and jusl at the head of the valley running north-east 
from the Taga4iHrbetta hill, begins a set of old workings which occur at 
intervals through the scrub jungle for rather more than half a mile. The 
workings are all very shallow and look as if they had been early abandoned. 
The reefs seen run in the strike of the countr>' rock, which bends about from 
north and south to north-west and back lu nurth again. None of the reefs 
here are of any length or great thickness. The quartz they consist of is 
white and hungry-looking, and the washings obtained were not encouraging 
in quantity, though not so small as to make me condemn this gold-field as 
unworthy of further attention, for the country rock, chloritlc schists with 
intercalated ha'matittc bands, is favourable to the occuiTcnce of gold. The 
crest of Tagadurbelta consists of two good-sized beds of massive ha^matitic 
rock, which are one source of the great hiematitic talus which covers the 
eastern slope of the ridge. The southern extension of these beds is very 
soon masked by surface deposits, but to the north they extend about a mile 
as low but conspicuous mural outcrops. How much further they extend 1 
could not say, but it is not alt improbable they may run considerably further, 
or even join the il/rt//(.v///(j//;' outlier, S miles to the N.N.W. These work- 
ings lie a mile south of the high road leading from Hassan to Tiptur, and 
about 10 miles south-west of the latter town No reef is seen in connection 
with the large pit, nor is the country rock exposed just here, but close by it 
consists of hornblcndic schist underlying a green micaceous gncissoid schist. 




AURIFEROUS TRACTS 



and fiagmcats of true quAtuitc were observed lyin^ about in some quantity, 

coRfirming the Dbarwar age of these beds. A moderate show of gold wu 

ebcatoed bj- washing. A Utile to the nortbu-ard of the pit is a Urge reef of 

rather good-looldng bluish-white mottled quartz. The reef shows for nearly 

loo ysuds, and is from iz to 15 feei thick on the surface. The quarts shows 

BO tiKludcd nniocTals, but testing in depth mi^ht very probably show good 

icsuhs. The schistose rocks seem to stop near .\tallenhalli, .ind only gneissic 

re noted between the Ullage and the next auriferous Iocalily,ya/g'*i- 

//r, ji miles NAV. by N. This consists of a small and railicr shallow 

pit with 3. number of date-palms growing in and around it. No reef is seen 

traversing the pit, on the east side of which is an outcrop of the stclUtely 

Eelted hornblende rock seen at the Pura workings at the north end of the 

Bc|pbe^ outlier. A wash of scrapings from the side of the pit gave a fair 

show o^ fioe gold, sufficient to recommend that it be more fully prospected 

and tested than has as yet been done. The Btlgumba auriferous rocks are, 

I bctinrer the northerly extension of the beds seen at jalgaranhalli, but time 

dM not atlow of my examining the intermediate tract of country, and 1 

visked tbe Delgumba tract from the north. This group of old workings lies 

Xmilesaoutb-eastof Arsikere, and \% miles south of the 99th milestone on the 

Bangaloce-Shimoga road. The highest point of ground due souili of the 

99lh mUc is the nortbera extremity of the Bclgumba outlier of the auriferous 

racks ; cbe southern end, as above explained, forming to all appearance the 

}al^Earunhalli auriferous patch. Tlic workings, with one exception, lie along 

tfe westerly slope of a low ridge extending S.S.F.. from the high poinii jusl 

referred to. The strike of the schist beds is as nearly as possible S.S.E., 

and they occupy a band about \ a mile in width abreast of the workings ; 

further south the band seems to widen out. A large but generally white and 

htmgry-looking reef runs along the ridge on its western slope just below the 

ktumnit, and nnullicr similar one crests a knoll a little to the south of the 

most southcriy pit. They run parallel with the strike of the chloritic and 

banfalendic schists fonning the country rock. The northern reef shows 

Wuish colour in parts. The considerable size of the old workings 

isAeonly evidence in favour of their having been productive. They are 

nadi obscured by rubbish, and in their present state it is impossible to say 

vlicther or not the reefs they were worked on continue in depth. The 

pn^KCts of futuTC success at this place arc not very encouraging. The 

owntry northward from the Trigonometrical Sution hill up to and beyond 

tbe Sfaimogn road is all gneissic. At GoUarki^lU^ about 6 miles to the 

wab-west of Belgumba, is a very large old working, in shape like a very 

nidc horse-shoe, opening northward. The depth of the working is nowhere 

,'iai, and at the southern part of the curve very shallow. The curve encloses 

- fc* «mall detaclied workings of no interest or importance. Dumps occur 

Htiiy auinerously all along the sides of the horse-shoe, but no reefs are 

in any part of the workings except at the southern apex, where a 

but very Ul-deftned reef of bluish-white colour shows up for a few yards : 

^ it is very easy to overlook it, as it is greaUy obscured by rubbish, A 

' This point is crowned by a Trigonometrical Siauon. 2,982 feci aMvc sca-lcxd. 



I 



very barren -loo king reef of massive white quartz occurs some little distance 
north of the western branch of the horse-shoe. Neither of these reefs has 
been tested to any depth. This outlier of the auriferous rocks, if such rocks 
they are, is a very small one, and ijncissic rocks occur all around at vcr)* 
small distances. Very little is seen of the country rock except at the 
eastern end of the works, where an immensely lough homblendic rock with 
a soapy steatitic weathered surface occurs. Small outcrops of hornblendic 
schist peep up here and rhcre in the workings. The washings that I had 
made at the western extremity yave only a smalJ show of gold, but from 
scrapings in the deepest pan of the eastern arm of the working I got a very 
fair show. The locality appears to me to be deserving of closer prospecting 
than it has yet undergone. Three and a half miles south-south-west of 
Arsikere arc the old Yellavari workings, which lie in the low ground half a 
mile or so cast of the village, and arc excavated in homblendic schist with 
intercalated bands of chlorite schist, which I refer but doubtfully to the 
auriferous system. The quartz seen is bluish-greyish-whltc in colour, very 
saccbaroid in texture, and much iron-stained in part from the decomposition 
of included specks of haematite. Specks of powdery kaolin occur, but no 
visible gold or any sulphides. The reef lies between bands of micaceous 
and homblendic bands of gneiss on the east and west respectively. A 
washing from the casing of the reef gave a very small show of gold. 1 feel 
justified in recommending further testings and a search for the reef, which 
will probably be re-discovered if the working is cleared out to the bottom. 
Whether there is any connection between the Vellavari and (iollarhalli 
patches of auriferous rock I cannot say ; the country is too jungly, and the 
rocks at both places seen in such very small outcrops that the eye can only 
follow ihcm for a few yards. I noted no sign of any extension of the 
schists northward or north-westward past Arsikere. KaradihnlU is the last 
of the auriferous localities included in the west-central group. The work- 
ings lie (in the north and south-east slopes of a low ridge, the centre nf 
which is formed by a small granite gneiss hill, locally called the Chotnare 
Maradi, around the base of which lie beds of steatite and hornblendic rock 
of doubtful age, geologically speaking. As to reefs, only one small one 
was noted near the southern set of pits, and this is a white and hungiy- 
looking one running for some 60 paces N. 5" W. Northward of the 
Chotnare Maradi are two large reefs deserving of further examination. The 
first, which lies due north ol the hill, runs north and south, ihe second, which 
shows much more conspicuously, lies a couple of hundred yards further 
north-cast and runs N. 20" W. The great wealth in gold which Mr. Lavcllc 
ascribes to this part of the country has, I think, yet to be proven. The 
auriferous tracts already known are very small in extent, and, as far as surface 
study of them goes, ihey do not appear to be of the highest class. 



{Tarikere to Ddvangere) 

Wesiern Group. — No old workings or unworked auriferous localities were 
brought to my notice in the southern part of the wesiern band, but since 



AURIFEROUS TRACTS 



59 



completion of my tour I have seen a statement' that a vast number of 

woricings occur all over the hills to the north-west of Halebid. These 

old vorfcings should certainty be looked up, both on geological and 

economic grounds. The western group is numerically far poorer in 

auriferous localities than either of the others, and they arc scattered widely 

apart. The sands of several ot the small streams running down from the 

hiUs west of the village of ChiranhiUi in Tarikerc taluq are auriferous. A 

washing in the stream Honing through the little tank known as the 

Httggisiddankatte gave a gnod show of rather coarse gold. A very fair 

show was next obtained at the junction of the same stream with another 

comiDg in from the north, and a small show from the bed of the northern 

stream, which is crossed by a good-sized quartz reef running N.N.E. This 

was tbc only reef seen, but other reefs doubtless occur among the hills west 

erf the Huggisiddankatte. The country rock consists of stcaiiiic and very 

pale cbioritic schists, full of cubical crystals of pyrites, some of which are 

replaced \syf pseudomorphs in limonite, and others are quite fresh and bright. 

Well-shaped uctohcdra of magnetic iron arc also to lie found in the schists. 

The geological features arc all favourable to the occurrence of gold, and the 

Uscality i$ worthy of very careful prospecting. At Malebcttnury the sands 

o( the linlc stream which falls into the Komaranhalli tank next beyond the 

iii2gc underlying the south end of the tank bund are auriferous, and from 

a washing i made here I obtained a very good sliow of coarse-grained gold 

flf cureUent colour. The little stream drains the western slope of the ridge 

for About a quarter of a mile, and its whole catchment basin must be less 

thaa loo acres. The greater part of this consists of chlnriiic schists which 

ta their upper p3rt coutam many lamina and small nests of cr}'stallinc 

limestone. The cbioritic schists are underlaid by trap, to all appearance a 

cantempora-neous flow. This trap extends westward far beyond the basin 

of ihe small stream. To the east the chlorite schist is overlaid by a 

liiniatitK quanzite bed of considerable thickness, beyond which I did not 

iulluw up the series. No reefs arc to be seen within the basin of the little 

itnui, but many smalt veins of blue quartz occur traversing the chlorite 

Klw and also the overlying hitmatite bed. Some of the larger of these veins 

« top of the ridge have an east-to-wcst run. The western slope ought to 

^ •try closely tested by costeaning in order to ascertain the source of the 

pW dost found in the stream. Trenches carried through the talus-covered 

pans of the slope may also be tried in order to find, if possible, any larger 

'•rffc As already stated, a trap formation occupies the bottom of the v;illey 

•w of the auriferous stream. This trap is much obscured by soil and talus, 

*«i the sequence of llie rocks is not to be made out near the road. Where 

'-'; .round begins to rise westward, and rocks crop out, is a quartzitc so much 

-i':r*'(i by rriishmg and weathering that it has in parts assume<l quite a 

fVj>vjid apycirance. Underlymg this comes a thick band of dark schist, 

LJi'ftiy .ir^'illiiic, and this in its turn is underlaid by a great thickness ot pale 

S'nn and grey schists, chl on to-micaceous, in variable character. A few 

ts «n txhaustivc work on the Occurreiici; and Extraction uf Gold, by A. G. 



GEOLOGY 



beds of quarUttc arc intercalated here and there, and many vcr>' irregular 
veins of white and pale bluish quartz arc to be seen traversing; the schists. 
Gold occurs at Antkonda^ a little over half a mile N.E. of Davangere 
travellers' bungalow, in fonn of dust obtained by \vashing the red gritty soil 
lying against the rock, which here forms a ridge rising only 30 feet (if as 
much) over the surrounding country. The rock is a brecciated quartz run, 
not an ordinary reef. Runs such as these are common in many parts of the 
gneiss in the Ceded Districts and elsewhere, but 1 have never met with one 
within the auriferous U>hanvar) series, nor have 1 ever come across such a 
brecciated quartz rock that had been regarded as auriferous by the old 
minci-s and mined as such. A washing of the red soil exposed in the 
shallow bed of a small stream falhng into the Anckonua tank, a few hundred 
yards further south, also yielded a small show of gold. The source of (his 
gold 1 believe t(j lie in the high ground to the south. 

The elevated tract of the auriferous rocks of which the Bababudan moun- 
tains form the centre is one well deserving great attention both from the 
geologist and the mining prospector, it being an area of great disturbance, 
the rocks being greatly contorted on a large scale, and on the north and 
south sides at Ie;ist of the area much cut up by great faults. Regions of 
great disturbance are in many cases extra rich in minerals, and it is very 
likely that such may be the case here. It is only of late years, owing to the 
extension of co^ee-planting, that this mountain region has become accessible. 
Before that it was covered by vast impenetrable forests which hid every- 
thing. These arc now penetrable in many directions, and the modem pros- 
pector has opportunities which did not exist before. The eastern part of 
the mountain tract culminating in the Bababudan mountains consists of 
huge flows of trap-rock (diorite) with intercalated beds of dark argillitic 
schists capped by quartzJles and haematites, which two latter form the 
summit of the Bababudan mass. Mr. Lavclle mentions magnetic iron ore 
and " chrome " (presumably chromic iron) from the Bababudans, but un- 
fortunately does not give any localities, so it was itnpossible to inquire 
further into their occurrence. The' chromic iron would be valuable if found 
in good quantity and easily mined. The most southerly of the auriferous 
localities in the western set is Sttladitmaradiy a small hill 2 miles south-east 
of Tarikere. The hill consists of chloritic schist in highly contorted beds. 
The great white reef on top of the hill participates in the contortions, and is 
bent into a very remarkable flat sigmoid curve. This and the other reefs 
occurring on the north side of the hill are very white and hungry-looking. 
The only enclosures in the quartz I noted, after careful search, were small 
spangles with rich green chlorite. There were no sulphides, nor any other 
mineral, the chlorite excepted. The indications of the Suladamaradi rocks 
are anything but favourable, and the old miners evidently thought so too, 
for there are no signs of old workings. On the left bank of the Bhadra 
river, 13 miles suutlvcasl of Shimoga, on washing in the rain gully draining 
the south side of HonnchatHMxW (Trig. Station i, 1 obtained a very good 
show of moderately coarse gold. The mass of the hill consists of chloritic 
schist having a N.N.W. strike, and the beds may be seen extending for 



AVRTFEROUS TRACTS 



6t 



mi]?5 in thai direction, after which ihey trend N.E. Several large reefs arc 
to be sern running N.N.W., or in the line of the strike of the country rock. 
Tbcir only apparent fault is their great whiteness. No workings are seen on 
the south side of the hill, but on ascending ihc Honnchattimaradi on its 
eastern side. I came upon several unknown old pits and one shaft, which 
from their bearing hnd evidently been sunk to follow one of the reefs. The 
workiDgs had cWdcntly been continued to some depth, and were therefore in 
all probability fairly remunerative. Honnehalti appears to me to deserve 
ver>' marked attention from earnest prospectors. PaiavanhalU : — This well- 
known auriferous tract, which with the adjacent Kudrikonda tract con- 
idtQtes the Honnali gold-field, was first visited by me in l88i and its 
CeoSo^' vcr>' carefully worked out and reported on (see above, p. 41). 
My opinion of the Kudrikxfniia tract was published in the paper just referred 
to. I believe my geological inferences to have been correct, and that the 
icmporar}' non-success of the mine has been due mainly to want of capital 
wherewith to push on the works in depth. So long as sufficient quartr was 
raised to keep the stamps at full work, the mine paid its expenses. Should 
more capital be raised and working be resumed, 1 fully expect the yield of 
gold will improve in depth, as has been the case in so many deep mines in 
Australia. Without having the plans to refer to, and the mine itself being 
full of water owing to the stoppage of the works, and therefore inucccssible, 
I coold not form any opinion as to the merits or demerits of the plan of 
work which had prevailed, but I cannot help thinking that if a new engine 
of stifficicnt power be provided to keep the master>- over the great volume 
of water flowing through the mine, it will soon be possible to sink an ex- 
ploratory shaft In tind the lode, which has been thrown by a fault tn the 
country rock. It would be a great mistake to abandon further work without 
having made an earnest search for the missing lode, as from the structure of 
the country- it is very unlikely that the throw of the fault can be a great 
one 



Non-Meialiu Minerals. 

The pare gold -prospecting work left me no leisure to devote to any non- 
metallic minerals, excepting such as actually fell in my way. 

Emery. — Near Nadapanhalli a few small masses of dirty brown rock, 
measuring less than 2 cubic yards in the aggregate, are seen by the side of 
a field road. There arc no signs of any working, so 1 suppose only loose 
pieces were taken away to test its commercial value, which cannot be great. 
The cmer%' is very impure and of poor quality, and with good corundum 
obtaiaablc in quantity in various other parts of the country is not deserving 
of any attention. 

y«i/vfAw.— Only one asbestos-yielding locality came under my notice, to 
the west of Uellibejta. The matrix rock in which the asbestos really occurs 
is n^ seen in the little pit from which the stone hiid t>ecn dug- The surface 
of the country just here consists of reddish kankar underlying red soil. 
The asbestos I saw had been included in the kankar, having apparently been 
weatfaered out from its original matrix, whatever that may have been. The 



show of asbestos at the pit was vcr>' small and of inferior quality. The 
largest pieces showed a coarse fibre, 4 to 5 inches long, cream-coloured, and 
of dull lustre. I only noticed one piece with fine silky fibre and siUcrj- 
white colour. In the present condition of the pit, it is impossible to form 
an opinion as to the capabilities of the place. 

A'liit/t'a. — Kaolin is mentioned by Mr. I.avelle as occurring in several 
places and of good quality and colour, but he does not slate whether it is 
available in large quantities. To be nf real value commercially it must be 
of the highest degree of purity and free from all iron-mould or stain. To 
raise it on a large scale requires the presence on the spot of a large supply of 
Perfectly limpid water ^ with which to work the rock by hydraulic sluicing, and 
facilities for the construction of large settling pits, which must be protected 
from the influence of ferruginous dust of any Icinti. In Europe, china clay 
works are found to pay only where the industry can be carried out on a really 
large scale. I have never yet seen in India a place combining the two most 
essential requirements for a successful industry, namely, a large develop- 
ment of kaolinizcd granite and a sufficient supply of limpid water. The 
limpidity of the water is a sine qua non for success. There is no demand 
for large quantities of kaolin in India, and speculators would do well to 
make sure before starting such an industry in India that they could find a 
profitable market for their produce in Europe or elsewhere. 

MarbU, — I noticed a good bed of grey cr)-stallinc limestone running north 
and south across one of the gullies near the main gold pit at Holgere. The 
limestone lies half way down the slope to the Holgere tank, and is of good 
quality, and would be a useful stone for decorative and monumental 
sculpture. Immense quantities of grey crystalline limestone, divided by 
partings and small beds of quarlzitc, occur on the east side of the main 
ridge lying between Chikriayakanhalli and Uod-Rampura. The limestones 
are several hundred feet thick and deser^'e to be prospected, for they may 
very likely contain beds of other coluur than grey which would be valuable 
in scidpturc. 

Graniti. — A ver>* beautiful variety of granite gneiss, eminently fitted for 
cutting and polishing on a large scale, forms the mass ot Chotnarcmaradi in 
the little Karadihalli gold-field, two miles east of llanavar. The rock is 
remarkably free from joints, and monoliths of great size could easily be 
quarried. It is by far the handsomest granite I have seen in Mysore. 

Porphyry. — A great dyke of beautiful porphyry tr.iverscs the hills cast of 
the Karigatta temple overlooking .Seringapatam. The porphyry-, which is of 
warm brown or chocolate colour, includes many crystals of lighter coloured 
felspar and dark crystals of hornblende. The stone would lake a very high 
polish, and for decorative purposes of high class, su.ch as vases^ panels and 
bases for busts and tazzas, etc., it is unequalled in South India, and deserving 
of all rmcniion. If well polished it fully equals many of the highly prized 
antique porphyries. The dyke is of great thickness and runs for fully a 
mile, so is practically inexhaustible. Ulocks of very large size could be 
raised, and, from tlie situation of the dyke on the sides of two steep hills, it 
would be very easy to open up large quarries if needful. 



63 



METEOROLOGY 



The Hindus divide the year into six seasons. Of these the first, 
vasan/a fitu or spring, commences with the opening of the Hindu year 
in March. It is the season of love and pleasure, and is a favourite 
theme of Indian bards. The weather is serene and clear, the farmer's 
occu|i3lions are mostly over, and he has time to celebrate ttie yearly 
festivals of his gods and the marriages of his kinsfolk. The mango is 
then covered with blossom, and the landscape is gay with the beautiful 
and sweet-scented flowers of the kakke or Indian laburnum. The 
southerly hrcH;/es that blow during the night are the voluptuous zephyrs 
di this vernal season. The grishma ritu^ literally sweating season, is 
the second. It is the hottest part of the year, the sun being nearly 
verticaL The dust of the arid fields is frequently carried up in small 
whirlwinds, forming what are called /M(fM;V or devils. Nightly ilUimina- 
ttons of the ghats and hills are seen, the result either of spontaneous 
combusiion from the friction of bamboos against each other, or of a 
spark blown into the long withered grass which covers the slopes. The 
heat is intense and the air often still and stagnant The sunset sky 
glours with the most fervid tints. It is the time of cyclones. Thunder- 
clouds suddenly gather, and^ — preceded by storms of dust, which sweep 
inipctuously over the surface of the ground, obscuring the view for 
miles,— the rain, accompanied with vivid flashes of lightning, close 
followed by startling claps of thunder, descends in large and distant 
drops, often mixed with hail. These short-lived tempests prelude the 
gnueful bursting of the monsoon, and introduce the vanha ritu or rainy 
sea.<on. The south-west monsoon blows steadily during this period 
and should bring with it abundance of rain. The rivers arc swollen and 
sometimes impassable for days. The face of nature is cbd in green and 
the ploughed fields receive the precious seed. The s'arad ri'ttt or 
autumn next succeeds, during which the sun being again vertical in his 
•outhem declination but shedding a moderate heat, the fruits of the 
caith rijjen. This season closes with the change of the monsoon, which 
is marked by the loudest thunder and heaviest rain of the year, the wind 
settling steadily in the north-east. The largest tanks are often filled in 
a few hours and a store of water obtained lliat will last over the succeed- 
ing dry months. The hemnnta ritu or winter next sets in, with chilly foggy 
mornings and bright sunny days. The fields are reaped and the grain 
stacked. The sis'irn ritu or cold season concludes the circle of the 
year. Piercing north-east winds dry up all trace of moisture, and clouds 




METEOROLOGY 

of tlust arise from ever)* movement over the thirsty groutKi. The skin 
is parched and feverish. I5ut the lai^er trees put forth new leaves or 
cover themselves with a mass of gorgeous blossom. 

The year in Mysore may, however, with sufficient accuracy he divided, 
according to another Hindu s)'stem as old as the Vedas, into three 
seasons — the rainy, the cold, and the hot. The first commences with 
the bursting of the south-west monsoon, at the end of May or early in 
June, and continues with some interval in August or September to the 
middle of November, closing with the heavy rains of the north-east 
monsoon. It is followed by the cold season, which is generally entirely 
free from rain, and lasts till tlie end of February. The hot season then 
sets in, towards the beginning of March, and increases in intensity to 
the end of May, with occasional relief from thunder-storms. 

The close of the rainy season in November is marked by dense fogs 
which prevail all over the country during Peceniber and January. 
They begin about three in the morning and last till seven, when they 
are dispersed by the heat of the sun. But in some parts fogs or rather 
mists follow the earlier rains. Thus about Chitaldroog from August to 
October the hills arc obscured till nearly ten in the forenoon. 

The temperature is the most equable during the rainy months, the 
range of the thermometer at Bangalore at that season being between 64° 
and %^. In the cold season the mercury falls there as low as 51* in 
the early morning, and sometimes rises to 80° during the day. Hie 
minimum and maximum in the .shade during the hottest months are 
about 66' and gi", or in extreme seasons g6'. The obser\ations 
registered in the several Districts are given in Vol. II. 

Situated midway between the eastern and western coasts, Mysore 
shares in both monsoons, the south-west and the north-cast. The rainfall 
ranges from 200 inches or more* a year in the Western Ghat regions, 10 
little more than 10 inches in the north centre. But these are extremes 
tliat apply only to limited areas. The excessive rain of the Mahfiid 
rapidly diminishes eastwards, and from 30 to ^(> inches may be accepted 
as the general average for the greater part of the countr)'. The least 
quantity of rain f:ills throughout the tracts lying north-east from the Balxi 
Budan range along both banks of the Vedavati or Hagari to the 
Chitaldroog frontier of the I*rovince. Compared with the rest of the 
country this may be termed a rainless district, and the scanty fall is 
attributed, no doubt correc-tly, to the influence of the towering mass of 
the Baba Budan chain intercepting the moisture with which the south- 
west monsoon wind is charged. 

' Mr. K. H. Elliot mcntiipns thai nu less than 291*53 inches fell Ijctwceii April and 
the end of September (1S93) at a curilamum plontution on the cicsls of the ghats. 




^^^^unual ramfall may b« conveniently distributed into four periods, ^| 

The cold weather rains December to March. ^^^H 

The hot weather rains April and May. ^^^^| 

The south-west monsoon June to September. ^^^^| 

The north east monsoon October and November. ^^^| 

The ccfJti Wffi/Atr rains are insignificant, scanty in quantity, and not ^U 
uuiili needed for the standing crops. Ilut they are useful in keeping ^H 
ttp the pasture supply of the country. The /u?/ wtather rains (some- ^| 
bmes called mango showers) are of the accidental kind; heavy short ^^ 
Soniis from the easL They are very important to successful agriculture, ^| 
ti a copious fall replenishes the tanks and enables the cultivators to ^^L 
(wpore the land for the following soufh'iv<si monsoon rains. These are ^H 
perhaps the most essential for the country, which, on account of its ^H 
pMial dr)*ness, requires the steady drizzling and persevering rains of ^H 
this heason to make the soil producrive. The nortk-tast monsoon rains ^H 
irc especially important for filling the tanks and providing a store of ^H 
«ata that may last over the rainless months. ^| 

The following averages for each District have been calculated for each ^| 
!<ason, based on the registered fall in the various taluqs in inches and ^| 
Wife for tweniy-four years, from 1870 to 1893 : — ^^ 


^K Cold 

^H DiariR. Wither. 

W 1 ^-«"- 


Weather. 
Apr.-M«y. 


S.W. 


K.E. 

Moiuooii. 

Ocu-No*. 




hnplTC . 1-32 

K<4« . , , i-oS 
Tmtni . . . 0-85 
»r«« ... t-63 

^^ • ''^^ 
an»p ,-03 

W. , . 1-29 
UiUliro-^ I -ID 


4-80 
3-69 
4-38 
6-98 
6-42 
5-58 
6 29 

372 


15-64 

*3-53 
13-66 
10-21 
I9'37 
48-96 
43*96 
10*40 


7-88 
7-06 
6-69 
8*36 
8-15 
7-50 
9*39 
669 


60-93 ^^H 


Avenge (o( the rrovincc 1*20 


5"3 


21-96 


772 


^^1 


There seems to be a periodicity in the rain-fall, particulariy well ^H 
wAed at Tunikur, which is situated at an equal distance from cither ^1 
ttMtand between the eastern and western mountain systems. K refer- ^H 
«« to ihc observations there recorded will show that for a considerable ^B 
fwiod every sixth year was one of abundant rain. This rule is not ^H 
Qhi^iilcd with equal precision in the register of other Districts. But ^1 
«»«e seems to be a general impression that about one year in five is a V 



66 



METEOROLOGY 



good season for rain. And this accords to some extent with scientific 
discoveries ; for a connection or correspondence has been traced between 
tho terrestrial rainfall and the solar spots which gives a period of five 
and siXf or of eleven, years during which the mutual variation is more 
or less constant' 

A special department has now (1893) been formed for meteorology 
in Mysore, with a well-equipped Obserxatory at Bangalore, where 
reports will in future be received from 1 5 1 rain-gauge stations. 
But meanwhile the following information from ^[^ H. F. Blanford's 
book* is of interest. Writing of the summer monsoon, he remarks that 
*' in Mysore, the Ceded Districts of Madras, the Deccan and Hyderabad, 
more rain falls when the strength of the monsoon to northern India 
relaxes, than when the interior plateau of the peninsula is swept by a 
strong current from the west coast." The mean annual relative humidity 
of the M)*sore Province is set down as 66, that of Malabar and Coorg 
being 79, and of the Camatic 67. The mean monthly rainfall at the 
following stations, based on the records of 50 years, is thus given, in 
inches and cents. : — 

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sqx. Oct. Nov. Dec. 

Bu^Iore...o*3...o*i ...o*6... r3 ... 5'0...3*2...4X)... 5*9...6'3...6'4 ... r9...o7 

Mysore 0*1 ...o'l ...07... 2*2 ...5-6... r9... 2'3... 3-2...3'9 ...6*4 ... I-6...0-5 

Shimoga ... o'l ... 0*1 ... 0*3 ... rS ... 3*3 ... 47 ... 6'6 ... 4-2 ... 3-1 ...5*0... 1*2 ...0*4 

The maximum is 25*9 at Shimoga in July, ig'5 at Bangalore in 
October, and i5"3 at Mysore in July. 

Another important item is the estimated mean rainfall, as follows, on 
the se\eral river basins. The figures, it must be remembered, include 
the portions that are beyond the limits of Mysore. Pennaur (N. 
Pennar), 26 inches; Palar, 36; Panar (S. Pennar), 38; Kavifri, 44; 
Krishna above junction, 59 ; Tungabhadra, 43. 

" Earthquakes" — Dr. Hcync observes — " are ne>er violent and by no 
means frequent in this country, occurring only about once in five years." 
My own exix-rience does not enable me to confirm this latter statement, 
but shocks have been occasionally felt in the neighbourhood of the hills 
running from Kankanhallt to Madgiri. From an inscription at Nelaman- 
gala, it appears that an earthquake occurred there in July, 1507. '* I 
felt one at Tiimktlr," writes T)r. Heyne, " on the 23rd of October, 1 800. 
It is remarkable that at the same time a violent hurricane raged along 
the coast from Ongole to Masulipatim. The shock was felt at Bangalore 

* Generftlly ^ipeaking, there appears a tendency with maxima (of jiin-spois) to 
anticipate the muUIle lime Iwtwcen the consectuive minima, the interval iimi r 
Ining (liWded into two unequal sub-inlervals of 477 r and 6*34 '.— Chambers, 
Astron., 17. 

* " Climates and Weather of India," pp. 211, 50, 353, 384. 



CYCLONES 



67 



and in most other parts of Mysore ; and it was stronger in the south 
than where I was. Il seemed to come from the north, proceeding 
southward along the inland range of hills, and 10 be guided farther by 
those of which Sivaganga and Savandurga are the most conspicuous." 
G>IoneI Wekh says, with reference to Bangalore : — '* On the agih of 
December (1813), we experienced a pretty smart shock of an earth- 
qtiake, which was very general in its effects all over the cantonment ; it 
wa5 accompanied by a rumbling noise, like a gun-carriage going over 
a drawbridge, and appeared to come from the westward. Our roof 
aackedas if a hea\7 stone had been thrown upon it, and e\'ery part of 
the house shook for some seconds. Some older and weaker buildings 
weie actually shaken down, and the walls of others separated or opened 
uoc." An earthquake was felt at Tumkur in 1865, and several shocks 
a] Bangalore on the 31st of December, 1881. 

.\cTolites or meteoric stones sometimes fiall. On the 21st of 
September, 1865, one weighing \i\ lbs. fell near Maddur in the 
Mysore District, It is deposited in the Museum. 

Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal occasionally extend their influence far 

mbnd. One of the 2nd of May, 1872, was ver)* destructive in its effects ; 

is blew a hurricane that overturned large trees even so far west as Coorg, 

and wus accompanied by a deluge ofrain. Again on the 4lh of May, 1874, 

when a C)*clone was raging on the Madras coast, a steady rain [)0uredat 

Bangalore, which continued without intermission for about forty-eight 

booxs. It had been preceded for several days by a still and hazy 

apponnce of the atmosphere. At the end of November, 1880, just at 

t^ beginning of the ragi harvest, when but little was cut and the bulk 

of this most important crop was all but ripe, a great part of the State 

«a» visited by a storm of wind and rain of unusual severity, which did 

itjy considerable damage tu the crops, and was the cause, moreover, of 

the breaching of a number of irrigation tanks. On the i6th of Novem- 

bd, 1885, again, there was a continuous downpour lasting for more 

tloa fopTiy-eighl hours, but this was not of a violent character. 

**Kext to its sunny skies and iU notorious and somewhat oppressive 
Wat, perhaps no feature of the Indian climate," says Mr. Blanford,* "is 
Bote characteristic than thu prevailing lightness of the wind." And to 
tetcause, rather than to want of mechanical skill on the part of the 
oAivainrs, he attributes the absence of windmills in India, The 
iiBt^ daily moven^ent of the wind at Bangalore is j>ut down at from 
I^MFcb.) to 92 miles from October to March, 128 to 183 in May and 
-^gusi to September, 203 in June and 208 in July. 

' A«, fit. p. 30. 



F 3 



68 



FLORA 



The situation of Mysore within the tropics, combined with an eleva- 
tion which gives it a lemperatc climate, and its almost complete environ- 
ment by lofty mountain chains, are features which contribute to the 
formation of a rich and varied flora. 

The forests^ of the country, which yield a considerable item towards 
its revenue, have been estimated to cover a total area of 2,975 square 
miles, exclusive of scrub jungle which grows on much of the waste 
land. They may be roughly dividtd into cvtrgretn and deciduous 
forests; which again are distributed in three distinct forest belts, of 
very unequal width, and running north and south. These are the 
everp^en Mt, the dry Mt, and an intermediate one, combining some 
of the features of both, which may be called the mixed Mf. 

liha evergreen /W/ of forests is confined to the west, and comprises 
thecountr}' in the Western Ghats and below them, extending from the 
north of Sagar taluq to the south of Manjarabad. Us greatest width, 
which is at its northern extremity, nowhere exceeds from 12 to 14 miles, 
and at some points is not more than six. The tree vegetation is magni- 
ficent Many of the hills arc* covered to their summits with heavy 
forest, while the vallej-s and ravines produce trees which can scarcely 
be rivalled in India.— so luxuriant is their growth, so vast their height, 
so great their size. In some parts the undergrowth is dense, elsewhere 
the forest is open, and on all sides trees with clear stems to the first 
branch of from 80 to 100 feet meet the eye. 

The following arc some of the more valuable trees growing in this 
belt":-- 

Arlocaipus hirsuia ... Wild jack Heli-halasu, hei***' 

Good shade for coffee. Viclda the anjeli wood of commerce. Wood hmfd »nd 
dumble when well seasoneH, yellowish-brown, close -grained. Much used on the 
western coast for house and ship-buiUUng, furniture, and oiher puri-xwes. Weight 
about 35 lb«. per cubic foot. 

' Originally Ixiscd chiefly ui»n the Forest Rcpotl f<ir 1869-70, by Captain van 
Sonieren, Conservator of Forests. 

* The third ediiiun uf " Forest Trees of Mysore nnd Coorg," by the same, wlited 
by Mr. J. Camernn, niay l»e referred to for fuller information ; or Watts' ** Dictionarj* 
of the Economic Products of India." 

' In comniun usu tht- Kannatla name is put into the genitive case* followed ^xf the 
word W(3r/T, tree. Hence heh-halasina mara, hescmana mara: dtipadu mara would 
Ix more intelligible to a nati\x than the bore lume. 



TUBES 

CUaphyUnm fofiwnt^m I'oon spsr Kuvc, hohbi 

spars, which fcich a guod price, and are used for musts. Wuod ledduh 
and cDaxac^rminod. Weight 48 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Duettos e^ienam Ebony Kare, ntallali 

iteuiwood blAck, very hard, durable, and lakes m 6ne polish. VVcight ulxiut Solbs. 
cubic foot. In great demand for cabinet work, turnery, inlaying, and muucal 
lis. 

Erythroxylon mon<^num Red cedar Devadaru* adavi go* 

rami 
Hartwood dark brown and fragrant ; sometimes usctl as a substitute for sandal. 
Fpcm tl tt dUtilled a i&i or oil usc<) in Ceylon to preserve limWr. I.eaves and bark 



Gatcima morella Gamljogc-trec ICankutAkc 

The jrlkiw pigment which exudes from an incision in the trunk is the true gamboge 
d'oummcfcc Wood hard and mottled. Weight about 56 Um. per cqlnc foot. 

Lagerstmrmia flos-t^nie ... Challa, maruva 

Very haixtsome in blossom. Root, bark, leaves, and flowers used medicinally, 
W&nl light red, strong, and very durable under water. Weight about 43 lbs. per 
udic fiuoc 

Soymida febrifuga ... Redwood Swami mara 

Buk ased fcir unning and as an inferior dye ; is also a febrifuge, lleartwomt very 
tufd and dode-graincd, reddish- black, very durable, not attacked by white ants. 
Weight alioat 76 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Valeria indica White dammar fJupa 

Ma^i6ccnt tree. Vields the gum-resin known as white dtrnmar or Hncy resin, 
locaBy ttsed as an incemte and vunmh. A fatly uil bom the acliIs is employed like 
tallcnr ItM making candlck Hcartwooil grey, tuugh, moderately hard, porous. 
Waght 4J Ibi. per cubic foot. Not much in demand. 

The mixtJ ^l ot forest extends the whole length of the Province, 

from the extreme north of Sorab taluq to Bandipur in the south of 

GimcUupet taluq. It is very unequal in width, var>'tng at diflerent 

points from 10 to 40 or 45 miles. It includes the greater number of 

tbc timber-producing State forests, large tracts of District forests, and 

mtadi sandalwood In it are the kdns of Sorab and other portions of 

Nigar, the artca nut and cardamom gardens of western Mysore, the 

QoSoe plantations of Koppa and Manjarabad, and the rich rice-flats of 

Sigiir, Nagar, Tirthahalli, Chikmagalur and Heggadadevankote. The 

Svtsion between this rich and productive bell and the far less useful strip 

to ihe west of it cannot be verj' easily defined. The presence of a number 

0* fine nanJi and blackwood trees, which grow abundantly and attain 

peat size on the eastern confines of the evergreen belt, form a sufficiently 

dar line. The eastern limit may be taken to be a line which, com- 

CKncing near .\navatti in the north, would run south-east to half-way 

t«\Tcen Shikarpur and Honnali ; thence due south to Sakrcbail, where 



70 



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it tiims due east till it reaches a point north of Lakvalli ; thence south, 
through Lakvalli and along the eastern crests of the Baba Budans to 
Vastara ; on through Palya, and passing a few miles west of Arkalgvid 
and Pcryapatna it turns south-east to Antarsante, and so by way of 
Kurnagal reaches Bandipur. 

The tree vegetation varies considerably in the large extent of country 
comprised in this belt. All along the western confines, where it 
approaches the Ghats, trees proper to the evergreen forests occur fre- 
quently. The wild jack, the diipa^ the redwood and sometimes the 
poon are met wth in varying quantities. But in the south portion of 
the belt, in the Mysore District, wild jack and poon are unknown. The 
following is a h'st of the more important trees found throughout this 
tract: — 

Adina oorclifolia Arasina tega 

Wood yellow, moderately hard, even -grained. Scnsons well, takes a good polish, 
and Is durable, but liohlc to warp and crack. Weight 45 Hh. jier cubic fooL T\ims 
well, and specially tued for small articles, such as combs, gunslocks, and omamcDtal 
boxes. 

Albizzta lebbek Sins B<^i 

Hcarlwood dork brown j lakes a good polish, and fiiirlj' durable. Weight Solbs. 
per cubic foot. Its um: for domestic purposes considered unlucky in many parts, but 
used for picture frames, oil-mills, etc. Leaves a good foeMcr for catllc. FUiwers a 
cooling application for t>o)ls. 

Albizzia odoratissima ... ... ... ... ... Hilvara 

Heartwood rich brown, tough and strong ; seasons well, takes a good pt>Ush, and 
is durable when kepi dry. Weight 50 lbs. per cubic fooL Usetl for wheels, oil-mills, 
and agricultural implements. Bark medicinal. One of the most valuable jungle 
trees for the use of the villagers. 

Anogeissus lalifolia Dindlga 

Good fuel and charcoal tree. Sapwood yellow ; heartwood small, purplish-brown, 
lough, vet)' hard. Weight about 65IIJS. jjer cubic f»x)l. Splits in seasoning and 
must Iht kept dry to last. Gum used by calico printers for dyeing purposes ; green 
leaves employed for tanning. 

Bomlmx malabaricum . . . Silk-cotton Buruga 

W^ood soft, white, .s|x)ngy, and, except under water, \*ery perishable. Used lo 
some extent for planking, packing cases, toys, floats, etc. A mcdidnal gum exudes 
from the trunk. 

Chluroxylon swietenia ... Indian .satin-wood ... Huragalu 
Wood hard, yellow- mottled, and prettily veined, dark towards the cenlrt: ; has a 
fine satiny lustre, and is well adaptetl for delicate cabinet work, carpentry, and 
turnery. Weight 56 lbs. per cubic foot. Heartwood ^d lo be black, heavy^ and 
not easily Imrnl. The wood is also vet)' durable under water. Used for beams, 
posts, boats, etc., and in Kurojie for lacks of brushes, stethoscopes, and fancy 
articles. 

Cordia myxa .Solle 

There are three local t-aricties — kadu solle, kempu sollc,and solle kendal — differing 



TREES 



7 



Jbm, ind colour of the fruit. Tbc last i& ihe Sclosten of commnce (a lutme 
1^ to be derived from sag-pistiln, Persiun for dogs' nipples). It is %*ery mucilaginous 
«id demulcent; given for coughs and chest affedioii!*. Wood grcj-, soft, porous, 
«m«w w^, and is fiurly strong ; but soon atuckcd hy insects. Used fur agricultural 
hnp4enKnts, sogsr-cane miUK, buatSj and tucl. Kojic made from the Ipark, which is 
mlso mcdicioai. 

Dadbergia ktifolia Blackwood Biti 

Vaitxable fonulure woofl, lescmbling rosewood. Heartwood dark purple and 
imncly hard, but &unicwhAl brittle. Weight 55 lbs. per cul>ic fftot. L'sed in 
Eytore dty for articles inlaid with ivory, also elsewhere fur cart-whccU, gim-carriagcs, 
etc. Shade tree for coffee. 

Daibeigia panJculala Pacliori 

Wood grcj-iih- while, soft, and perishable ; «ry subject to attacks of insects. 
We^ht about 42 llvt. per cubic foot when scnsoncd. 

Daihetgia si&!too ... ... SIssoo ... ... ... Kridi 

Woo*l very durable, seasons well, and highly esteemed for all purposes where 
Mxength iuid ela.'itidly are required. Suitable for boats, carriages, etc 

Dillcnia pcntagyna K^tUi^ 

Wood oicdy marked, but heavy, coarse-grained, and ditHcult to season. Weight 
»Ifas. per inibic fool. 

Cnicliaa aiborca Ktili 

Wood cream to pale yellow, close-grained, strong, and doe* not warp or crack in 
msonui£. Weight about 30 lbs. {ler cubic foot. Much esteemed for furniture, car- 

■nd ornamental work of nil kinds. 

Grewta tilixfoUa ... Tadasalu 

Wood light re<Idi!.h-brown, compact, close-grained, durable, eta-stic, and easily 
ced. Valuable where itirength and elasliciiy are required. Used tn cart and 
carriage building, also for nmsts, oars, and shafts. Weight 35 lbs. per cubic foot. 
>'nul calcn. 

Holoptelea integrifolia ... Entire-leaved elm ... Tapasi 

Wood yellow or light brown, no hearlwood, soft, open-grained, but strong. 
Tcight 37 Ibfl. per cubic fort. Used for charcoal ; also for a>untry carts, and some- 
for cu\-ing. 

Ijigezstrtetnia lanceolala Nandi 

Wood red, smcwth, even-grained, elastic, tough, and of great trans\-crsc strength. 
'Weight about 45lhs. per cubic foot. Seasons well, and durable if preserved from 
ture. But fcUcd Uecs soon decay if left exposed in the forest. Used in Coorg 
bculdings ; also used for furniture, carts, and mills. 

Mallotux philippinensis Kunkuma 

The powder frtim the ripe fruit forms the Kam-ila dye, also known in the south of 
as Kapila. Wood only fit foe fuel. Weight 48 11k. per cubic foot. 

Michelia chamtxLca ... Chanipac Sampigc 

A favourite tree of Hindu poetry, well known for the fragrance of its blossoms, 
rhi«rh arc worn in the hair, etc Wood soft, seasons ami ^I'Mishes well. Very 
irahlc. Weight about 40 lbs. per cubic fool. U^ed for furniture, carriages, etc. 

PhylUnthus emblica ... Emblic in>iobalan ... Nclli 
Wood motllcil-rcddish, hard and close-grained, warps and splits in seasoning. 



72 



FLORA 



Weight fibout 50ll». per cubic fnnt. Kcmojlcahle for its durahiltly under waCer, 
which it also clears of impurities. For this purpose chips of il are thrown into wells 
or pon<l5. The berk is used fur tanning. The fruit, resembling a gooseberry, is acid 
and asuiiigcnt. Much used as an article Qf food, rawi preserved, or pickled. 

Ptcrocarpus m.-irsiipium ... Indian kino Honne 

Wood close-grained, reddish-brown, lough, strong, durable, seasons well, and takes 
a goo<l polish. Weight 53ll>s. per cubic foot Makes good fiirniturc, and widely 
used fur outs, window frames, agricultural iinplenients, etc Bark yields crimson 
gum, the true kino of commerce. 

Schleichera trijuga ... Ceylon oak Sllgade, chendala 

Wood very hard, strong, durable, and lakes a fine polish. Weight aU>ut 70 lbs. 
per cubic foot. Used for pcsllcs^ axles, teeth of harrows, screw rollers of mills. In 
(he Centnd Provinces lac is produced on this tree, known as kttsttma lac, ihe most 
highly j^ized af all. Dark and oil from the seeds medicinal ; the latter said 10 be the 
original Macassar oil. 

Slephegyne ]un'ifoIi.-i Kadaga 

Similar to Adina cordifolia, but not used much in the south of India. 

Sterculia villosa Shi-anvige 

Wood said lu tie (irmly close-grained, suitable fur building and furniture. Bags 
and ropes made of the fibrous bark. 

Teclona grandis ... ... Teak' ... ... ... Tegu, tyagn 

The chief value of this well-known wixni ari-ws from its strength, added to its 
durability, due probably to ;he resinous matter in the pores, which rciisu the action 
of water. Weiglu varies in difTcrent localilies, but approximately 45 I^m. per cubic 
foot when seasoned. Used in India fat numerous purposes — construction, ship- 
building, sleepers, and furniture; in Kiirope for railway carriages, ships, and the 
Inckittg nf armour plates in ironclads, 

Terniinalta chebula ... Black myrolxilan ... Alale, arale 

The fruit is mast valuable a.s a tan. The gall-nuts make excellent ink and dyes. 
Wood hard and fairly durable. Weight alwut 60 lbs. per cubic foot. Used for 
fnmilure, carts, and agricultural implements. 

Temiinalia paniculata Iluluve, hunal 

Timl}er of middling quality*, especially when seasoned in water. Henrtwood dark, 
hard, and fairly durable. Weight 47 lIis. per cubic foot. Used for the same pur[»«ises 
as Matti. Also for fuel, planking, and country carts. In the ground is liable to 
attacks of while anis. 

Tcrmiimlia tomcntosa ... ... ... ... ... Matti 

Wood dark brown, with darker .streaks, hard, but noi ver>' durable. Weight about 
60 lbs. per cubic foot. Good fuel tree; leaves useful as manure for areca-out 
gardens. Yields a gum said to be used as an incense and cosmetic Bark used for 
tannii^. 

Vitex altissima .., NaviUdi 

Valuable wood; brownish-grey when seasoned. Weight 63 11«. i>er cubic (boU 
Used, when procurable, for building and agricultural work. 

* The finest teak in Mysore is found in the Stale forcsls of Lak\'a11i, Bisalradi, 
Kakankt^te, Bt^ur, and Ainur M^rigudi. The teak planUtions in Mysore covor on 
area of about 4,000 acres. 



TREES 



tUbrifonnis ... Iron wooti Jamlie 

WcKikJ Jark red or brown, very strong, hjird, lough, »nd dnrahle ; not attacked by 
anlA. Weight 65 lln. per cubic fooL Used for butldii^ and agricutUiial 
\t% also for the best charcoaL 

The bamboo, scientifically reckoned a giant grass, abounds in the 
large forests, and is one of the most valuable products. The common 
species is Bambusa arundinacea, the spiny bamboo {bidani). Dendra- 
cikunus stricius is the " male bamboo " (gaftdii Ndant^o. solid bamboo 
used for spear or lance staves, walking-sticks, &c. The largest bamboos, 
known as ande hidaru^ are said to be found in the forests of the Mysore 
District. The periodical dying off of the bamboo after seeding is a 
well-known phenomenon. The seed, called bamboo rice, generally 
ippears at a lime of drought, when the crops have failed^ and is eaten 
by the poorer classes. The uses of the bamboo are innumerable, and 
is scarcely a domestic purpose to which it is not applied. 

The following trees are also conmion in these forests : — 

Acacia arabica Babul Kari Jd)i, gobli 

Vidds the Indian gum arabic. Wood pale red, turning darker on ex[M«ure, close- 
(afahBd, ti-iugh, and very durable when scas'jned in water. Weight about 54 lbs. per 
cuhic fcot. Much used for navci;, s|>nkcs anti feline^ of wheels : also for ricc-iwundcrs, 
4atid npir milk, agricultural imp]ement.s etc. Ton, dye, fibre, foixl, and medicine 
nc obttioed from the Inrk or i>ods. 

Acacia leucophlna Bill Jali, tonal 

Ottxl fiirl tree. Sapwood la^e ; heartwood reddish -brown, tough, and easily 
■wifted. Weight about 55 ll>s. per cubic foot. Bark used in distilling arrack. The 
>uutg pods given to &heep :>uppased to improve the quality of the muttun. Gum, 
^ fitwr, and mcflicine are also obtained from this tree- 

.€gfc mamielos Bael Dilpatie 

tjraatly^ esxeraicd for lUc medicinal properties of root, bark, leaves, and fruii. The 
fJp^/lhe latter a specific for dysentery and diarrhteti. Its shell or rind is made 
■i&imff-boxci^ Woo«l strongly scented when fresh cut, yellowLsh-white, hard, and 
toNe- We^ht al>out 50 lbs, per cubic fool. Seldom felled, as it is cunsidered 
*ttd, wd the leaves indLs{>ensable for the worship of Siva. 

Butca frondoM Mutta^ 

■^^.le tracts of cuunLry are gay with its gorgeous orange -crimson flowers at the 

11^ of the hot weather. The leaves are used as plates, and the branches for 
-nutal purjxises. A red gum called bastard kino obtained from the hark. From 
^^flcrwETs is pcepercd the re<i juice squirted atxiut in the IKili festival. The seeds 
■iMitttntic and a common remedy for horses. Wood of little value, but said to be 
*»Meamlcr water. Weight 35 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Eugenia jambolana ... Black plum, Jamoon ... Keralc 

"»ot arc two varieties, caryophytlifolia (niyi ncrale) and obtu^fulia (jambu 

*nle). The Utter, bearing larger fnut, is most abundant in the .Malna<l. Kruit, 

•f.-KhuaTery astringent uslc, leaves, seeds, and Iwrk medicinal, and tlic latter 

■ "f 'Ifcing and tanning. Wood whitish, haril, tough, and durable in water. 

^"■■-i'ri 45 lbs. per cubic fool. Used for Imildings and agricultural implements. 



74 



I'LORA 



Feronb clephantuni ... Wood-apple BcU, byiln. 

The aciii piilp of the fhiil Eeners.!Iy eaten, either raw of sometmies in the fonn of 
a jelly like lilack (nirrant. Wood ycUnwUh, clo«e-giiiinctl, hanl, and durable. 
Weight 50 Mw. per cubic foot. Used like the foregoing. The tutrk yields a white 
transiiarrni giim resembling gum arahic. 

I'icrus bengalensis Banj'an .Ma 

Good shade for coffee. Wood of Utile \'alue, but durable under water, and there- 
fore used for well frames. Weight about 37 lbs. per cubic foot. The wood of the 
aerial roots used for tent -poles, cart-yokes, etc. From the milk sap birdlime is made ; 
it is also applied to horcs and bruises. The ynung leaves are used for plale*. 

Fiais glomerata Country fig Ani 

Uses simitar to those of the gIxjvc. Catiie eat the fniit greedily ; it is also eaten 
by the jxwr in times of scarcity. The tree imi^arts moisture la the soil around its 
cools. 

Ficus rcligioea. I'eepul Arali, r^, as\*attha 

Wooil uf no value. Other lscb similar to those of the above. A sacred tree, 
planted at the entrance of every village along with ilie margosa, to which it is married 
with the due ceremonies. PerandmUiiuns of the tree supposed to confer male issue 
and other blessings. 

Mangifern indica Maiigo Mavu 

Well known for its delicious fruit throughout India. Wood used for minor works 
of carpentry, but does not stand exposure, and U Ualile to attacks of insects. Weight 
about 40 lbs. per cubic foot. Besides I>eing eaten raw, the fruit is made into 
chatnis, pickles, and preserves. Medicinal properties are atiribuled to almiist e\-ery 
part of the tree. The It-aves, sprung 'm a thread, are hung up as a sign of welcome 
at the linicl of doorways. 

riicenix fartnifera Dwarf date ... ... Sanna Ichalu 

The leaves are used for thatch, and as fuel for pottcrici. The farinaceous pith of 
Ihe stem .seems not to be eaten here as in some other ports of India. 

Phtrnix sylvestris Wild dale. Toddy palm* IchaUi. 

From the juice is producer! the toddy or arrack of the countrj* ; and a small propor* 
lion \s boiled down for making jaggery and date-sugar. Good mats arc made from 
the leaves. 

Tamarindus indica Tamarind Hunise 

Most valued for ils fruit, which is largely used in food and (or making a cooling 
drink. The seeds are also roasted and eairn ; and a si/e made from them is used by 
Kurubars as a dressing for kamblis or countrj'-mado blankets. Kruit, leaves, and seed 
arc also medicinal. Heartwood very hard and durable, but difficidt to work. Weight 
about 6oII»'i. per cubic for.>t. Used for naves of wheels, rice -pounders, mallets, lent- 
pegs, oil ami sugar mills, handles to tools, and .so on. 

The third or dry btU lies to the east of the mixed forest belt, and 
includes the far greater portion of the Province. The tree vegetation is 
much inferior to that immediately to the west, the change being in some 
parts gradual, in others very marked. The latter is especially per- 

* The gloves of this trnldy pnlm, which is a Government monoimly. cover altogether 
an area of twimething like 3o,ocx> acres in the Maidan parts of the Slate. The finest 
arc in the ChiuKlioog and Mysore Districts. 




TREES 

ceptiMc near the Baba Budan hills, which from ihcir clei-ation arrest 
much of the nin which would otherwise pass to the east and north-cast. 
The difference between the abundant vegetation of the Jdgar valley to 
the west, and the scanty vegetation to the east, of the Kalhatti hills in 
the Baba Budans is remarkable. 

Many of the trees found in the mixed belt are common to this third 
uact, but as a rule they are of smaller growth. This is specially notice- 
ihle in teak, which is only met with stunted, twisted and small ; in 
some of the iombretacea^ and very marked in some of the Itgtitninouz. 

Besides the different kinds of fims^ the mango, tamarind and jamun, 
the ippc i&dssia laiifalia) and jack {ar/ocar/>us inte^folia) grow well. 
The acacias of the preceding list, the wood-apple, bacl-trec and iKiciiari 
also thrive. The wild date {pha-nix syhtstrh') grows in the western 
pan and the dwarf date {phtrnix farinifera) in the centre and west. 
The custard-apple {anona squamosa) grows wild rather abundantly in 
the waste lands of the Sira taluq. Among others the more valuable and 
common trees are : — 

Aeadft csUechu Kagli 

Cucchu {iiitAu) h obuined \ry txriling down a decoction from chii« f»f ihe heart- 
ened It is not. much made in Mysofe, and is princiiT»Ily used for tnosticatiim and 
■alidiK. There are two kintU, dark and pale, of which ihe Ifttlcr only is used for 
dwtog, Heartwood dark red. hard, durable, season* well, and ukcs a fine polish ; 
IK uuckcd by white ants. Weight alxtut 70 Uw. per cubic foot. Much uscil for 
Ibd and charoad. Alv> (>n oil and %u^ju mills, lx>ws, han<nca to anas, and for 
*Etlaa)laraJ implements. 

Alugium lamarckti Ankdie 

Good fc* fuel aikl fences. Wood light ycUow outfiide, d.-irk lirown in the centre, 
itt't n-en-grainei], tough, and duratilc. A l>c«utiful wood wheii well seasoncil. 
^'■^.-i nliout 52lhs. per cubic foi>t. Use<! for pestles, wooden IjcIIs, an<i other 
cii^M purpoMft. Kniii nciil ; nearly every part of the tree mc.Ucin.il- 

Anogetssus UiifolJA Dindi^ 

See above (p. 70). 

Averrhoa caratr.fiola Kaniaraka 

Fnat eaten raw, also Mewe<t, curried, and pickled. Wood light red, hard, and 
dargnined. Weight alxiut 40 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Bnchanania Utifolia Murkali 

WcL' known for its cilihle sce^is, in <«»mc places used as a substitute for alttionds, 
Niartwoixt kCAsons well and Bufiicicntly duralile for protected work. Weight 36 lU. 
po catic loot. Bark can be used in tanning. 

rJbltjergia lince<iljma Has-ir ganni 

Wood whiiiih, heavy, weighing 62 lbs. per cubic foot, but not doralilc. Root, 
^vi, aiul an oil from the seed, medicinal. 

DiiMpyros lupru Tupra 

Fruit eaten by cowherds- Leaves used fiir folding native cigarette*. The 
MahtatiiH olitain from the root a colouretl paste for caste marks. 



76 



FLORA 



Dolichanclrone fiUcata Udi 

A cooj'sc dark fibre obtiuncd from the inner bark. Hearlwood hard enough for 
implements and village bttiUlings. 

Gardenia gummtfcra Bikke 

The medicinal gum-resin, known in trade as dihxmtUi^ exudes from the cxtremitic!i 
of the young shtjots and buds ; said to have an offensive smell. Wr>nd white, very 
hard, might M:rve for box-wood. 

Hardwickia biiiata Karachi 

One of the most durable timlsers in India.' Heartwood abundant, clase-graincd, 
dark red tiiiged with purple, soft und easy to work when fresh cut, but afterwards 
becomes extremely hard. Weight unseasoned So tits. {>er cubic foot ; seasoned wood 
mud] hghtcr. Used for bridges, houses, and agricultural implenienLs. Gum, tan, 
and fibre are also obtained from it. The young shoots and leaves very extenavely 
used for fodder, 

Ixora parvifiora Torch-tree Gori\"i, hennu gorivi 

The branches are used as torches by iravellcrs and postal runners. The flowers, 
pounded in milk, used as a remedy fur whonping-caugh. Wixxl, though small, said 
to be liard and even-groined. Weight aljout 60 lbs. per cubic foot. Well suited for 
turning. 

Lagerstrcemia parviflora Chaunangi 

Wood light grey, tinged with rcil, and darker towards the centre ; straight-fibred, 
tough, elastic. Weight about 50 lbs. |)er cubic foot. Used for .-igricultural imple- 
ments, and considered fairly durable. Fibre, tan, dye, and an edible gum obtained 
from the bark. The tasser silkworm feeds on the tree. 

Morinda umbellata Maddi 

From the root is ohtaine<i the yellow dye known as MoiMi bamta. Fruit sold to 
lie curried and eaten. 

Pongamia glabra ... ... Indian beech ... ... Honge 

Wood tough and light, weighing about 40 lbs. jwr cubic foot, white when cut but 
turning yellow on exposure, coarse-grained, fibrous, and not durable, but said to improve 
when sea5ioned in wuter. Large trunks used for the .solid wheels of waddar cart& 
Oil fn:>m the seed is used for lamps and medicinally ; also other parts of the tree for 
the cure of rheumatUm and skin diseases. I.ettfy liranches used as green manure for 
]>addy ficld:i. The flowers aUo used for manure to crops. Honge cake forms a 
manure to coffee. 

Semecarpus anacardium ... Marking nut ... ... O^ru 

Woixl of little value, as it cracks in seasoning. Weight 42 lbs. per cubic foot. 
The juice from the growing tree sail) to cause blisters when handled; is therefore 
ringed some lime before felling. The fleshy cup on which the fruit rests is eaten. 
The juice of the fruit proper is used as medicine, also for Vkunish, and raixetl with 
time for marking Unen. Oil from the seed is .said to I>c made use of in taming wild 
elephants, and birdlime prepared from the fruit when green. 

Shorea talura Lac-tree* Jalari 

The Uc insect is prn^iagaTed on it, and besides lac, a kind of dammar is obtained 
from the tree. Wood yellowUh, hra\-y, and <lurable, capable of taking a good [jolish, 
and used for building. Weight 54 lbs. jwr cubic foot. 

' Mostly confined to the Tumkiir and Chlialdroog District-s, and specially abundant 
in Bukkapatna, near Sira, and in Molkalmuru tahiq. 

^ Most abundant in the Anckal and Closei»:t taluqs, and in the Nondidroog hills. 



A 



SANDAL 



11 



Stcreocpcrmiun chctonoides ... ... ... ... I'adri 

Wood atjtl In be iremeodously hard and almoKt indestructible tmdcr vtnter. 
Sawyers olijcct to mw iL Used for beams and posLs. 

ZiiyphuR jujulxi Indian jujulic, b^r ... Yclarhi 

Thif fruii w better known in northern India. Wood hard, even-grained, tough 
lai) dunble. Weight 58 lbs. per cubic foot. Bark very aststngeni and exudes a 
medicinal gum. 

Zixypbus aj'Iopyrus . . Challe 

The ftuii uMd as a dye for blackening leniher. Wood hard and tough. Weight 
ilioal 6olhs. per cubic foot. Vxi\ for ^walking-sticks and torches. 

Among shrubs and u^seful bushes are : — 

Calotropis gigantea ... Madar, giant swallow- VckkA 

wort 
The plant ix filled with a milky aip which hardens on exposure to light, fumting n 
Und of guila pcrcha. except that it is a conductor of electricity. Medicinal virtue* 
tteaitribulcd to every |urt of the plant. The inner bark yields a bast Rbre, which 
Ins tjeen suggested as a materia] lor making |iaper. The silk-cotton of the seed forms 
iht Midir doss of commerce. 

Cuua auriculata Tanner's tnrk Taogadi 

The hark is one of the best Indian tans,^ and the root l»rk is used for tempering 
'ro with steel. Bark and seeds arc also medicinal. Twigs used for native tooth- 

Imhcs. 

Cissa fis:ula Indian bibumum ... KaLke 

Wood fmalt but durable, weighing 5oll». per cubic f<:xn. Hard but brittle and 
tft t(> ftacture. l*se<l for paddy-grinders, posts^ and agricullural implements. From 
(kebuk are oUaine'^ Abre, tannin, and i;um. The fresh pulp of the fruit forms a 
pBtjuite, and the dried leaves, arc laxative. 

Jatropha cnrcas Physic nut ... ... Mara haralu 

TVjrwiog twigs are usctl as t«:K)lh -brushes, the milky juice lacing considered lo 
«»gthm the teeth and gnni<i. The milk sap is a good styptic, and dried in the sun 
AvBt a reddLdi brou-n Aubsiance like shell-lac. The external appHcnlion of a 
Accction (if the leaves will excite the secretion of tuilk. Commonly planted for 
fcitts, as cattle will nut eat iu 



The sandal-lree {santa/um aUmni)^ gandha, srigandha — a product 
iDindpally of Mysore and a State monopoly, yielding the largest 
snare of the forest revenue — is found all over the country, but grow* 
^ unequally in diffei^nt parts. It is never met with in the evergreen 
belt or in heavy forests of the mixed belt, but is most abundant along 
the eastern skirts of the last-named tract ; in the taluqs bordering on 
Ihe Kaveri ; and in those lying along the chain of hills which runs from 
Kankanhalli up to Madgiri. In the Chitaldroog and Kolar Districts it 
ii veiy scarce. 

' An analysis Uy Professor Hummel, of the Yorkshire College, Leeds, showed the 
lirit 10 OMitidn so'S per cent, of tannic acid. 



The tree attains its greatest bulk and height in taluqs with 
moderately hea%'y rain-fall, but Ihe perfume of wood grown in such 
localities is not so strong as of that grown in more arid spots, especially 
where the soil is red and stony. It will thrive amon}^; rocks where the 
soil is good, and trees in such places though small are generally fuller 
of oil. The bark and sapwood have no smell, but the heartwood and 
roots are highly scented and rich in oil. The girth of a mature tree 
varies, according to circumstances, from i8 to 36 or, in exceptional 
cases, 40 inches. It attains maturity in about twenty-five years. The 
older the tree, the nearer the heartwood comes to the surface ; while 
the bark becomes deeply wTinkled, is red underneath, and frequently 
bursts, disclosing in old specimens the absence of all sapwood. In 
colour and marking, four varieties of the wood are distinguished : — 
biii^ white ; kempu^ red ; //i/frf, cobra ; and nnvilu^ peacock. The two 
latter command fancy prices : the names indicate the supposed resem- 
blance of the marks, which are really "caused by the death of 
adventitious buds." 

I'he heartwood is hard and heavy, weighing about 61 lbs. per cubic 
foot The best parts are used for carving boxes, cabinets, desks, walk- 
ing-sticks, and other useful and ornanientil articles. The roots (which 
are the richest in oil) and the chips go to the still ; while the Hindus 
who can afford it show their wealth and respect for their departed 
relatives by adding sticks of sandalwood to the funeral pile. The wood, 
cither in powder or rul)bed up into a paste, is used by all Brahmans in 
the pigments for making their caste marks. The oil forms the basis of 
many scents, and is sometimes used for disguising with its scent articles 
which, being really carved from common wood, are passed off as if 
made from the true sandal. The far greater portion of the wood sold 
yearly in Mysore is taken to Bombay, where it finds its way principally 
to China, France, and Germany. 

Efforts for the propagation of sandal did not meet with much success 
some years ago, owing to the delicate nature of the young plant, and its 
exposure to the ravages of hares and deer. More recently the Uxntana 
shrub, which grows with the rankness of a weed, has been found to be 
an effectual nurse for the seedlings. 

The following timber trees are also found in Mysore : — 

Acacia famesiana Kasturi j^li, kasturi gohli 

Tlie yellow flower heads diffuse a plcasixnl odour, and arc known as Gi-wia flowers 

in Knroj>ean perfumer^". The plant U .said to Iw ol>m»xunis lo snakes and vermin. 

Wood while, hard, and lough, Lul loo small for gcncr.1l iitilily. \Vci|;hl 49 Uh«. per 

A gum like gum aiutjic is obtained fruui the slem. Bark and pods 





THEES 



79 



ift femiginc* Banni 

Ms n g\»>t gum. Bark s-ety astringent ; used in riUlJlliHg arracL. Heartwood 
b pTT»j«5n)rtn. rcildish-hrown. verj- hanl. Weight jolhs. per cubic foot. Little 
;onaccoani of its t>cing cnnsHlcred racred. 

AncU ntniln ..■ ■■■ ■■■ ■■- •■■ -•• Kcmpu khaira 
Dale more than a varwty of A. catechu. The l/ranchcs aro a darker brown, and 
■jKirwd hca\-ier and more d'Jrablc. Weight when seasoned ahoul SoUxi. i»er cubic 
W. I'lei] for posis Jn iK'tue-buUding. 

Aglkia roidnif|;hiana TcHlila 

Fniii baif-colourcfl, eaten medicinally. 

Allncziavnan Sujjalu 

Oop-i locomotive Fuel. Heartwood purplish-hrown, very harri and durable, of 
i>verw strength. Weight alniut 65 \\n. per cubic foot. Use<l for carls antl 
, .lil implenicnts. Seasoned limbs used for ploughs. 

Albizzia stipulata ... Motle bagi 

irharcoal ircc. WiioH ii<ied fnr viirioiis purposes, Inil not very durable. 
il",mt 40ll>s. per cubic foot. The green leaves a fodder fur cattle. 

Alslotua tcfaolaris ... . ... ... ... ... Jantala 

^r- Mill leaves mcdidtud : the former kno»-n out of India us I>ita Ixu-k, containing 
' pfinctple Uirain, said to equal the l)cst sulphate of (juinine- Wood soft 
•*■! ;^lii, of little value. Weight 2Slbs. per cubic fool. Used for schoi>lb«>ys' 
vrtttiig-lioank, whence the name scholuriti. 

Bosweltia sermta, \^j, glabra Sambrini 

W»d inferior and only used for fuel or charcoal. The gum-resin is a boKtard 
ffibuiam, much used as meflicine, and as incense in the temples. The l^ranches 
w^ good torchca. 

Ctrej-B arborca ... ... ... Gauju, kavalu 

. 'kI aliundani, white; hcartwr.(iil red, dark in old trees, cven-gfaine<.I, and 

:. \ outtiled. Weight aljoul $o11m. per cubic fuut. A dumble and pretty 

ijt not much used in Mysore except for w*jotIen vesseU and agricultural 

.ti. Formerly uscil for the drums of .scfKiy corps. Bark astringent and 

cry Miong fibre, employed as a sluw match to ignite gunpowder, and for 

oiiin oiaichlocka. Fruit and flowers medicinal. 



Ctdrcb loooa 



Gandagarige 



.,, Indian mahogany, 
white cellar 
I9A suitable fiir furniture and buildingx. .Saifl to lie dumble and not attacked liy 
Weight alxiut 33 lbs. per cubic fool. Red and yellow dyes obtained 
inwcru. Bark ntctlicinal. 

aucLra<aia tabuloris ... Chiltogong wood ... Dalmara 

fond litaatifiilly marked, durable, fragrant, easily worked, and takes a good 
Usrd especially for fiimiiure and cabinet work. Weight 461bs. jjcr cubic 
Bark astringent. R«l and yellow dyes ohtBinctl from the flowers. 

Cuchlo<t]x:rnum gossypium ... ... ... ... Ariwna buriiga 

1V (ine f1(&i from the seeds, also called silk-cutton, is uged for stuffing pillows in 
brvplah in Kurupe, but Uically considered to cause much heat. The gum from the 
Inak t» oied fur tragacaqth in northern India. Wiwxl of no value ; weight about 
Ijlhfc. per oibic fo.j|. 



8o 



FLORA 



Chftdle 

Flowers larger, and plant more hairy. 

Nar\-aUi 

Wood said to be grc)', compact^ and 



Cordia ohliqua 

Ver>- similar to C. myxa (p. 70) in character 

Cordia rolhii 
A coarse fibre from the Isirk u&ed for ropes 
hard. 

Cratret'a religinsa Nfrvala 

Wcx>d soft and even-grained. Said to be used for drums, combs, and in turnery. 
Leaves ami lark medicinal. 

TMospyros embr>-opteris ? KusharU 

Krnit rich in tannic add, but when ripe this dtsapjicars and it is tsitcn. Bark and 
an oil from the seed medicinal. Wood light brown and not of much value. Uses of 
the tree not much know-n in this jjart of India. 

GuAzuma tomenlosa ... BaMard ce<lar Kudrikshi 

Leaves and fniit much relished by caitle. Bark medicinal. Timber of old trees 
said to be durable, though light and apt tos])lit. Weight 32tbs. per cubic font. 

Hardwickia pinnaia Vcnne mara. 

An oil or oleo-rcsin obtained from deep incision into the heart of the tree resembles 
copai^-a balsam in com|xw.itinn .ind projiertics, though not so transparent, and of a 
dark red colour. Sapw\«>d large, heart wood brown. Weight 47 lbs. per cubic foot. 
Used for building in the i^rls where it grows. 

Macaranga roxburghij Chcnla kanni 

A medicinal gum, reddish, and with tht- odour of turpentine, exudes from the young 
shoots and fruit. Said to be used for taking impressions of coins, etc., and for sizing 
paper. Wood soft and use1c>s. 

Machilus macmniha ... ... ... ... ... Chittu i.andri 

The properties of this tree are unknown. 

Mclia azadirachla .. ... Neem, margojta BiJvu 

Evcr>- part medicinal. Huartwood used for making idols. The wood is not 
attacked by insects, is hard, durable, and l>eautilully mottled. Weight about 50 lbs. 
per cubic foot. Suitable for cabinet work and carpentry. Neem oil, oUnined from 
the seed, is used for killing insects. Leaves antiseptic, and in the native treatment 
of snuill-pox are placed uniicr and around the patient at certain stages of the disease. 
The tree is consideretl sacred and planted with the pecpul at the entrance of villages, 
the twn Iteing married with due cercmonici, the latter representing the female and 
the former the male. 

Melia azedorach Persian lilac, bead-tree Turuka bj\-u, huchu 

b^vu 
I.eaves much relished by sheep and guats. Wooil nicely niotllcd and takes a good 
pulLsh. Weight almut 35 lbs. per cubic foot. Not used. The seeds generally 
worn as rosaries. The prt»efucts of the tree resemble those of the neem, but seem to 
Ik more used in .America tlian in India. 

Melia dubia Giant neem Hcb b^vu 

Wood soft and light, weighing about 25 lbs. j»er cubic foot. Used by planters for 
buildings. Not easily attacked by while anis. The dried fruit, resembling a date, is 
a remedy for colic. 

Mel!o.sma arnutti^na ... ... ... ... ... Massifftla 

Wood tiscd for poles and agricultural implements : also, apinrently, for buildii^ 
purpoMS. 



FRUIT TREES 



8i 



Moringji pteiya o t pe rou ... Honie-radish Nngge 

Abo, from »hc form of Ihe flower, known as the drumstick-tree. The fleshy rooi is 
a perfect sabstitntc for horse radish. The Ben oil of commerce, \-ahierl ols a lubricant 
liy mJchmaken, is olttained from ihc seed, but is seldom made in Imlift, owing to 
the fruit bdog saleable as a vegeldble. und the seed therefore not being allowed to 
oiBliire. Neariy evay part considered medicinal. 

Ochrocaipus longifolius ... Sorgi 

The drioJ Aowcr-tiuds, known in commerce as xkmrk nigakeiart, yield a dye for 
nDu The Bowen ore used for decoration in temples and on the person. Wood t»ed 
iof Iocs] UuLdJng. Uiird, red, close and even-drained. Weight 55 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Olina wodier Udi, simli 

Wood of Uttic value aind liable to atucks of insects. Weight abimt 55 lbs. per 
cubic fooL Bark and gittn medicinnl. Cattle fond of the green leaves. 

Pneoloiicuron indicum Ballagi 

Wood very hard and heavy. Not much used except for rice-poundvnf, agticultuml 
sBptements, and perhaps walking-sticks. 

rolyallhia ceraMndes Sanna hesare 

Wood blnne-grey, moderately hard, dosc-praincd. Weight 53 lbs. per cubic foot, 
lltdi used for carpentry in the Bombay country, but nut here. 

Itosopb fpicigcra ? Pcnimbe 

0*J feiel tree, especially for locomotive*. Sapwood large and perishable ; hean- 
■ooct extremely hard Imt not durable. Wcijjht 58 lbs. per cubic foot. 

Sftprnduji iiifoliatus ... Soap-nut Kugnii, antavala 

TT:<! nj^ commonly used for washing clnihcs. Flannels maybe washed with it 
•1 '■ Inj;. Roiat, hark, Drill, and oil from the seed medicinal. Wood hard, 

ffii j;rainc<l, and not very durable. Weight about 64IIJS. per cubic fool. 

OaanocmJIy oned for carta, bat more commonly as handles foraxex and ximilar tools, 
adftjc combs. 

&raca indica «„ .<* ,., ,.. Asoka 

A juxcd tree, grown in gar^lcns and near temples for its beautiful (lowers, which 
M a rich unuigc, changing to dull rcrl. Used also medicinally. The tree is supposed 
to >e a protector of charity. Sitn, the wife of Rima, when carried off by KJivnna, 
took rcfrtge in a grove of asoka trees. 

Sterculta guttata ? Jcn-katalu 

Bbrk ash-coloored and very fibrous, used on the Western Coast for making cordage 
wA roo^ ftrlides of clothing. 

Sirycfanos pulatonim ... Qcaring-nut tree ... Chillu 

TSc ripened seeds arc used for clearing muddy water. A paste of the same 
the pain from the sting of a centipede. Often felled for fuel. 
Thespesia populnea ... Portia, tnlip-lree ... IIu%'vanui 

FoRBcrly raudi planted as an avenue tree, but does not attain |ierfeclion so far 
Und. When rai&ed from seed the timber isi free from knots, straight, evcn-grained» 
mA toq^ : suitable for carriages and work requiring lightness and pliability. Bark^ 
Ami, and hearlwood medicinal. 

Wri^tia tinctoria Bepp.^le, ILile 

Wood b^;hly valued by native turners on account of it? ivory-white colour. Used 
iv the celebrated Channapatna toys and for wooden idols. The leaves, whidi turn 
fclKfc vben dry, afford a kind of Indigo, called in Mysore /aAz indtgo. 

G 



83 



FLORA 



Of fniit trees grown in native gardens, the following are the more 
important. Most of them are too well known to need description : — 



Anacaidium occidenlale ... 


... Cashew-nut 


. . . Cicru 


Anonfl reticuUtft 


... Bullock's heart ... 


... lUm phol 


„ squamosa ... ... 


... Custard apple ... 


... Sila phal 


Artocarpus integrifolia ... 


... Jack 


... Halasina mara 


Avenrhuft caramlxtla 


... Carambola 


. . , Kamarak 


Carica papaya 


... Pipay 


. . . Teningi 


Citrus fluramium 


... Orange 


... Killalc 


„ decumana ... 


... Piimelo 


... Sak^ite 


„ medica 


... Cilroo 


... Midala 


„ „ var. acida... 


... Lime 


... Nimbe 


„ „ ,» limetU 


... Sweet lime 


... Gnja njmbe 


„ t, yt limomim 


... Lemon 


... Herile 


Cocos nucifera 


... Cocutt-nnt palm ... 


... Tcngina mara 


Erioboliya japonica 


... Loquat 


... Lak6te 


Eugenia jambos 


... Rose apple 


... Pan nerale 


Kictis carica 


... Fig 


... Anjura 


Mangifcra indica 


... Mango 


... Mivina mara 


Musa sapicntum ... 


... Plantain .. 


... Bile 


PhylUiuhus distichiu 


... Star-gooscherry ... 


... Kirinelli 


yy embltca 


... Emlilic myrubalan 


... Nelli 


Psidium gxiyava 


... Cuftva 


... Sh^pe 


i'unica granalutn ... 


... pomegranate 


... Ddlimbc 


PjTus malus 


". Apple 


... S^vu 


Vilis vinifcra 


... Vine 


... Drtkshi 



The cashew nuf proper is eaten roasted, and used in native sweet- 
meats. It >nelds an oil equal to oil of almonds. From the shell are 
obtained a black caustic oil, known as cardol, a good preventive of 
white anls, and anacardic acid, having rubefacient properties, A weak 
spirit may also be distilled from its juice. Gum obtained from the 
bark is obnoxious to insect pests. Juice from incisions in the bark 
forms an indelible marking ink. Jack fruit is a favourite article of food 
among the natives. It is enormous in size and weight, commonly .ibout 
20 inches long, and 6 or S inches in diameter, weighing 30 to 40 lbs., 
and grows from the trunk or main limbs with a short stout stalk. The 
papay fruity something like a small melon, is eaten by ail classes, and 
also pickled. Its juice yields papaine, said to be superior to animal 
pepsin in its peptonising powers. Meat suspended under the tree 
becomes tender. The seeds are universally believed to be an effectual 
emmenagogue and abortive. 

The best oranges are imported, and are the produce of Satghur near 
Vellore, or of the Sherveroy Hills, &c. The loose-jacket orange is 
obtained from Coorg. Of cocoa-nuts a rare variety is produced at 
Honnavalli in Tiimkiir District, which, on account of the delicious 
sweet flavour of its milk, is called Ganga-pini, or water of the Ganges. 



FRUIT TREES 



83 



The dried kernel of cocoa-nuts, called kobari, is a great article of export 
from the central parts of Mysore.* 

Of mangoes there are many varieties, bearing the following names : — 
jf»V Adyi (the most common, roundish), bdddmi (almond-shaped), 
^rasapuri (reddish pulp), jMgt (has the scent of cummin seed), pkh 
H|jt/>« (small kind), kari kdyi (black fibres in the skin), ghji muti or git.ti 
Bariirv (shape of a parrot's beak), gttnge tmivu (generally has a bee in the 
" sloncX sakkart or shi nnivu (sweet kind), c/n'/ kdyi {^maW kind), huJi 
mJry (used only for pickle). The cultivated kinds, which are pro- 
plated by inarching or grafting by approach, have the following 
umes: — arami, bidimi, Chitti5r, dil-pasand, Malgova, nllam, Peter- 
(■sand, puttu, rasapuri, Salem, sandarshx The formation of graft 
nango pUntations has greatly extended during recent years. 

Piafttoins are very plentiful and a favourite article of diet The 

most esteemed are rasa bdle and rdja rasa bd^i (with a yellow custard- 

■like pulp), pufta htUe ot ptttta sugandha bd(e (a small sweet plantain, the 

^■Guindy plantain), madhuranga^ S^JJ^i china, and gitiur bd/e (all butler 

plantains), y^fftf Ai/f (honey pbntain), rdJa bd(t (royal plantain), chandra 

hilc (red plmtain), saka/dH bd/e (red and cottony), pachcfia bd(e (green 

TOen ripe), kdvu bdU (long and slender), yeiakki bdie^ arisina bd/tj dm 

I i^ (a very large kind), kaiydni bdie (very large and coarse), budi bdk 

(glCfUh, used only for cooking), kdtht bdie (the wild plantain). 

Guavas^ of which there are three or four varieties, white and red, are 
very plentifiU. The grafted kinds are superior. A delicious jelly, closely 
rtsrmbUng red currant, is made from the common kind by Europeans. 
The fr.7/«, though swcel, are small, owing probably to want of alten- 
tkm in thinning out the clusters. Both green and purple varieties are 
grovn. Those from the neighbourhood of Seringapatam are the most 
bi^y esteemed. Of imported varieties, fourteen are named in Mr. 
Cimeron's catalogue as in local cultivation. Efforts are being made to 
extend viticulture. Apples are cultivated principally in Bangalore for 
the European market, and grow to great perfection. The different 
varieties are distinguished by numbers indicating the order in which 
they were introduced. 

The following are names of vegetables of which the leaves are used 
by nttti\'cs in curries and stews. Some of these vegetables are cultivated, 
vfaile others grow vrild. The leaves only are used in curries or boiled 
with chillies to be eaten along with rice, 

.CcchynoOMiie grand iflora ^Vgnse soppu 

I Adi|i>xuhc> knu& Bill si'iU „ 

,, maricaia Akvi goniji 

„ triandra Ponnaganli soppu 

' Ktmbcr puticulars r^uding coccA-nuis will be found under " Cultivation." 

G 2 



84 



Amarantus campestris ... 

,, candidus 

It gmngeticus ... 

,, iuamoenus 

,, mangostanus ... 

,, oleraceus 

,, viridis 

Arum csculenliim 

Basella rubra and alba and var. 
Boerhaavia diffusa 

Bmsslcaalba 

Cinthmm pamflorum 
Cassia torn 

Cheiioi»odium riridc ... 
Cleome pentaphylla 
ConvoK-ulus csculcntus ... 
Corctiorus olitorius 
Coriandnim saiiviim ,,. 
Hibificus cannabinufi 

„ sabdari(& 
Hyperanlhera tnoric^ ... 

Leuca& aspcra 

Muntiltra quadrifotia ,,, 

Mollugo stricla 

I'wtulaca olcracea 

,, quadrifida 
Trtanlhema decandra .,. 

„ monogyna ... 

Trigunella fcenum giwcum 



Country gteens .. 



Indian spinach 
Hogweed 
White mustard 



Gooscfool 



Jew's mallow 
Coriander 
Deccan hemp 

Roiclle ... 
Horse -ntdish 



Indian purslane 



Kfrakasale soppu 
Bill 

Dantu M 

Harive «, 

Chiiki soppu 
Soppu 

Daggali s<:>ppa 
Kesave „ 
Dodda Insali 
l)ila\*ai^ 
Bill sfiuve soppu 
Kire gida. 
Gundu iflgasi 
SaWotli soppu 
Narobcda 
Tutli soppu 
Kotna goraji 
Cotiamliari soppu 
Pundi, pundrika 
Kempu „ 
Nugge soppu 
Tumlic „ 
Chitigina ,, 
Parpataka soppu 
Doflda gora 
Huii'bachcheli 
Galija 

Nuchchu govi 
Menle soppu 



... Fenugreek ... 

The /rut'fs and seeds of the following trees and plants are also used 
in curries. Fruits introduced into curries ore generally unripe ; when 
ripu tlicy are unfit for the purpose. 

/Eschj-nomcne granrliflors 

.., Jack fruit 



ArtocarpLs mtcgrifolia 
Br}'onia umbellata 
Cap]»ris fcylanica 
Cucurbita aDxi 

,, lagcnaria 
Cucumi-s Acu(.ingulii5 

M pcntandra 

,, species ... 

,, utillatissimus 
Dolichos lablab ... 

,f minimtiv... 

,« spicatus ... 

M suratu 
Hibiscus escul 
Hypcranih 
Momordica 



Fumpkin ... 
Bottle gourd 



Country cucuni1>er 



Cow r' 



Agase kiyi 

Hat.idna „ 

Tonde „ 

Totli 

Dodfk kumbolm kiyi 

Dodda s6re kayi 

Hire kaji 

Tuppa hire kiyi 

Hull saute „ ' 

Sante kiij-t 

Man a\-are 

lM\i man avare 

Crhatt a\-are 

Dodda man avare 

Bndamc kiyi 

Bciide kayt 

NugRc ,, 

Higal „ 

Gid higalit 



HORTICULTURE 



\ 



taowmttca opcrcuhta 

nfventuin ... 

Sohmwn melongenii 

^ thloliaiiim 

ti vuricLu ... 

Tncboauitho cuciimcrimi 
t» nerviiulia „ 

teiraprtoLi 



... Plantain BiJehonnu 

... Brinjal Badone kiyi 

Kj&kanmnchi kiyi 

... ... ... ... ... Molalu liadanc 

... Klri pmlta kilyi 

PckIU Uyi 

... ... ... ... ... Avi^iilc bannu 

G6ri Uayi 

A few names may he added of plants the roots of which are used in cur- 
ries. Of these the countiy or sweet potato grows here to great perfection. 

«lruB onapanulntus Arum Chuma gadde 

^ oakxasn Kesave „ 

CoBTolvttlits tMtatM Sweet potato Ge^asu ,, 

Ukmcascanrtn Carrot Gijioa ,, 

Dlcacorea. «Urra ... Vam Hc^-genasu ijadtlc 

sati^/u* Radish Mullangi „ 



The Catalogue, which here follows, of plants in the Lai Bagh or 
Go\cmiijent Botanical Gardens at Bangalore, compiled by Mr. J. 
Cuneron, KL.S., the Superintendent, will serve to show the capabilities 

the climate and the attention bestowed on horticulture : — ■ 



^^^t RanuH£n!ac£j. 

H^Blnla, 5* ... Vifj^in's bower 

B Tlfeafictruni, I ... Meadow rue 
B Ddphtaisnn, a ... LArkspux 

■ XigclU, 2 Fcnucl Howcr 

Aqottepa, a ... Columbine 

Sevoml species of Qemaiis grow wild 
M Myiofc 

Dillenioica, 
Defiaa,] 

3 
I 



Several Dillcnia ue elegant trees for 
planting. 

MatiiclBt 3 Clumpaka Santpige 

The oagnuii ChampakA is a ^vourite 
ioMT of tmlxan poetry. 






a. 3 



Anenai€a^ 



Cast^rd ipfte Slu phol 



Dleotyledoni. 

.Miliu.sa, I 
SaccojMtaluin, i 

The custard apple and bullock's heart 
[Rinm phal) arc abundant in many parts. 

Tinoapora, i 

Cocculus, [ 

Btrbcridia. 
Bcrberis, i 
Nandina, i 

llinulayan pKinls nlinost impossible 
to cuUi*-ale here. 

Nympheaaa* 
N)-niphcea, 3 Waterlily... Tivare 
Netutnbiutn, I Lulus ... KaauUft 
Victoria, I ... Amaron lily 

Lotus and waierlilics axe common 
in tanks or saacd ponds all over the 
coon try. 

Papaver, 5 ... I'oppy ... Gasagase 
Argemone, i 
The cultivation of poppy for opium is 

prohibited. 



CM ti^iei* ithow the number of species under each genus. 





^^ 


86 FLORA 


Fttmanaceir. 


Ccrastium, 2 ... Chickweed 


Fum&t'Ui I Fumitofy 


Stellaria, 1 




['olycarpoea, 3 


Cruayerii, 


Various strains of pinks do well at 


Malthiola, a ... Slock 
Cheiranthus, i Wallflower 


Bangalore 

Portuiataa. u 


Nutnrtium, 3... Watercress 


Portuluca, 4 


Cuditntme, i ... Cuckoo flower 


Calandrinia, i 


Mulcolnim, I ... Virginian slock 




Coronopiis, i 


Tamarisn'tutr. 


Er^'sitnum, 2 


Tnmarix, i 


Brassica, 7 ... Turnip 


Hypcridtita^ 


Cabbage MuJtlc k6su 


(lypcricum tn>*sorensc St. John's wort 


Mustard Slsivu 


Cumniun at Nandidroog 


Capselta, 1 ... Shepherd's purse 
Lepidium, 1 ... Garden cress 
Iberis, 1 ... Candytuft 
Raphanus, 1 ... RsdUh Mullangi 


Gnitifenx. 

Garcinia, 4 

Ochrocarpus, I 

Colophylluro, 2 Pinnay Surahonne 


The European vegetables of this order 


oil tree 


are fully established in the market 


Poon tree Kuve, Bobbi 


gardens. 


Mcsua, I Nigasainpige 


Caj^fiartdett. 


Poeciloncuron, i Ballagi 


Qeome, 6 


ClusU, I 


ClynandropsK, i 

Cratrrva, i Caper-Uee 

^^^m_ Cadaba. i 


I'rom the Ballagi tree walking-sticks 
are made. 


^^^^^^^H Xi^Bvm uw , 


Tamstrvmiactts. 


^^^H Capporis^ 

^^^H Rtsedacta. 


C.amcllia, 2 Tea shrub 


^^^H Reseda, 1 Mignonctlc 


DiptfrotarpM. 


^^1 


Shorca, 2 ... Lactrec ... JitWri 


^^^1 Viola, 3 \"m\*t\, I'ansy 


Sal tree 


^^^^B lonidium, i 


Hopca, 2 


^^^^H Bixineti. 


Valeria, I ... Indian Dhupada 




Cupal tree mara 


^^^H BixB, 2 ... Annatto ... Kaugumidc 


Mahaceee. 


^^^H Klacourtia. 3 


Ahha», 2 ...Hollyhock Dod<U 


^^^H Gynucardia, I 


bindige 


^^^H Ilydnocarpiis, 


Lavatera* 1 


^^H Pittaiporea. 


Malvft, 3 Sanna 


^^^H Pittosponim, 4 


bindige 
BiUlvastrum, 2 


^^^^1 ilursaria, 1 


Sida, 7 ' 
Abutilon, 6 Tutti 


^^^H MymenuspoTum, 1 


Malacluu, I 


^^H Sollya, I 


UreiUL, 2 1 


^^H Polygaiea, 


Pavonia, 2 


^^m rolygaU, 3 


Dcca5chi.*iiia, 2 


^^ Carypphylita. 


Hibiscus, 23... Shoe-flower DiiKila 


^r Dianthus, 5 Pink 


Rozellc ... KeDipu 


^^^^ Saponaria, I ... Soapwort 


pundrikc 


^^^B Silene, 4 Catchfly 


Paritium, I 


^^^H Lychnis, 2 Campion 


Thcspcsia, 2 

i 



^ HORTIC 


I^P^^^^^ H 


Go)|auiu. 5 Cotton ... Anile 


Eiythroxylon, a Bustard Dex-adini ^^| 


Kydi.,1 


sandal ^H 


Aduacmia, 1 Baubab 


Cocaine is the active [irinciple of the ^^| 


tlamb«x. I Kcmpu 


leaf of £. foca. ^^H 


btiniga 


Afttlpighiacac. ^^H 


Eriodendron, 1 6iU liurugft 


Mnlpighin, 3 ^^H 


IjVmm, I 


Hiptnge, 2 ^^1 


Dnrick. I ... DuriAn 


jVspidoptcrys, ^^| 


Unlrr AhutHcn 12 garden \urictics 


Banisterb, i ^^| 


.Are cniuncralciL Under Costypium the 


Stigmatophyllum, 1 ^^H 


cdUc«is kno»-n as Hinginghaut, Dacca, 


ZygopkyUta, ^1 


■yperax, Upluid Georgian, and Oiina are 
^^^rietks of kerhattum ; those known as 


Trilnilus, 2 Sonna neggilu ^H 


Guoiacum, I ^^^| 


Bwlmdocs, Bottrbon, New Orleans, and 


Mclianthus, i ^^H 


Sea-UUnd are from bariKukmt. 


The herb santut mggilu is well known ^^| 


Stfrcu/itu&r. 
Slcfculia, S 
Cok, J 


for its mcdicinsd {>ropcrtic.<. The intro- ^^H 


ducedtrcc, C. offiduaU^-ptXAs, thevaiimble ^^^k 


wood known as Jignurtt vita, ^^| 


iiendcra, 3 


Geranuneit. ^^^| 


Kldohovui, J 


Pelargonium, 3 Garden geranium ^^| 


Uclktercs, 2... Indian ... Vcdaroitri 


Oxalin, 4 ... Wood sorrel ^^^k 


Screw-lree 


Btnphjrtum, % ^^| 


ncnspennuni. i 


Averrhoa, 2 Komaiak. ^^| 


EnAnu, I 


Bilimbi ^^| 


Anttpcte^. I 
Udhttuu. 2 


Impatiens, 7 ^^H 
Tropcrolum, 3 ^^H 


Daafaeja, x 


Hydroccxsi i ^^| 


Udocha, 1 
Waliherk, 1 


Rnta, I ... Common ... Udxn-nan- ^^| 


Abroooa, 1 

Gaunina^ 1 ... Bastard ... Kudrikshi 
cedar 


rue jina gtda ^^| 
Zanthnxyluni, 2 ^^H 
Toddalia, 1 Kadu ^H 


TVofacoaa, I Chocolate-tKc 


Glycosmis, i ^^1 


A 


Murraya, 2 ... China 1k>x Angiraka ^^H 


^^m Tthoiea. 


Curry-leaf tree Kari bc^-u ^^| 


Tkrya. i 


Clausena, 2 ^^| 


GtcvKL, 9 Bulale, 


Triphasia, I ^^| 


Tddaailu 


Linionia, 3 ^^^| 


IViumlelta, 3 


Aialantia, 3 ^^| 


Coidbonu, 4 Jut« plant 


Citrus, 6 ... Citron ... Mida\-iik ^^| 


CtoocsrpDs, a 


Lemon ... Herale ^^^| 


The gentii Grewia is well represenlcd 


Lime ... Nimhe ^^| 


h) the reserved jungles of Mysore, where 


Orange ... Kittalc ^^| 


seose of the clunbuig sjx:civs furui dense 


Pummclo ... Sakotti ^^^ 


IbidkcU for the preservation of wild 


FcronU, I ... Wood-apple B«Jlada ^H 


SntMls. The jute plant is found only 


mani ^^H 


^niely in local cxiltivation. 


^le, 1 ... Bael-trce ... Bilvnpntre ^^| 




Caludendrum, I ^^H 


^^F Lin^tT. 


The ft£iid herb R. graxtoUm is said to ^^H 


■ Uaazn, 2 ... Flu plant 


be obnoxious to snakes, and is often ^H 


1 Rienwtidtia, 1 


cultiN'atefl near dwellings on tliat accotmt. ^^^k 



^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^1 


^^^H Simartiiea* 


Sapindaceie. ^^^^^H 


^^^B AiUntus, I 


CartUospcrmum, i ^^^| 


^^B Balanites, i Ingalfka 


Allophylus, I 


^^^K Quassia, i ... Quassia shrub 


Sapjndus ... Soap-nul- ... Kiigati 


^^^B OchHOtea. 


tree 


^^H Ochnn, 2 


Nephclium, 3 Litchi 


^^^1 Bursera£e<r, 


Dndon:Ka, I 


^^H Boswellia, 2 Sambrini 


MdianthuSf l 


^^^H Garuga, 1 


PauLlinia» 1 


^^^1 Balsam oclendr on, 3 


Afiacardiacea, 


^^^H t'rotiutn, 
^^^H Burscra, 


Rhus mysoren&is Native sumach 
PiKtacb, I 


^^^1 Filicium, 

^^^1 Meliatea. 


Mangifera, 2... Mango ... Mavu 


Anacardium, I Cashew-nut Turuka 


^^^B Naregamia, i 


Gent ituLTit 


^^H Mclia, 3 ... Necm-Crcc. . Bc\'u 


Buchanania, i 


^^^B Cipadessa, i 


Odina, 1 


^^^B Walsuni, I 


Seniccarpus, i Marking-nut Gcru mara 


^^^H Soymida, I ... ... ... Svimi 


Spondias, 3 ... Hog-plum... Amatc 


^^H Chicknissia, i Chiitagongwood 


Schinus, i ... Bastard pepper 


^^H Cedrela, i ... Whiic cedar Noge 




^^^B Chieroxylon, i Satin wuod lluraf;alu 


Mffringctt, 


^^^B Swicleiiia, 2... Mahi^^ny 
^^^H Oliuinea, 


Moringa, I ... Horse-radish- Nugge 
tree 


^^^H Ximenia, i 




^H Opilia, I 


Leguminoste, 


^^^H IKtifUit, 


(Papilionacea:) 


^H 3 


Genista, 1 ... Spani-sh broom 


^^^B Europe holty <loes not succeed at 


Rothia, 1 


^^H Bangalore, but the Chinese species is not 


llcylandia, 1 


^^H a bad substitute. 


Crotalaria, 19 Sonabo 


^^^B Celastrinea. 


Trifolium, a ... Clover 


^^H Euonymus, 5 


Trigonella, i... Fenugreek Mentya 


^^^B Cebslrus, i Kangnndi 


Medicago, 4... Lucerne 


^^H Cyninosporia, a Tatulraxi 


Cyamopsis, I 


^^^B Ekeodendron, l Mukkarive 


Lupinus, 5 


^^^^1 Rhamnete. 


Indigofera, 9 Indigo ... NiUgida 




Mundulea, l 


^^H Ventilago, i Popti 


Tcphrosiu, 6 


^^^B Zizyphus, 4 ... Bhere fniil YeUcht 


Sesbania, 5 Jinangi 


^^^B Rhamnus, 2 


Hedysanim, i 


^^H Sculia, I Kurudi 


Xnmia, 1 


^^H Colubrina, i 


Slylu*anthes, i 


^^^B The root bark of Popli afibrds a good 


.■EschjTinn\ene, 2 


^^^B orange dye. 


Ormocarpum, I 


^^^B Amptlidea. 


Eltiotis, t 


^^^B Vitis, 13 ... Grape vine Drakshigida 


i'semlarthriai l 


^^H Leca, I 


Uraria, i 


^^H Ampclopsis, I Virginia crreper 


Lowria, I 


^^^B Of the varieties of grape in local 


Alysicarpus, 2 


^^^B cultivation 16 ate named. 


Desmodium, 8 Sensitive plant 



^^^^^^^^^^^TO?7?Cra^^^^^^^^^^8^^^^ 


Aim, J ... Wild liqno*. Guraganji 


rcllophorum, i 


ic£ 


Mcz^nciirum, i 


C3cer, I .. Bengal gnun Kadale 


Plerolohium, a 


\lna, 3 ... Bean 


Poinciana, 2... Gold-mohur tree 


Emnn, i ... I^cntil 


rorkinAonia, i Jcnisdcm thorn 


ArarfiH, I ... Gruund-nut Nelft 


Wagatea, i 


ka<lalr 


Gleditschia, i Honey locust 


latliyTna, i ... Sweet pea 


Cassia, 17 ... Indian Kakke 


Pisun, 3 ... Garden p«a 


laburnum 


GljcfDe, a Kid-avare 


Tanner's Tangadi 


Tcnutmns. I 


cassia 


Mooina, 4 ,. Cowitch 


IJardwickta, l Karachi 


Etythrina, $ ... Indian coral Vaijipe 


Sarnca, i ... Asoka ... Asoka 


rfijd^i 


Amherstia, I 


^^■■^ ... Pulaskino Muttuga 


Tamarindus, 2 Tamarind ... Hunise 


nfMwBt, J Sword bean 


Hymcna-a, i .. Locust-tree 


Flnaeoliis, 8... Kidney bean llarali 


Ilumtioldlia, t 


kayi 


llauhinia, 13... Camel's foot Kanchi- 


Crccngram llcaaru 


Vila 


■V^EDa. I Alasandi 


lla:nialux7lan, 1 Logwood 


l^diyxhinu, 1 


Colvillea, I 


C8h)ria»4 


Ceraionia, i 


Dolkbea, 3 ... Cow gram... Avarc 


Louchocarpus, i 


Horse gram Huialj 
I^aitearpiis, i 


(Mimosea:) 
N'eptunia, I 

Adenditthcra, i Redwood' ... Manjaiti 
f'rosopis, 2 


Al|k-ia.3 

C^onw, 1 ... Otioll ... Togari 


Cf Iota, 1 


^TidioHa. 6 


Dichroatachys, i 


fia^nc*.^ 


Parkia, i 


tMt«feia.S... Rosewood... B'lridi 


Desmanthub, 1 


V^ooearfius, 2 Kino ... Ilonnc 


I>cticrcna, I 


hwpmia, I ... Indian beech Honge 


Mimojta, 2 




Act<xa.rpus, I Shinglc-lrec Haulige 


Hihiwa,! 


Anacia, l« ... Babool ... Jali 

Mu^li 


Vii-^lii, I 


'-'■Itt, ! 


Kaggali | 


^'■1 iivjnia, 1 


Soap-nut ... Sige gida 


Albizzm, 5 Bage ; 


Muifl^viiaum, 2 Myroxylon 


Sujjalu ' 
I'ilhccolobium, 3 Rain-irec | 


Claclhas2 


Kontkapulli Sime 1 


U^t 


hunise 




The shingle-tree is coiuHdered by many 


Ikwaea, 2 


planters to be one of the besi irccs for 


(CRnlpinia*) 


cofTce shade. The Australian natlles 


Cailpinia, lo Sappuiwoud 


have not succeeded well nt Bangalore, 


Mysore thorn Kuiudu 


but (he indigenous _/J//j urc cummun 


gajj'ge 


everywhere. 


' Tile cQtrlei seeds, each supposed to et] 


iial 4 grains exactly, used by goldsmiths 


**d flthcrs B5 weights Abo worn as n 


.■ckUces. The paste from ihc hcartwood 


HWIplwd t^ BraimtaQS to the fotcbead after 


bathing. ' 

- 1 



^^^^^^^^^^^^ FLORA ^^^^^^^^^^B 


^^^H A'osarete. 


^^^^^^^H 


^^^M Pninus, 4 ... Peach, Plum 


Memec>'1on, ^^^^^H 


^^H Spinm, 1 


Lythracea. "^^^^^H 


^^^H Rnbus, 3 ... Rasp^^erry 


AmmanniA, 5 ^^^| 


^^^1 Fnigaria, I ... Strawberry 


Lawsmiia, i ... Henna ... Goranti 


^^^1 Potcritim, I 


LagcrstrcEtnia, 4 Nandi 


^^H Rasa, 17 ... Kose ... Gul&bi 


Punlca. 3 ... Pomegianate Dilimbc 


^^^H Eriobotry-a, 1 Loqunt ... Lakkuli 


Laftensia, I 


^^^H Pyrus, 2 ... Apple, Pear S^vu 


Hcimia, 1 


^^^1 Of roses 25S varieties are named as 


Cnphea, 2 


^^^H cultivated in Bangalore. 


OnagnKiiT. 


^^^H SaxiJragcueiT. 
^^H Saxifraga, I 


Jussi^ea, 2 
Ludwigia, i 
Ckrkia, 2 


^^H I 


Godctta, 4 


^^^^K Hydrangea, i 


Oinothcra, 2 


^^^H Crassuiacea. 


Fuchsia, 3 


^^m TlUaa, 1 


Napa, I . . Water chestnut 


^^^1 Biyaphylluin. 
^^^B Kalanchoc, 4 


Passifiorio:. 


^^^H Cotyledon, 4 


Passiflora, 12... Passion-flower 


^^^H Sedum, 


Tacsonia, 3 


^^^^H Edievcria, 


Modecca, i 


^^^H Droseratea. 


Carica, i ... Papay ... Parangi 


^^H Droscra, I Indian Sundew 


Cucurbitacia. 


^^^H Maioroffta. 


Trichnsaothcs.3 Snake gourd Padavalu 


^^^H Myriophyllum, i 


Logenaria, i ... Bottle gourd Sore 
Luflk, 4 


^^^B Comhretacea. 


Beoincassa, i 


^r Tcrmtnalia, 9 Myrobalan Tare, 


Momordica, 3 


^^^ Arale kiyi 


Cucumis,3 ... ML-K.n .. Kekkarikc 


^^^H Anogei&.<;uK. i Dlndiga 


Cucumber ... Sa\-ute 


^^^H Combreturo, 5 


Cilrullus. 2 ... Coloc>nih 


^^^H PoivTea, 1 


Watermelon Karbuj 


^^^H Qiiis()uali.s, 1 KanKoon creeper 


Cephalandra, 1 


^^^^B Afyrtaccit. 


Cucurbita, 3... Gourd ... Kumbala 


^^^^^^H 


Bryonia, i 
Mukia, t 


^^^H Melaleuca, 2 


^^^1 TiiHtaiiia, 2 


Zehncria, i 


^^^H CalbVcmon, 

^^^H Eucalyptus, 15 Cium tree 


Rhynucarpa, 1 
iiHanonia, 1 


^^^1 Myrtus, i ... Myrtle 


Beg(mia(€*r. 


^^^K Pstdium, 4 ... Guava ... Ch^i^e 


Begonia, 37 


^^^H Eugema, 7 .,. Kuse-apple Pannerale 


CaetM. 


^^^^H Jainoon ... X4yi netale 
^^^H Barringtonin, i 


OpUDlia, 5 ... Prickly pear Pipas 

katlili 


^^^H Careya, t 
^^^H Cournupitn. I 


Cochineal pbuil 

Mclocactus, X 


^^^H Melastomacea, 


Cereus, 9 ... Night-flowering cactus 


^^H Osbeckia, 3 


Fchinocactus, l 


^^^H Melastoma, i Indian rhododendron 


Eptphyllum, 2 


^^^H Soncrila, 


Pcrcskia, i 



HORTICULTURE 



9< 





Ficoidea, 




Trianthema, 3 






Orj-gia, 1 






MoUugD, 4 






Tetragonia, i 






Mcsembryantb 


emtun, i Ice 
Umbettifera. 


plant 


Hydrocotyle, 3 


Indian pennywort 


Apium, 2 


Celery, parsley 


Canun, 4 


Caraway 






Bishop's .. 


. Omu 




weed 




Fimpiiiella, 2 






FfEniculum. i 






Polyiygas, i 






Anthriscus, i 


ChervU 




Pencediuiaiii, ] 


Dill 




Ccsiandnun, i 


Coriander . 


. Kottumbari 


Ctraunum, i .. 


Cummin seed Jirige 


Dtnicus I 


Carrot 


. Gijina 
gadde 


Futinaca, i .. 


Parsnip 




Amcada, i 






Henudeum, i 


Araliacta. 




Anlm,8 


Rice-paper plant 


Pui«,9 






Heptapleunun, 


1 




Bassda, 2 






Hedew, I .. 


Ivy 




Many varieties of Panax are cultivated 


in gardens for their foliage. 






Comacea. 




Aknginm, i .. 




.. Ankole 


ConwB, I 






ficnthamia, i 






Caprifoliac€(E. 




l«iiocra,2 .. 


. Woodbine 
Rubiaim. 




Siicocephalus, 


I 




Anihocephalus 


» ' 




Adina, i 


... 


.. Bdchanige 


Stephegj-ne, t 


... 


.. Kadaga 


Jwucfea, I .. 




.. Yettaka 


Wendlandia, 2 






Hedyotia, i 






OidenlanHia, 3 






Mnssrada, i 






fftbera, i .. 


. 


.. Papati 


Raiidia,2 .. 





.. Mangdre 



Gardenia, 4 
Knoxia, i 

Canthium, 2 Kare 

Vangueria, i 

Ixora, 7 ... Torch-tree... Gorivi 

Pavetta, i 

Coffea, 2 ... Coffee ... Kapi 

Morinda, 2 

Psychotria, I 

Spermacoce, i 

Rubia, 2 ... Madder 

Pentas, i 

Hamelia, i 

Cinchona, 4 

Rondeletia, i 

Manettia, i 

Cateslxea, i 

Hoffmania, i 

Dipsacem, 
Dipsacns, i ... Fuller's teazel 
Scabiosa, 4 

Composita. 

Centratherum, i 
Vemonia, $ ... Speedwell 
Elephantopus, i 
Adenostemma, i 
Ageratum, 2 
Solidago, I 
Eupatorium, 2 
Dichrocephala, I 
Grangea, I 
Brachycome, 2 
Aster, 3 
Callistephus, 1 
Erigeron, i 
Conyza, I 

Blumea, 6 

Laggera, I 

Pluchea, 2 

Sphxranthus,3 ... Mudugattina 
soppu 
Bodukadale soppu 
Often mixed with stored grain to pre- 
serve the latter from the attacks of 

insects. 

Filago, I 

Anaphelis, i 

Gnaphalium, 2 

Helichrysiim, 2 Everlasting 

Vicoa, I 

Lagascea, i 





92 ^^^^^P^^^^ 


IV^^I 




Xanlhium, I 


Campanulaua. ^^^^^H 




Stegcsbeckia, i 


i'ratia, I ^^H 




Kclipta. r Gaxugalu soppu 


Lol^lia, ^^H 




BlainWIlea, I 


Ccphalosiigma, 3 ^^H 




Wadclia, 1 


Wuhlcnbergia. l ^^H 




Spilai)thus> 3... MttguU 


Sphenodea, i ^^H 




Guizolia, I ... Foolish oU,.. Huchch- 


Campanula, 5 ... Harebell % 




pluit ellu 


Trachelium, i ... Throaiwort ^^« 




Buleiu, 1 .., Bur marigold 
Achillea, i ... MilTuil 


Piumba^t$acea. ^^H 




ChrysanLhcmum, 4 Scvantige 


Plumbogo, 3... Leadwott ... Chiira- 




Colulji, t 


mt'Ua 
Primuiacea, 




Artemisia, 3 ... Wormwood 






Cyuura, i 
Emilia, l 


Primub, 1 Primrose 

Anagallis, i ... I'impcmel 




Notonia, i 


Cyclamen, I ... Sowbread 




Scaeico, 4 Kadu gohli 


Myrsitute^ 




CaluiuJula, I... Marigold 


Ma>sa, I 




Echinops, i 


Embelia, t 




Tricholcpis, 2 


Ardisia, 4 




Ccntaurca, 4.., Comfiowrr 


Jacquinia, 3 ' 




Ciuthamus, i SafBower ... Ku^umba 


Sap9tacsi9, 




Dicoma, r Sanni 


Chrj'sophyllum, I Star-appte 




Cichorium, 2 Snccory, Endive 


Sidcroxylon, I ... Iron wood 




Taraxacum, 1 Dandelion 


Ba-viia, 2 ... Mahwa ... Ippe 




LaclucUf 2 ... Lettuce 


Mimosops, 2 Pagodi 




Sonchiis, 1 ... Sow thistle 


Achras, 1 ... Sapod iUa 




Farfiigiiim, 3 
Flauria, i 


Ebtnacttt, 




Zinnia, 4 


Diospyios, 6... Ebony ... Bale 




Arg>Tanlhemuin, 1 


Olea£ta. 




Cosmos, I 


Jawninum, 15 Jasmine ... Mullige 




Cacalia, i 


Nycthanthes, i Pirijita 




Gaillardia, 3 


Olea, 2 ... Olive 




Gazania, t ... Treasure flower 


Lig\)strum, I... Indian privet 




Helenium, i 


Myxupynim, j 




Tagetcs, 3 ... Afirican and French 


Noronhia, i 




marigold 


Sal-vadoracei€. 




Calliopsis, 4 


^Vzima, i Bill uppi 




BellU, 2 ... Daisy 
Cineraria, i 


ApKymuea. 




Sanviialia, i 


Carissa, 4 Korinda 




Pyrcthrum, 3 Feverfew 


Ranwolfia} i 




Cjnara, 1 ... Glulx; artichoke 


Ccrbera, [ 




Dahlia, 1 


Kopsia, I 




Helianlhus, 4 Sunflower ... Siirya. 


Vinca, 3 -. Periwinkle Kisi gana- 




kanti 


galu 




Jerusalem artichoke 


Plumiera, 3 ... Pagoda-tioc Devagana- 




FoljTaiua, i 


galu 




Vhcftdenia, i Austrnlian daisy 


AUlonia, 2 Jantala 




Verbeaioa, i 


Hubxrhena, 1 

Tabcmxmontana, 3 Nandi 

baUu 


k. 




_^ 



^^^^^^^^ HORTIC 


ufW^F^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


^^^S&^ 1 ., Bogadi 


ifyhwpkyUacM. ^^^ 


IpaKbtiK, 1 ». iTocy wood Beppdlc 


Wurandta. i ^^^^| 


1 !la»B, J „, Olcudei «, Gaiugalu 


I ^^^H 


BMBOOtU, 3 


NemophiU, I ^^^^| 




Bongims. ^^H 




CordiA, 4 Tapui ^^H 

5 ^^H 


TliphdeiM. 1 


CoUJcmit. I ^^^^1 


EdntB,! 


Hcliutiupium, 3 Heliotrope ^^^^| 


UDWiAii.3 


Anchusa, i ... Alkanet ^^^H 
Myosotis, 3 .. Forgctme-not ^^^H 


^B AstkpiadaeAt. 


Symphytum. 1 Prickly comf^ey ^^H 
Bora^ 1 ... Bornge ^^^H 


Bflnidainuc, i Buurd s&r. Suguidhi 


Cynoglossum, t ^^^^| 


^^ aparilU 


^^^^H 


CrynrJcpisa 


Comfohu/afetr. ^^^H 




Krycibe, 1 ^^^^| 


^B|mMic, r .. ... Sdanigc 


3 ^^^H 


^BDlr^dra, t 


Argyreia, 6 ... Elephant ... Samodni- ^^^B 


H^kOo^ J... MutUr ... ^•cklce 


trecpcr pAlahatli ^| 


^^■dqw* 1 ... Swallowwort 


L«rtsnniia. 2 ^^^^1 


^^p"'>t] » Juttuvc 


Ilioukva. 33 ... Moonflowcr creeper ^^^| 


^^PnndwD, 3. 


Morning glory ^^^^| 


^H|**«eniini, i Hambu 


Hewittia* 1 ^^^H 




Convolvulus, 5 Scaxnmony ^^^| 


^^mncna, i 


Exogoninm, i Jalap ^^^B 


^HMR^ 1 


Jacqnemontia, i ^^^^| 


^^HPSb* X 


Evolvulus, 1 ^^^^1 


^^^^■T* 


rorana, i ^^^^| 


H«)»,5 ... Waxflowcr 


CuMTUtn, ^^^^1 


Ufbdcnimi 


SoianacM. ^^^^| 


UyHebia, t 


Solonam, 14... Nightshade Kachi ^^H 


Cwp«»».5 


Brinjal, egg- Badane ^^^| 


C«q*oe«i..i.s, I 


^^^^1 


GbkUuiib^s 


Potato . . . Urala gaddc ^| 


aijfcinfiiiti. X 


Cyi^mandra, i ^^^H 


^^1 Lpganiacea, 


Lycopersicum, i Tomato ^^^H 


^^H^Mcme 1 


I'hysalis, 3 ... Cape gooselKrry ^^^H 


^^^^■^HOUC-} 


Cii]nicuni, 5... Chilli ... Menasu ^^^^ 


Wiihania. i ^^^^| 


^«|pack, I 

SbTttuuH^z... Nux vomica Nanjin.t 

^^■L koraiiu 
^^H GftttiattaeeiT. 


Nicaniini, I ^^| 
IMtiira, 5 ... Thom-appic Ummatli ^^^H 


Krugmansia, 1 Trumpet flower ^^^^H 


^mh' 


Hyu^cyoinus, I Henbane ^^^^| 


^BL 


^^^^1 


mRTi 


I-labiolhanmus, 1 ^^^^H 


GuKon.3 


Nicoliana ... Tobacco ... lioge ^^^^| 


Unmchenram, 3 


soppu ^^^1 
S(rophuiariitea. ^^^^H 


/WrwMWiiivrt?. 


Verbascum, i ... Mullein ^^^^| 


rhl«,3 


^^^1 


^|F** 1 


Ltnaria, 3 Toad-flax ^^^^| 



FLORA ^^^^^^^^^^^ 


Antirrhinum, t ... Snftp-<3ragon 


Kigelia, 1 


Miraului, 3 Monkey flower 


The ipaihodea^ when in flower, is one 


Limnophylfl, 2 


of the handsomest trees in our parlu and 


Heqicstls, i 


gardens. 


Tnrenia, 2 SUpara creeper 


I^tialiofM. 


\'andcllia, 4 


I'edalium, i 


Ilysruitlies, 2 


Sesamum, 2 ... (jingcIU ... Ollc yellu 


Veronica, i Speedwell 


Martynia, 3 ^_ 


Sltiga, I 
Rhamphicarpa, t 


AcanthacM. ^^| 


Sopubifl» 2 


Thunliergia, II 


Maurandia, 3 


Nclsonia. I 


Pcnstemnn, 5 


Hygrophila, 2 


AngelonU, 2 
HroH'atlia, 2 


Calophanes, i 
Ruellia, 3 


Lophosperntum, i 
CoUinsia, 2 


Phttylopsis, 1 
Dcedalacanthus, 2 


Calceolaria, 1 ... Slippcrwort 


Hemigraphis, i 


Paulownia, i 


StrobiUnthes, 8 


Ru&sellia, 2 


BlepharLs, 2 


Brunfdsb, i 


Acanthus, i 


Franciscea, 2 


Barleria. 9 


Sanchcjiia, 2 


Crossandra, i 


Calceolaria w not successfully cultivated 
^^ at llangalore. 


Asystaaifl, 2 
Eranthemum, 10 


AndTographis, 3 Nelavembu 


^^^P Oeobamhacets, 


Gymnostnchyura, i 


^^^ .-Eginelia, 3 


LepidagathLs, 2 ... ... Gaiitu kalu 


^ Orubanche, 2 


Justicia, 8 


^^^^H 


AdhattHk, i 


^^^k Lentibuhriacea. 


Rhinncflnihws, i 


^^^B UtricuUria, 2 


EclKiIium, 1 


^^^p Gtsiuracea. 


Graptophyllum, 3 


^^H .H!>ch)-nanihus, 3 
^H lUugia, [ 
^^^H Gesnern. 6 


Rungia, 2 
Dicliptera, 3 
Peri.strophe, 3 


^^H Achimencs, 3 


Cyrtanthtra, 3 


^^H Gloxinia, 


Aphalandra, i 


^^H Streptocarpus, 


Meyeiiia, 2 
Fittonia, 2 


^^f Bignoniarea. 


ya-fmnacea. 


V Millbgtoniii, 1 IndLin cork- Biratu 


Lap tana, 2 


^^^ tree 


Lippia, 1 Kcre 


^^^B OTr>x}-tum, i 


hippali 


^^1 Bignonia, 3 ... Trumpet-flower 


Stachyturpheta, 2 Bastard Vervain 


^^H Tccoina, 7 


IViva, r Sirantu 


^^H DoUchandfone, 


Verbena, 4 


^^B Spalhodem 1 


Callicarpa, I 


^^H HetcTophragma, 


Tectona, 3 ... Tcak-Uee ... Tcgada 


^^H Stereospennuni, 4 P&dar 


mara 


^^^1 Amphilophium, i 


I'remna, i NArave 


^^H Catalpa, 1 


Gmelina, 2 Kuli 


^^™ Crcsccntifl, i Calabash-tree 


Viiex, 4 ... Chaste- tree Nckkilu 



^^^^^^^^M0^^C^TUN^^^^^^^^9^^^^ 


RtoiMMriJ 


7*u|ia]ia, 2 , . . Antu purule ^^^^| 


PWMUt ■ 


..'Erua, ^^^^^1 


rm.! 


Achynuilhus, 3 . ... UtUuani ^^^H 


Ddbk*.* 


Allemanthera, 3 ^^^^H 


iV^fo, 1 ... Lemon-scented verbena 


Extensively used as edgings for garden ^^M 


Olhaexylum, l 


paths. ^^^H 


XwfSMi is T«y entensivcly oscd foe 


Gomphrena, 3 Citobe onuuantb ^^^H 


hti,^ 


4 ^^^^H 


/,aiia/a'. 


CAenap^tacAt. ^^^H 


Oqrnnm, 5 ... Sweet baril Tului 


Chenopodium, a Guo«efoot ^^^^H 


OitkBphan, 2 


Beta, I ... Beet ^^^| 


PlitlGuilhit&, a 


Spinada* I ... Spinach ... Bosale ^^^H 


C(dcB.4 -.. Indian ... Dwld* 


Atriplex, 3 ... Orache ^^^H 


borage pe«rj 


Basella, 1 BiyiBoaali ^^M 




^^H 


|QBi as foliage ptanls. 


Phytoiacctuitr. ^^^^H 
Rivina, 1 ^^^^| 


iiMcIutasz 

LnouliiU, 2 Laveadcr 


Pofygoiuuea. ^^^^^B 


hsccaoDua, 2 ... Pochche tene 
hdk,i 


Polygonum, 7 Slranige soppu ^B 

Fagop)Tum, i Buckwheat ^^^^^ 
Rhetinif I ... Khubaib ^^^^| 


Hmht, 8 ... Pci»[>cnmnt Pudina 
QkymnD. 3... Mar jorum 
n}»m I ... Thyme 


Rumex, a Sukke soppu ^^^H 

Coccolnba, 1 ^^^H 


Bf»pas. I ... Hyswp 


Aotigonun, ^^^^| 


MdM, 1 ... Balm 


Nepenthaceit^ ^^^^^k 


^^^- « ... Sage Kaip*tra gida 


Nepenthes, t... Pitcher plant ^^^H 


rn, I Horchound 


Aristo!o<kiiuea, ^^^^^H 


("S 5 -• Mongamiri 
I ... Woundwort 


ArUtolochiBf ^^^^H 


-- - . ., I ... Motherwort 


Piperaeeu. ^^^H 


U.^., 5 Tumbc 


Piper, 6 ... Pepper ... Menasu ^H 




I^tel leaf ... VOyad-ete ^1 


-1, 1 


Peperomiat 4 ^^k 


►^■nanma, i RocemsLry 


Afyristuea. ^^| 


P/att/agJM*t. 


Myristica, 3 ... Nutmeg-tree Jiji kAyi ^^^^B 


?V»ugn, 1 Sirapotli 


^^^^1 


jyyr/(i^*w£f. 


Cinnamomom, a Cinnamon Lavanga ^^^H 


lhriHavk,4 ... Hogvreed 


pattc. ^1 


)kaaib,i... ... I^ttucc-iree 


Dalchlni ^H 


Ifalifim ... Marvel of Peru, 


Machilus, I Chiltu ^H 


Four o'clock plant 


t^dri ^H 


Inptmilkfl, 3 


Alseodaphne, i ^^^^^ 




UtiKEa, 1 ^^^H 


ki^laic. 


Persts, I ... Alligator Pear ^^^H 


JmaramtoiAi. 


Hemondia, a ^^^H 


Dni^, I 


Protemm. ^^^H 


C^n,l ... Cockscomb 


I ^^^H 


4iBMRKx 


Macadamla, i Auiitrfllian nut>trec ^^^^| 


0«m.T 


Grevillea, 2 ... SUvcr oak ^^^H 


Janntus 12. Duiiu 


Hakea, 3 ^^H 



^^^^^^^^^^ 


^ J 


^9^^^^^^^^ FLORA 1 


Elacgnoita. 


Pedilanthus, 3 


EIa»gnus, 2 HejjWa 


Synadeniunit I 


Lorantkaceu. 


Urticta, 


Loranthus, 4 Itednnike 


CeUis, I Bendu 




Trcnw, I ... C?iarcoaI- .. Gorklu 


Old mango-trees in Mysore are much 


tree 
Humulus, I ... Hop 


infested hy these mUtletoes. 


Saniahcca. 


Cannibis. I ... Hemp ... Bangi soppu 


Saiitalum, l ... Sandalwood Srigandha 


Cultivation prohibited in Mysore. 


The most vnluable tree in Mysore. 


Strcblus, r ... \ntli 




BrouKUinetia, i Paper mulberry 


Ettphorbiaee^i. 


MOTU.S. 5 ... Mullwrry Ue^hme gida. 


Euphorbia, lo Milk hedge Kalli 


Kambali gida 


Buxus, 1 


Dorstenia, i 


Bridctia, I Gurige 


Ficus, 25 ... Banyan Atada man, 


Phyllanthiis ... Gooseberry-... Nelli 


Goni mara 


tree 


Pipd As^'atha, arali 


Glochidiun, i 


iTiaTa 


Fluciigia, 1 


Biisuri mara 


Breynia, i SdK 


Country % Atti man 


I*utranji\-a, i 

Anliderma, 1 

Jalropha, ^ ... Physic-nat 

Manihol, i ... Ccara rubber 
Tuptoca 
H Alcurites, 1 ... Bclj^um mihiul 
^^^ Croton, 1 ... Croioo oil... JapAla 

^^^H Of so-c&llcd garden crotons, which 


Goni mara {F. mytorcnsis) is ihc 
largest species in the Mysore countr)-. 
Specimens are not unusual with trunk 
30 feet circumference, and head 140 feel 


diameter. The Jara fig {F. Bfnjamitta) 
and Morcion Bay chestnut {F. macro- 
pkylia) are highly ornamental trees. 


Artocarpus, 4 Jack-tree ... Halasina 


^^^1 properly belong ta the genus Codittum^ 
^^^M 122 varieties arc nnmnl as culiivated at 
^^^P Bangalore. 


mara 
Urtica.1 ... NiJgirineltte 
Flcurya, 1 
Giiaidinia, i 


^^^ Givtrtia, 1 


Pilea, I 


1 Codixuni, I 


Bochmeria, 3... Rhea I'*ibre or 


H Qirowphoro, i 


Gtass*cJoth plant 


^L^ Acalypha, 7 Kuppi 


Pouzolzia, I 


^^K Trcwia, 


Debregeuia, i . 


^^^1 Mallotus, 1 ... Kamaladye Kunkumada 


Platanacea. 


^^^1 mora 


Platanus, I ... Oriental plane 1 


^^^B Riciniu, 3 ... Castor-oil ... Haralu 
^^H plant 
^^H Gclonfum, 


Casfiarinea. 1 


Ca.<marina, 7 Kesarike 


^^H Tmgia. i 


C. equis^iifolia is very extensively 


^^^H Dalechampia, i 


cultivated as a fuel-tree. 


^^H Sapium, 2 ... Tallow-tree 


CtipuUfera. 


^^^1 Excoecaria, i 


Quercus, i ... Oak , 


^^H Baloghia, t 


Will hardly grow here 


^^^1 roinsettta, 2... Sand box-trcc 


SaHcacM. 


^^m Anda, i 


Snlix, 2 ...Willow •„. Ninivanji 


^^H Hevea, 2 . . . l^aia niblwr 


CeratophyiUa. 


^^ XylophytU, I 

1 


Ceratophyllum, 1 





tJz^s^^^^^^^^^^^ 


^^^^^^^ Gymnospermae. ^| 


^^^B 


WclUngtonia, i ... Mammoth-tree ^^^H 


^^■ft.7 - Cypres 


Crypiomeria, I ^^^H 


m^t^mt, 1 ... Juniper 


Thuja, 1 ... ... Arbor vitsc ^^^H 


WacKpus, 2 


ketinospara, 3 ^^^^| 


dmmum^ 2 ... New Zealand pine 


^^^1 


IWi,a Cheer pine 


Cycadattur. ^^^H 




1 ^^H 


^Hftnaria,4 ... Pines 


MacrozatnWf ^^^^| 


••^^ Spruce 


' Enccphalanus, 1 ^^^H 


^1 MoaoootylfldoBB. ^^^| 


H^ BydroiharvUa, 


.■\niamum, ^^^^H 


^■Wh, 1 


Eleltaria, 2 ... Cardammn Yclakki ^^H 


^BpNp'>°o» > 


(Maraotaceie.) ^^^^| 


nraberia, 1 


Maranta, 21 


1 Bjmi 


Canna, 10 ... Indian shot 


1' OikKi 




DrMu&ir. 


(Musaccse.) 


DadtoNuhi. 37 


Muaa, 5 ... Plantain ... Bile gid.i 


Mbopliylluin, 2 


Of Af. paradisiaca 15 varieties ore 


Em.i 


named as in local cutti^-ation. 


^«.J 


Heliconia, z 


i, c-^;y«,7 


StreliUia, I 


ftoM«a.a 


Ravenala. i ... Traveller' tree 


i C<limhe,a 




j Ammfini,, 


Iriiiacia. 


1 <^B«dtaB,3 


GladioUu, 5 ... Corn flag 


&Ma.i 


Iris, 3 Fleur-de-lis 


Cjnopnm. t 


Tigridia, r Tiger flower 


'WnopBs, 3 


PardanthiK, 1 ... Leupord flower 


.«rifc..S 


Antholyza, i. 


V«kU,6 


AmaryitwUif. 


^xxoUbfom, 6 


Grin am, 7 


VaflUk,, 


Pancratium, i 


GUUralcd at Bangalore for iu fruil. 


Nerinc, I ... Guernsey lily 


Ptfoiuim 


Amar}'11i5, 5... Mexican lily ^^^H 


1 Hibcnark. 1 


Eucharis, 2 ... Amazon lily ^^^^H 


CypripediuBD. 4 ... Lad/s slipper 


/ephyranthes, 3 American crocus ^^^H 


Aofnecom, i 


Curculigo, ^^^^1 


Rl«iia, ] 


Cyrtanthus, ( ^^^^| 


f^Juddiutn, t 


Ha.'manihus, 3 Blood flower ^^^^| 


K Dunbet uf orchids arc still ondcter- 


Doryanthes, i ^^^^| 




Agave, 6 ... American aloe KatliUi ^^^^| 


^^ft StitttmituiT, 


Fourcroya, 4 ^^^^| 


^^ (Zingibcracea;.) 


Bromiliatea, ^^^^| 


.\Ipum» 5 


.^chmca, ^^^^^ 


Zingiber, 2 .. Ginger ... Sonii 


Ananassa, 3 ... Pineapple Ananai ^^^^| 


Cdaitt, 1 


Hillbcrgia, i ^H 


Kjcaipfera. 2 Indian crocua 


Tilland<da, 2 ^H 


Hedychium, 4 Garland Bower 


Piicoirnia, 2 ^H 


Cwoom. 4 - Turmeric... Arisinagidn 


Bromelia, i ^_,^^B 




^^■1 

^^^^^^^H 


1 




^^^^^^^^B 


1 



^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^B 


^^^1 Dioscareacea;. 


1 ^^^^^^^^^H 


^^H Dioccorcn, 8 Vani 


2 ^^^^^^^^^1 




Licuala, 2 ^^^^^^^^^B 


^^^H Sntilatae, 


Calamus, 6 ... Rattan-cane palm J 


^^^K Smilax, 3 ... Sarsaparilln 


1 ^J 


^^^H Philen'accr. 


OreiMloxa, i J^^^^ 


^^^M Lapegeriu, 2 


Kcniia. ^^H 


^^^1 Liiia<ea, 


Thrinax, 3 ^^^| 


^^H Lilium, 5 ... Lily 


Khapis, I .^ Ground rattan 


^^^1 Succeed indiflcrcntly a( Bangalore. 

^^^ GlorioHh I Karadi kan- 

^^^1 nina gida 


llyophorlie, 1 
Dictyos|)erinaT \ 
Dypsis. I 
Wallichia, i 


^^^1 Agaponthus, 2 African blue lily 
^^^H Hemcrocallix, 1 Day lily 
^^^B Anlheiicum, 2 St. Bruno's lily 


AHimaaa. 
Sagittaria, i 


^^H Tulipa, 2 ... Tulip 


FandatfOifiP. 


^^^1 PoJiaiiithcs, 3 


Tandanus, 4 ... Screw pine Gedige 


^^H Omiihogalum, I Star of nethlchem 


Typha, 2 ... Elephant ... Jambu 


^^^1 S&nseveira, 3 Dow-Mring Manju 
^^^H hemp 


^^^1 AUium. 5 ... Oniun .. Inilli 


grass huUu 


^^H GarUc ... BcllulH 


Aroidete. 


^^H Asparagus. 4 Majjige 


Aconis 2 ... Sweet flag 


^^^H Aspidistra, 3 


Calla, I ... Arum lily 


^^^H Dracx'tia, 20... Dragon's blood 


Aglaonema, 3 


^^^B Very useful for decorative purposes 


Alocasid, iS 


^^^B I*hom]ium, 2 New Zealand flax 


Amorphophallus, 3 


^^^B Aloe, 3 ... Hedge aloL* 
^^^" Yucca, S ... Adam's needle 


Anthimum, 13 

Arisitma, 2 ... Snake lily 


F E^ustrephus, I 


Anim, 2 ... Lords and ladies 
Caladium, 46 


■ PonU^riaeta. 


Grow to great perfection in Bangalore. 


■ Monochoria, 2 


DiefTcnbachia, 12 


H Commefyna^ea, 


Philudcndron, 5 


^^^1 Cyanotis. 3 


Polhos, 5 


^^^H Cotnnielyna, 4 


Syngonium, 3 


^^^1 Aneitemma, 


Curmerta, i 


^^^H Nadescantia, 4 


Pistiacea, 


^^^1 PahiacM, 


Pislia, I ... Water soldier 




Lemna, I ... Duckweed 


^^H Arecfl, 7 ... Areca nut... Adike 




^^^H Arenga, i ... Sugar palm 


Eriocauhnttf. 


^^H Horassus, ] ... Palmyra [vilm Tale 


Eriocaulon, 3 


^^H Caryola, 4 ...Sago palm Itagani 


Cypcnuea. 


^^^1 Chanuerops, 3 


Cyitcnis, 18 ... ... Jamlni hulhi 

Tiinbiistylis, 6 ... Sabhasige hullu 


^^^B Cocos, 2 ... Cocoa 'tiut... Tcngina 


^^^1 mant 


Isolcpis 3 Usumani hullu 

Scirpus, 1 Club-rush liommugali 


^^H Several distinct varieties are cultivated. 


^^^1 Coryjiha, 2 ... Fan palm 


huUtt 


^^H Phoenix, 9 ... Date palm... Karjura 


Courtoisia, i 


^^^1 Toddy palm Ichalu 


Tuircna, 2 Pctlugori hullu 


^^H S*l»l, 2 ... ralmctto 


Kyllingia, t ... wVoantogonde hullu 


F^ k. 


^^ 



FLORA 



Nephro<lium, 17 
Kephrolepis, 8 
Niphobolus, I 
Onychium, 2 
OphioglosMim, i 
Osinuncla, I 
I'ellcEa, 2 
PlcopeltU, I 
Polyboirya, 1 



,. Koyal fem 



Polypotlium. 13 
Pleris, 15 
Sofenla, 1 
Soalopendrium, i 

LyiOfwHarae. 

Lycopodiunii 3 ... Oab-mosi 
SeUginclIa, 13 



O^ passes indigenous to Mysore, the following is a descriptive list of 
those fit for stacking' : — 

Gitrike. — A kind of hariii/t\ gro«-s to aboul J feet, a f!;ood nourishing ^a», grow* 
Almost anywhere, hut is liest in light soil and with modetate moisture (Cynodon 
dactylon). 

GaHjaiu Garii£, — A kind of kan'Aii^ ver>' %*aluable for all puqxMes. and said to 
increase the milk -giving jtowers of cows ; makes vei^* gooti hay. Grows in light soil 
with moderate moisture (Andropogon liladhii). 

Hatuhi. — A coarse common grass, gron-s in any sort of place, it runs much to stalk, 
and is not very noucishing t>ecRuse of the hardness of the stalk ; there are two kinds, 
one coarser than the other (Aristida a\.*n]!csccns). 

ICarri^. — (Si)ear grass.) flood when young, but dries up into sticks in the hot 
weather ; very common all over the counirj- (Andropogon pertusus). 

Darbhe. — A rushy kind of grass, grows in swamps and jheels, has a feathery flower, 
and its seeds fly. It grows to about 4 feet in heighu Cattle only eat it when young ; 
it makes indifferent hay (Kragru^tU cynosuroides). 

PkAra or MAtti. — A very valuable grass, good for every kind of caitle, grows any- 
where, but liest on lilack cotton soil ; attains the height of al>out 1 foot, and throws up 
a long flowering stalk. 

Upp*ila.~-\ nishy kind of gra« in jheels and swamps, height about 4 feet, nourish- 
ing and likcil l>y cattle. Makes indiflercnt hay. 

5M«//.^'»rows in jheels, paddy fields and swamps, very good grass, makes good 
hay, reaches about 3 feet in height (Panicum repcns). 

//otie.—A long rushy grass, grows only in dump jungles, acts as a purge on cattle* 
good for hidc-lwund I>casts. 

.S*i>/rt//.— Found in jheels, and grows to alxjul 3 feel, makes indifferent hay. When 
young it is liked by, and goo<! for. cattle, Inil its chief ™hic is from the small grasses- 
which are always found growing round the bottom of its stem. 

A/at-aAuZ/it. — A gooi] grass, grows to about j feet, is ofa nmirishing nature, requires 
a good (leal of moliture. 

The following are not good for stacking ; they grow mixed together, 
goptdyada or cfunidgattiy fiAlmam, bidumytie^ yenuamatti^ hUi-huilu^ 
timtnattakamy narthdia, akkt-huHu, Airr. 

There are also certain plants or herbs which are of great use to 
cattle ; the best of these is called purfanipuit\ which has seeds like 
burrs, with a thick-j'ointed sappy sleni j grows along the ground, is very 
good for milch cattle. 

I From a memorandum tr)- Colonel Bo<ldam. The liolanical name ha^i l>een added 
where it could l>c identified. 



toi 



CROPS AND CULTIVATION » 



Cultivated lands are usually classed as dr>', JkusMt; wet, fart ; and 
prdcn, /^(a or bdgdyat. In the first are raised crops which do not 
require irrigation, pair-4ramba : the wet crops are those dependent for 
thcrr growth entirely on irrigation, nir-dramba : ihe products of garden 
cultivation are fruits or drugs requiring a moist situation with an 
ifaqindant supply of water (.iardens are of four kinds : tarkdri tbta^ 
fcgetable gardens ; Ungina or adike iota, cocoa-nut or areca-nut 
plantations ; j€ie t6ta^ betel leaf plantations ; and ht'wina ibta^ flower 
prdens. The agricultural seasons are two, and the produce is called 
Kdriika fasai ox I a/s' dAAa /asa/ Ciccording to the time of ripening."' In 
the Mysore District the seasons are named Adru and Aatnu. In parts 
of the Malndd the former has the name Aot/u. 

But the farmer's calendar is regulated by the rains that fall under 
each of the nakshatras or lunar asterisms, after which they are called. 
The following are the names, with the generally corresponding 
months : — 



Jia^kmtra. 


Luaar 


Mottik. 


Soiat Month. 


Ai^fini 


.. Chaitra 








mmuA ... 


.. 


April 


Mesha ... 


Aries 


Kmtfta 


.. Vai&'ikbi 








KcUni 


.. 


May 


Vrishabhfl 


Tauru!! 


Kf^^ua ... 


.. Jycshtlui 








Atibm ... . 


.. 


June 


Mithuna ... 


Gemini 


ruiMniii ... 


. . Ashaclha 








PWq. ... . 


... •■. 


July ... 


KarkJiaka 


Cancer 


Aslola 










XicU ... . 


.. S'livonit 








Nbfai 


.. 


August ... 


Simha ... 


Leo 


Ciura 


Bhadrapada 








Hast> 





SepCcmbcr 


Kanya ... 


Virgo 


Qutu 


.. As'vija 








Srili 


.- 


October ... 


Tula 


Ubra 


rnikha ... 


.. Kjutika 








AiMtr4dha ... 


.. 


November 


Vris'chika 


Scorpio 


Jyafath. 










Mak 


.. Marga&'ini 








PAn^ihidha 


.. 


December 


Dhanus ... 


Sagittarius 


UituaUadha 


.. THishya 








S^vmxm. 


.. 


January ... 


Makara ... 


CapricuTUUK 



* Buchanan's full and accurate accounts have been freely used in describing the 
modes of cultivation. 
' KdrtiJtA &1U in October — November ; Vm^Akka in April — May. 




FLORA 



Aquarius 



Nakskatra. Lunar Mentha Solar Mouth. 

Phanishtha Migha 

S'atabhtsha Febnuiy... Kumbha .. 

PurvBbhddra ... Phdlguna 

Uttajmbhddni March ... Mlna 

Revati 

Bharani rain is considered to prognosticate good seasons throughout 
the year. This is expressed in the Telugu proverb Bharani vasU 
dharani pandudu — if Bharani come, the earth will bring forth. The 
rains from Mrigas'ira to As'lesha are the sownng time, for food grains 
in the earlier part, and horse-gram in the later. Sviti and Vis'akha 
rains mark the close of the rainy seasoa Anurddha to Mdla is the 
reaping time, when only dew falls. At this season the future rains are 
supposed to be engendered in the womb of the clouds. Sugar-cane is 
planted in Pdrvabhadra and Uttarabhddra. 

The absolute dependence of all classes on X\\q pancMngu or almanac 
is thus explained by Buchanan: — "Although, in common reckoning, 
the day begins at sunrise, yet this is by no means the case in the 
chandramdnam almanac. Some days last only a few hours, and others 
continue for almost double the natural length ; so that no one, without 
consulting the Panchdngadava or almanac-keeper, knows when he is to 
perform the ceremonies of religion. What increases the difficulty is, 
that some days are doubled, and some days altogether omitted, in order 
to bring some feasts, celebrated on certain days of the month, to happen 
at a proi^er time of the moon, and also in order to cut off six super- 
fluous days, which twelve months of thirty days would give more than 
a year of twelve lunations. Every thirtieth month one intercalary moon 
is added, in order to remove the difference between the lunar and solar 
years. As the former is the only one in use, and is \-arying continually, 
none of the farmers, without consulting the Panchangadava, knows the 
season for performing the operations of agriculture. These Panchinga- 
davas are poor ignorant Brahmans, who get almanacs from some one 
skilled in astronomy. This person marks the days, which correspond 
with the times in the solar year, that usually produce changes in the 
weather, and states them to be under the influence of such and such 
conjunctions of stars, male, female, and neuter ; and everyone knows 
the tendency of these conjunctions to produce certain changes in the 
weather." 

The following is a list of the most generally cultivated productions of 
the soil ; — 

Dry Crope. 
Cerfais. 

Rigi Rigi. 

Little millet Sdme, save. 



Eleu^ine corocana, Carin* 
Panicura frumcntaceum. Roxh. 





CROPS 


^^^^^^S^^^H 


1 hakam ttafiaua. ZjWm. 


. Italian millet 


^^^^1 


1 nuUiceazn, -Linn, 


. Common miltcl ... 


Haragu. ^^^^^| 


1 n mm tcittolh tuin 


. 


^^^H 


■ faaseomtffboidcum, /(irA. .. 


. Spiked millet ... 


^^^^^1 


M Soghn nilguci An. . . , 


Ureal millet 
Pulses. 


^^H 


Cm^vOos, Sfi^mg. . . 


l*i£eon pea, (loU 


Tof^, tovnri. ^^^^H 


GnarietinoiD, /Jmm. 


Bengal gram, chick p«i 


^^^H 


Dstdni Uflorus Un» 


Hone gnim, kuiti 


^^^^^1 


,. bbbib, iliiffM. 


Cow (^ram 


^^^^H 


Imt tsoiitsiu. Afttmi, . - 


I-cnlil 


Oti) n nongi. ^^^^H 


FWacAn iBungD, /j«« 


c;reenijram 


^^^^H 


,. ,, var, nultatuf, //Mil 


Black gram 


^^M 


\lpialang,£*//. .. 


Oil suds. 


AUandi, tadugaoL ^^^^H 


CitR«a iliyMinica, Coj/. 


Foolish oil plant 


1 1 uchchetlu, mmtil. ^^| 


kout comfflunis, IJnn, ... 


Castor oil 


Hamlu. ^^ 




Wild 


Ki..l , do(.l-, or mara- 1 
haralu. 1 


Sanum iadkum, Z>.C 


Gingelli, sesame 
Misiellartwuj. 


. WoUeliu, achchcHu. J 


IteJa HJcia, Aa-A 


Mustard ... 


. ^^^H 


Canotos juncM, //mm. 


Indian hemp 


^^^^H 


Gnq^wm herfcAoeuizi , Z i/j/i. . . . 


Cotton 


^^^H 


USaeaft cinnabinus, LiniK 


Dckhan hemp 


^^^^1 


Xiaodn* talwcum, Limi. 


Tolmcco ... 
Wet Cpops. 


Huge soppu. ^^^H 


t^Mtrra, /jnir. 


Rice 


Blutut, nellu. 1 


^oAmiin offidrairuin, Lhm, . . . 


Sugar-cane 
Garden Cropi. 


Kabbiu 1 


AiSsm oqm. /mil 


Onion 


Nirujli. 


„ viirum, Ukh, ... 


Garlic 


Kclhiiji. ^J 


.faadtis by|K^i9U /jHif 


Ground-nut 


Kallekayi, nek kadale. ^^| 


[^|dann snnnuni, Lt'nn. 


Chilly 


Messina kayi. ^^^^H 


Cmm oupturum, Bentk. ... 




^^^H 


Csdiuintt tincluriu^, /.t»ti. 


Safflower 


Kusumlia. ^^^^^H 


Cariuwlnun strnim. /Jmh. 


Coriander 


Kotlambari. ^^| 


Ctaataant cyminum, Linn. 


Cummin seed 


^^^H 


Gamma, \oB^, A'os6. 


Turmeric 


^^^^^1 


TopncOA fccnum gnmnim, LtHn. 


rctiugreek 


^^^^^1 


ftipber o65cioale, /Cost 


Ginger 

Miste llantoits. 


^^^^^^1 


Ana. catechu, Litm. 


Areca-nut 


^^^1 


Cmso* Docifcra, Linn 


Cocoa-nut 


Tengina kayi. ^^^^^| 


Cofia ftialrica, Z./MN. 


Coffee 


tiiindn, kdpi, ^^^^^| 


EIraMia cartbmonnini, Matoiu .. 


Cardamom 


Velakki. ^H 


UBS* mdioh Zmjv. 


Mulberry 


. Uppu ncrle, kamljuU ^Hj 


Uam npenlum, Linn. 


. Plantain .. 


giila. 1 
. Hale. ^^^^ 



to4 



riper hetle, Linu. 


... lictel vine ... 


... Vfled-elc 


tt ntgnimt tintt. 


... Black pepper 


... Meiiom. 


Triticutn sati\-um, Lamk. 


... Wheat 


... G6dhi. 



The total area taken up for cultivation in 1 89 1-2 is stated at 
5,685,160 acres, of which 4,601,729, or 80-9 per cent., were for dry 
cultivation ; 697,419, or 1 2*2 per cent, for wet cultivation ; 234,955, or 
4*1 per cent., for garden cultivation ; and 148,834, or 2*6 per cent, for 
coffee. The approximate area actually under crops from 1870, so far 
as figures are available from the Annual Reports, may be gathered 
from the following statement, expressed in millions of acres : — 



1870 . 


■ 5-<5 


1S76 . 


■ 553 


1S82 . 


45i 


1887 . 


. S-24 


1871 


• 4'9i 


1877 . 


. 4-38 


1883 . 


. 4-65 


1888 . 


. 5>8 


1872 . 


. 5-36 


1878 . 


■ 4 39 


1S84 . 


• 447 


1889 . 


• 553 


1873 ■ 


• 520 


1879 . 


. 399 


1885 . 


. 4-88 


1890 . 


. 560 


1874 . 


. 5-22 


1880 . 


. 4-28 


1886 . 


. 510 


1891 . 


. s-68 


187s ■ 


. S-02 


1881 . 


• 4-3S 











In 1865 the acreage seems to have been 3*14 millions, so that culti- 
vation has increased 80 per cent, in twenty-seven years since. But part 
of the increase may, no doubt, be attributed to more accurate measure- 
ment, resulting from the progress of the Revenue Survey. In the first 
series the highest point was reached apparently in 1876, just before 
the great famine ; but the crops of that year perished, and it was 
thirteen years before cultivation spread to the same extent again. 
Adopting intervals of five years, the percentage of approximate acres 
returned as under various crops was as folIo\N's : — 



Ckops. 


1871. 1 1876. 


1881, 


■ 686. 


i99». 


Dry.., 


f W 

(>lher I'lKxl (.'iroins ... 

Oil Seeds 

Cotton 

Tobacco 

I. Wheat 


} 66-04 
21 

7« 
•4 


84- 
2 '3 
•09 
'21 


75*" 
306 

•4 


73*4 

% 


4t 
71 

•2 
■06 


( Rice 

W^ct... \ Sugar-cane 

\ Ntulberry 


34-5 


8- 
•a 
•2 


J273 


13*3 

72 
■2 


127 
62 
■24 


Gwclen 


Cocoa-nut and 
Arcca-nut 
VcEciables 


I- 

1*9 


>'^ 


3« 


27 

-66 


a'8 
ft 




^ Coffee 


23 


2*1 


3*a 


2*1 


2-6 



7R0PS 



toS 



The mosi important fluctuation exhibited by these figures is an 
rent relinquishment of rice cultivation in Hivour of the cultivation 

ngi and associated food grains, and of oil seeds. This movement, 
which look place in the years 1871 to 1873, is not specially noticed in 
the Reports. But it appears to have been coincident with a change of 
policy whereby the control of irrigation channels and tanlcs was trans- 
ferred from the Revenue officers to the Public Works Department, 
■Tth the view of their being systematically repaired, the necessitj- for 
ftudi had long been recognized, and brought up to a good standard of 
afcty. The former frequent waste of water was now checked, and 
atps were taken to enforce the responsibilities of the cultivators in 
n^rd to the maintenance of the restored irrigation tanks. Moreover^ 
at 6e new Revenue Suney approached the rice districts, it was now 
ntKied that all occupied lands were liable to pay the assessment, 
•htther cultivated or not Hence perhaps a reduction in the area of 

|*ct cultivation which the statistics disclose, the actual area under rice 
fcanng dropped from 1*32 million acres before 1871 to little over half 
I million in the subsequent year. Another explanation may l>e found 



ihe following statement from the Report for 187 



The fall in 



value of produce has been attended by considerable relinquishments 
land, chiefly on the part of speculators, who appear to have taken 
land wherever it could be obtained during the period of high prices, 
ind who, doubtless, in many instances have found it no longer worth 
retaining." 

The following figures, taken from the returns for 1891-2, are instruc- 
livcas showing tlie Districts in which the cultivation of particular pro- 
ducts U most extensive. Mysore and Bangalore grow the most ragi, 
followed by TUmkiir, Hassan, and Kolar, in this order. Chitaldroog 
4nd Mysore have the largest area under other dry grains and oil seeds. 
Chitaldroog is pre-eminently the cotton district, and also lakes the prin- 
^nJ lead in the limited area under wheat. Mysore produces the most 
tobacco. Shimoga is the chief rice district, the cultivation being to a 
groil extent dependent on the rains alone : Mysore follows, with its 
splendid system of irrigation channels: Kadur and Hassan come next, 
putiking of the character of both. Shimoga, Kolar, and Hassan are 
the principal sugar-cane districts. Mulberry cultivation, for the nourish- 
iDttit of silkworms, is confined entirely to Mysore and the eastern 
districts. Tilmkiir stands first in cocoa-nut and areca-nut gardens, 
especially the former, followed by Hassan, Mysore and Shimoga, 
which last excels in areca nut. Kolar cultivates the largest extent of 
*c^etibles, while Bangalore and Tdmkiir come next, a good way after, 
hir and Hassan are almost exclusively the coffee districts. 



io6 



FLORA 





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1 



RAGI 



107 



Bi^ — (tfee mara*a or mandxva of northern India) is by far the most 
tffiportant of any crop raii^cd on dry fields and supplies all the lower 
onb with their common diet. It is reckoned the most wholesome 
Md invigorating food for labouring people. » Three kinds are distin- 
laished of it. which, however, are only varieties ; the kari or black, 
k»^ or red, and huUupare. All are equally productive, but ihe third 
*ten nearly ripe is very apt to shake the seed. In some places all 
Ihrtt arc sown intermixed in the same field, but in others more allen- 
iw is paid to the quality of the grain. The black is considered in 
looepirts to be simply grain that has got wet when it is threshing. 

TTic principal varieties in the eastern districts arc the^VMi n/^' and 
dhfUn T&^, The former ripens in four month.s, and the latter in four 
wdahalf; and the latter is esteemed Iwth the best in quality, and the 
Bat productive : but when the rain sets in late, as it requires less time 
to npen, the gidda is preferable. In the Mysore District the gidda 
rip is called kdr rdgi\ and somewhat different. There are three kinds 
dtkirrdgi: the da Atj^ti, or straight-spiked ragi, which is always sown 
«I»ntely from the others ; the di/i madgala, or white rdgi with incurved 
liibs ; and the kari modgah^ or incun-ed black rdgi : the two latter 
« lomeUmes kept separate, and sometimes sown intermixed. The 
Qiltriation for all the three is tjuite the same and the value of the 
dilfeTnil kinds is equal ; but the produce of the kari modgala is rather 
llie greatest. 

"The whole world," says Wilks, "does not, i>erhaps, exhibit a 
deaner system of husbandr>' than that of the cultivation of rdgi in the 
home fields of Mysore. On the first shower of rain after hanest the 
twroc fields are again turned up with the plough,^ and this operation, 
Wkbowers ocxrur, is repeated six successive times during the dry season, 
a ooce destroying the weeds and opening the ground to the influence 



* IVtoDowing is the compodtion uf nfgi groin oocnrding to Professor C3iurch in 
f^iCfnim^Imdia:— 

In roo part* 





H.i»k«l 


Whole 


Ini [b. 


Water 


133 .. 


. 12-5 . 


2 M grains 


Albuminoitls 


7*3 - 


• 59 . 


■ „ 413 *t 


SiiTch 


73*2 ■• 


. 74-6 . 


- II ,. 409 » 


Oil 


1-5 .. 


. o'8 . 


- ., 56 „ 


nhre 


2-5 .. 


. 36 • 


„ 35a „ 


Aih 


23 -• 


2-6 . 


. „ i8a „ 



flutrient raiii) is here i : 13, the nutrient xulue 84. The pciomUige uf ^Jios- 
ric acid in ihe whole grain is alx^ut 04. 
'* TTib u the pmcticc in the Mysore Disirici, Ijll in the eastern districts the ficldi 
■left unioQched after hardest, with ilie siubble standing, until the early rains nf the 



lOi 



of the sun, the decomposition of water and air, and the formation of 
new compounds. The manure of the village, which is carefully and 
slcilfully prepared, is then spread out on the land, and incorporated 
with it by a seventh ploughing, and a harrowing with an instrument 
nearly resembling a large rake, drawn by oxen and guided by a boy : 
when the field is completely pulverized, a drill plough, of admirable 
and simple contrivance, performs the operation of sowing twelve rows 
at once by means of twelve hollow bamboos at the lower end, piercing 
a transverse beam at equal intervals and united at the top in a wooden 
bowl, which receives the seed and feeds the twelve drills: a pole at 
right angles with this beam (introduced between two oxen) is connected 
with the yoke ; the bamboos project below about three inches beyond 
the transverse beam, being jointed at their insertion for the purpose of 
giving a true direction lo the projecting parts, which being cut diagon- 
ally at the end, ser\'e, when the machine is put in motion, at once to 
make the little furrow and introduce the seed : a flat board, placed 
edgewise and annexed to the machine, closes the process ; levelling the 
furrows and covering the seed. If the crop threatens to l>e too early or 
too luxuriant, it is fed down with sheep. Two operations of a weeding 
plough of verj* simple construction, at proper inter\als of time, loosens 
the earth about the roots and destroys the weeds ; and afterwards during 
the growth of the crop, at least three hand weedings are applied. This 
laborious process rewards the husbandman in good seasons with a crop 
of eighty fold from the best land. The period between seed-time and 
harvest is five months. There is another kind of rdgi which requires 
but three months. It is sown at a different season in worse ground, 
and requires diflferent treatment." 

In some parts, as near Seringapatam, the ground having been 
prepared in the same way, the rdgi is sown broad-cast, and covered by 
the plough. The field is then smoothed with the /ia/ti>e, which is a 
harrow or rather a large rake drawn by two bullocks. Then, if sheep 
are to be had, a fiock of them is repeatedly driven over the field, which 
is supposed to enable it to retain the moisture ; and for this purpose 
bullocks are used when sheep cannot be procured. Next day single 
furrows are drawn throughout the field at the relative distance of six feet 
In these are dropped the seeds of cither avan or iovari, which are 
never cultivated by themselves ; nor is rdgi ever cultivated without 
being mixed with drills of these leguminous plants. The seed of the 
avare or tovari is covered by the foot of the person who drops it into 
the furrow. Fifteen days aftenvards the kunU or bullock-hoe is drawn 
all over the field ; which destroys ever)' young plant that it touches, and 
brings the remainder into regular rows. On the thirty-fifth day the 



RAGT 



X09 



kuHfe is drawn again, at righl angles to its former direction. On the 
forty-fifth day it is sometimes drawn again j but when the two fonner 
ones have sufficiently thinned the young corn, the third hoeing is not 
necessar)'. At the end of the second month, the weeds should be 
removed by the small iron instrument called ujari. According to the 
quantity of rain, the rdgi ripens in from three to four months. The 
a^-arc and to^-ari do not ripen till the seventh month. The reason of 
sowing these plants along with the rigi seems to he that the rains 
frequently fail, and then the ragi dies altogether, or at least the crop is 
ver}- scanty ; but in that case the leguminous plants resist the drought 
and are ripened by the dews, which are strong in autumn. When the 
H^ succeeds^ the l^uminous plants are opprcs.sed by it and produce 
only a small return ; but when the rdgi fails, they spread wonderfully 
and give a very considerable return. 

In other places, as in Kolar, where the seed is sown by the drill- 
plough, kurig€ ; behind the kilrige is tied the implement called sudike^ 
into which is put the seed of the avare or tovari ; by this method, for 
every- twelve drills of rdgi there is one drill of pulse. After the field 
has been sown, it is harrowed with the buUock-rake called ha/ive, and 
then smoothed with a bunch of thonis, which is drawn by a bullock 
and pressed down by a large stone. Here sheep are only used to 
trample the rigi fields when there is a scarcity of rain. The bullock- 
hoe called kunU is used on the fifteenth and eighteenth days after 
sowing. On the twenty-sixth day the harrowing is repeated. On the 
thirty-second the field is cleared from weeds with the implement called 
pravari. In four months the rigi ripwns and in five the pulses. 

In the west, about Periyapatna, in very rich soils, nothing is put in 
.diills along with nigi ; but immediately after that grain has been cut, a 
id crop of kada/e is sown, which does not injure the ground. 
Sometimes a second crop of sdme or of huchchflfu is taken ; but these 
exhaust the soil much. When rain does not come at the proper 
season, the r^i fields are sown with hura/i, kadaie^ huchthfiju^ or kari- 
The two leguminous plants do not injure the soil ; but the 
ichelju and same render the succeeding crop of rKgi very poor. 

In Shimc^a the rdgi seed, mixed with dung, is placed very thin wnth 
ihc hand in furrows drawn at the distance of about seven inches 
throughout the field, a small quantity being dropped at about every 
ten inches. In every seventh furrow are put the seeds o( avare, toi'ari^ 
)d pHHdi intermixed, or of uddu by itself. 

R4gi is reaped by the sickle, and the straw is cut within four inches 
of the ground. For three da)-s the handfuls are left on the field ; and 
then, without being bound up in sheaves, are stacked, and the whole is. 



I 



well thatched. At any convenient time within three months it is 
opened, dried two days in the sun, and then trodden out by oxen. 
The seed, having been thoroughly dried in the sun, is presened in 
straw mutfe. The remainder is put into pits, or ha^etm ; where, if care 
has been taken to dig the pit in dry soil, it will keep in perfect 
preservation for ten years. 

R4gi is always ground into flour, as wanted, by means of a hand-initl 
called bha-gaiiu. In this operation it loses nothing by measure. The 
flour is dressed in various ways. The most common are, a kind of 
pudding called hitiu^ and two kinds of cakes called roiij and dbshe^ 
both of which are fried in oil. For all kinds of cattle, the ragi straw is 
reckoned superior to that of rice.' 

' The following is an e&ttmaie by Dr. Forlics Watson af the foo*l-value of ragi uid 
other Indian grains, taken from Mr. Ulliot's book {Hxperuncei of a Phnt<r), 

"The position of ragi ns food, when ctHrtjxucil with some of the other IndUn 
cerealft, ai^iears from the foUuHing tabic : — 







B.|f«« 


JTnrwM 


nitt 


RiRi 


Nmiw of Urn Grab 


Wheat 


{frm'ciliaria 




(fJrrirt 


iElrusimt 






tpkmim^ 


aaintk^ 


1 


Number of analyred samples 


9 


3 


2 


9 


7 




P«r«BU 


Per L-eOt. 


Per nnt. 


Percmt. 


Percent. 


Moisture 


IXtlO 


J2'aO 


13'00 


12X10 


1200 


Niircgrnons matter 












liluten, albumen, &c. ... 


ij-4a 


10-27 


938 


740 


6-53 


Cellulose or wn<x1y fibre 


a-69 


1*49 


a-23 


•39 


336 


Carbonous matter 












SUrch, ^m, \c. 


688[ 


71 ot 


7268 


78-97 


74*44 


Fat or oil 


115 


327 


2-04 


•57 


117 


Oxide of irun 


•019 


•026 


•018 


■008 


064 


Potassa 


-214 


•405 


•207 


066 


534 


Soda 


•392 


^32 


•'35 


•082 


XIIQ 


Lime 


•n6« 


od4 


•094 


•026 


•617 


MagncAta 


■241 


•3J9 


•260 


•103 


■I6j 


Chlorine 


•059 


•058 


•016 


•016 


•048 


Phosphoric acid 


•817 


•678 


'856 


•2S7 


•595 


Sulphuric acid 


•154 


■105 


-loS 


■080 


110 


Silica 


Xi2y 


•J75 


•0S8 


•092 


•334 



The order according to which these cereals are ornuiged is determined by the 
lUttount of nitrogenous matter Ihey contain. Wheat stands preeniineni, followed by 
bajree and jowarec [or sajjc and jola], whilst rice and ragi occupy the lowest (K^ilion. 
It will Ik: observed that, in order lo avuid the perturbations in the lulunil order 
which may arise from a varying amount of moisture in the grains, all the analyses 
have lieen reduced to a common moisture of twelve per cent., which is that to which 
nil grains more or less approach. Tlie numbers inserlc<l in ihe table are, thcrcfcwe, 
true comparative num1>crs, 

Tlie rigis grown at dlfTerent places seem in show almost a greater latitude in com- 
position than most of the other grains. Among the seven samples anoljied the 
amount of nitrogenous matter varies iKtween 5*49 and 9-24 [ler cent., so that, although 



HAG! 



II T 



jta or ^tii rd^ is not the same with that cultivated on dry grounds, 
although in the sense adopted by botanists it is not specifually 
di^erent ; but the seed which is raised on dry fields will not thrive in 
gardens ; nor will that which is raised in }j;ardens thrive without 
irrigation. Garden rigi is always transplanted, and hence it is called 
ndti. The following is the process foliowed in the Kolar District. 
For the seedling bed, dig the ground in Pushya (Dec— Jan.) and give 
it a little dung. Divide it into squares, and !ct it have some more 
manure. Then sow the seed very thick ; cover it with dung, and give 
it water, which must be repeated once in three days. The ground 
into which it is to be transplanted, is in Pushya ploughed five 
times, and must be dunged and divided into squares with proper 
channels. About the beginning of Mdgha, or end of January, 
water the seedh'ngs well, and pull them up by the roots : tie them in 
bundles, and put them '\n water. Then reduce to mud the ground into 
which they are to be transplanted, and place the young rdgi in it, with 
four inches distance between each plant. Next day water, and ever)- 
third day for a month this must be repeated. Then weed with a small 



tSte avenge U Inferior lo the rice, there are samples which may be richer in nitrogen 
dun moot of the rice&. Still, this is only one as{)ect of the question. The amount 
of a tou pen i& loo often looked upon t& the only exponent q{ the nutritive value. 
TWs is ft very circumscrilted view of the extremely compHcated ami iiuuiy-»idetl 
problem of nutrition. Kjich of the nornml compuiients of the human body can 
l«cocne of paramount importance under certain conditions. 'ITie oxide of iron in (he 
anil of The graiiut amounts only to <(ome tenths of a i>er cent. ; tiul still the regidar 
«{^y even of this small quantity is essential for the proper performance of the vital 
ftntctiaitt, BS it is indispensable in the formaiion of the blooil-cor)>iiscles. A dearth 
of iraD would, therefore, Ix: just a& fataJ a.** a want of the nitrogenous, or carhonou.s, 
« othet principal constituent of food, In judging, therefore, of the relative %*alue of 
u vtide of food, the amounts of nitrugen and carltun caiinut l>e relied un as the sole 
(■ide. The ininera.! constituents must l»e taken into account. Sx the time when I 
pahlished my first analyses of rigi. ihcsc extended only to the organic compounds of 
Ike gcmin, and the position which 1 then asstgnc-fl lo it^juided only by the percentage 
of fuliogeo— has been Ixjrne out by the suhset^uent analyse*. Since then, however, a 
detailed exftmination of the a&h lias lieen made, which yicldcfi Mime remarkable cnn- 
The rAgi seems to be uncommonly rich in certain important mineral con- 
Thc amount nf phosphoric acid in rigi is only lower by one-fourth than 
ihtf in wheat, and it i» more than twice as high as in rice. It contains eight times as 
otu^ iron, and eight times as much polossa as rice, and, Indeed, more of potassa 
ttam may of the other grains. It is, likewise, exceptionally rich in lime. The ash. 
OBDpaaDd. u it chiefly is, of the most important elements, amounts on the average 
to 3| per cent, in ragi, as compared with 0760 jicr cent, contained in rice. Il is 
dierdbre possible, if not indeed prolnblc, that the large amount and fnvour- 
aUc composition of the rdgi a^h may more than counlerbalancc its inferiority in 
aHrocCn, v» that although, according to the nutritive .slantlard hitherto in use, it must 
\x put l<Iow rice, rigi may still be, on the whole, a fotKl satisfying by itself more 
oompletcly the Dumerons exigencies of an article of human diet than rice." 



iij ^^^^ FLORA 

hoe, and water once in four days. It ripens in tliree months from the 
time when the seed was sown; and in a middling crop produces twenty 
fold. It is only sown on the ground at times when no other crop coutd 
be procured, as the expense of cultivation nearly equals the value of the 
crop. Another kind of nit rdgi cultirated in Sira as a Vais'dkha crop is 
called irtpati. 

Avare — is ne\'er cultivated alone, but always with rdgi, as 
described above. When ripe, the legumes are nearly dry. The plant 
having been cut and for one day exposed to the sun, is beaten with a 
stick to separate the seed That which is designed for seed is 
preserved in mihies; while that for consumption is kept in pots, and 
is used in curries. The straw is eaten by all kinds of cattle except 
horses.' 

Togari (or Tovari) — is also cultivated only with rigi, as described 
above. It is cut when almost dr)-, then put up in heaps, and on the 
day after it is opened to dr)' in the sun. The grain is beaten out with 
a stick; and that intended for sowing must be preserved in a straw 
/HW(/<f. It is used in curr)-. After the seed has been threshed, cattle 
eat the husks of the legume. The straw is used for fuel. A larger 
variety, called tuntka togan\ is produced by garden cultivation.* 

The best soil for the cultivation of these three articles is the black 
soil, or ere bhunu\ which yields a crop of rdgi every year, and even 
without manure will give a considerable return ; but when it can be 
procured, dung is always given. After a crop of /Vi/a, r^gi does not 
thrive ; but jiila succeeds after a crop of rdgi. The next best soil for 
ntgi, and the one most commonly used, is the kebbe or red soil In 
this also it is sometimes cultivated without dung ; but it requires to be 
manured at least once in two or three years. In mara/u^ or sandy, and 
dare soils, it every year requires dung. 

Jola— next to ragi is the most considerable dr)' crop. In the south 
it is often sown for fodder; for, when the crop is not uncommonly good, 

' The following is Pr(»fcssor Church's analysts of Avare buns : — 

Water 

Albuminoids 

.Starch 

Oil 

Fibre 

Ash 

The nutrient ratio deduced is i : 2'S ; the nutrient value 8a 

- According to the s.imc authorily i Ih nf ihti pea would contain i oi 361 grmins of 
vmter, 3 oz 208 grains of alhuminoids, and 9 iw j t grains of stnrch. The nutrient 
ratio would be about 1:3; the nutrient value So. 



In 


on punit 


u 


lib 


HusVed 


Wilh htHk 


or 


«™ 


13*1 


... ia*i 


I 


410 


M'4 


... aa-4 


3 


255 


57-8 


... S4-a 


S 


294 


J '5 


... 1*4 





98 


1*2 


... 6s .. 


1 


»7 


3^ 


... 3-4 





23s 



JOLA 



"3 



die grain is no object. It is cut and given lo the cattle at a time when 
rfgi straw is not lo be procured. Previously to being given to cattle, 
however, it must be dried, as the green straw is found to be very 
pensicious. There are two kinds of jbia ; the white {hilt) and red 
(kempm). When they are intended to be cut for the grain, these are 
sown separately ; as the red kind ripens in three months, while four are 
required to ripen the white jcla. A red rdgi soil is preferred for it, 
and crops of ragi and j*5!a are generally taken alternately, the crop of 
ragi having an extraordinary allowance of dung. The j6Ia requires less 
rain than the nigi, and admits of a second crop of kurali being taken 
Jiher it ; and thus, in the course of two years, there are on the same 
ground three cTops. 

The j6|a is Vwlh made into flour for puddings and cakes, and is 
boiled whole to eat with curry, like rice. It is a good grain; but at the 
stnofit does not keep above two years. 

The /(V" that is cultivated on dry field in Madgiri is of three kinds : 
i^prrrf, kempu^ and hasaru. They are all, probably, mere varieties. 
Tbe best soil for them is a black clay ; and the next, the same mixed 
with sand- For ragi these soils are of a poor quality ; but on the same 
dr)- field jola and ragi may be alternately cultivated without injuring 
either. In Vais'Akha, or the second month after the vernal equinox, 
plough four times. After the next rain sow the seed. It is sown 
eilber broad-cast or by dropping it in the furrow after the plough. 
Smooch the field by drawing a plank over it. It requires neither 
weeding nor manure. For fodder its straw is inferior to that of rdgi, 
bm superior tn that of rice. A^ara jola ripens in 4I months, kcmpu 
wsAkasaru in four months. Their produce is rather less in the order 
tbey are mentioned. 

Towards Harihar the jola crop is always accompanied by one or 
of the following articles : avarcy fagari, /lasaru, mtidiki\ hnra/i, and 
aruii. These being intended chiefly for family use. a portion of 
each is wanted, and every man puts in his jola field a drill or two of 
each kind. Joki thrives on black clay, but is also sown on the red 
earth, and even sometimes on the stony soil. In Chaitra the field is 
boed wth a keg-kunk, which requires from six to eight oxen to draw it ; 
for this is the month following the vernal equinox, when the soil is very 
di>- and hard. In the following month the field is ploughed once, and 
then manured. In the month preceding the summer solstice, the seed 
is sown after a min by means of the drill ; -.vhile the rows of the 
oaxympanylng grains are put in by means of the sudikc, which is lied 
to ibe drill. The field is then smoothed with the bo/u kunie, a hoe 
dnwn by oxen, of lighter make than the fug-kuntc. On the twentieth 

I 



1 



TM 



FLORA 



day the field is weeded with the tde kunit, and on the twtnty-eighth 
day this is repeated. In five months the job ripens, without further 
trouble.' 

In the north of the Tumkiir District a few fields of watered land are 
entirely allotted for the cultivation of bili jbia. The soil of these is a 
rich black mould, but does not require much water. Only one crop a 
year is taken. The produce is great, not only as an immense increase 
on the seed sown, hut as affording a great deal of food. The following 
is the mode of cultivation : — Begin to plough in Vais'akha and in the 
course of seven months plough eight or nine times. Then manure 
with dung} n\ud from the bottom of tanks, and leaves of the himge ; 
and if there be no rain, water the field before sowing. Previous to 
being planted, the seed must have been soaked in water. A man then 
draws furrows with a plough, and another places the seed in the 
furrows at the distance of four or five inches. By the next furrow it 
is covered. The field is then smoothed by drawing over it a plank, on 
one end of which a man stands, and by this means that forms a low 
ridge. Thus throughout the field, at the distance of six feel, which is 
the length of the phnk, parallel rows of ridges are produced. The 
intermediate spaces are divided into oblong plots by forming with the 
hand ridges which at every eight or twelve cubits distance cross the 
others at right angles. At the same time the areas of the plots are 
exactly levelled. The waterings, after the first month, must be given 
once in twelve or fourteen days. In some villages the farmers weed 
the jo(a when it is six weeks old ; in others they do not lake this 
trouble. Some people around every field of jb(a plant a row of 
kusumba seeds» and the prickly nature of that plant keeps away cattle. 

Biii j(>(a'\% sometimes sown in place of the Vais'dkha crop office. 
This must be followed by a Karttika crop of rigi, as after it the 
produce of rice would be very small. The joja also thrives best after a 
Karttika crop of rdgi, A^ara join is also sometimes seen in place of 
the Vais'dkha crop on rice ground. It ripens in four months. 

8aye. — There are three kinds of sdvt cultivated in the east : hnri^ 



' The nutrient ratio oi jSla is given by Professor Church as I : S^. and ihc nutrient 
value as S6. It contains, he tells us, '86 per cent, of ]:^osphoric acid and '2\ i>er 
cent of potasli. The following is his analyas uf the grain : — 





In lOD (liirto 


In lib 


Water 


... 13-5 


a OE ogr 


Albuminoids 


... 9-3 


I ,. 314 .. 


Starch 


... 72'3 


".. *48» 


Oil 


20 


„ 140 ,. 


Fibre 


2-2 


.. 154 » 


Ash 


... 17 


„ ti9 „ 



s^y£ 



"5 



hri,!tndAd/oT Mt, They are never intermixed, and the cultivation 

of IIk fiRt kind differs from that of the other two. For ^ari sdtv 
ploogb three tinaes in the same manner as for rdgi. If there be nny to 
ipircgive the field dung, sow broad-cast, and harrow with the bullock- 
lakt In three months the grain ripens without farther trouble ; when 
Kb cut down, slacked on the field for six days, and then trodden out. 
lit keeps best in tiie storehouse, and is never made into flour. Cattle 
[tat the straw without injury, but it is inferior to the straw of either nSgi 
or nee. For the other two kinds, plough three times in the course of 
.Wiidha (June — July); then, after the first good rain, sow broadcast, 
^iloQgh in the seed, and harrow. They do not necessarily require 
Amg-bat if any can be spared, they wil! grow the better for it ^Vhen 
ripe, »hich happens also in three months, they are managed as the 
n&erkintl is. The set-d .ind produce of all are nearly the same. 

In Itadgiri the best soil for sdme is considered to be the red or ash- 

tolpored, containing a good deal of sand, which is common on high 

{ifaca. W'ithout much manure, this ground does not bear constant 

aoppwg. After resting a year or more, it is first cultivated for hurali 

adaort sea.son for same. If manure can be procured, a crop of rdgi 

.■taken, and then it has another fallow. Dung l»eing a scarce article, 

ipbce of the ragi a second crop of sdme is taken ; but it is a bad one. 

fiillow has i»een long, and high bushes have grown up, after 

these, the crop of hurali will be great, and two or three good 

OQpsof sime will follow. When good rdgi soil has for a year or more 

been waste, and is to be brought again into cultivation, the first crop 

^iighi to be same ; for rdgi thrives very ill on land that is not constantly 

ited. In this case, the sdme gives a great quantity of straw, but 

grain. When the rains have failed, so that the nigi has not lieen 

or when, in consequence of drought, it has died, should the end 

flf the season be favourable, a crop of sdme is taken from the fields 

ibt are usually cultivated with ragi. This crop also runs to straw, and 

Ac following crop of ragi requires more dung than usual. In the 

Qcntse of thirty days, any time between the middle of April and 

middle of July, plough three or four times. Then after a good rain, or 

«*c which makes the water run on the surface of the ground, harrow 

with the rake drawn by oxen, and sow the same seed with the drill, 

putting in with the sudike rows of the pulses called hurali or toj^ari. 

In four months, without farther trouble, it ripens. 

The sdme in Sira is of three kinds : ^///, kart\ and mn/iga or mujika. 
The cultivation for the three kinds is the same, but the seeds are always 
kept separate. The soil that agrees with them is the maralu, and dare, 
or poor sandy and stony lands. This soil, if it were dunged, would 
I a 



tt6 



FLORA 



every year produce a crop of sdme ; but, as that can seldom be spared, 
the sdme is always succeeded by a crop of hurali, which restores the 
ground ; and ahernate crops of these grains may be continued, without 
any fallow, or without injur>" to the soil. Bili sdme ripens in 3J and 
kariXn four months; the ma/i^a requires only three montlTS, and is 
therefore preferred when the rains begin late; but it gives little straw, 
and therefore in favourable se.isons the otiiers are more eligible. Same 
straw is here reckoned better fodder than that of rice ; and, when 
mixed with the husks of hurali or togari, is preferred even to that of 
rdgi. Except in case of necessit)', jdla straw is never used. 

Sdv€ in the soulli is never sown on the ere or black clay, and rarely 
on the kedbej or red soil ; the two worst qualities of land being 
considered as sufficiently good for such a crop. In the spring the field 
is ploughed five times. At the commencement of the heavy rains it is 
sown broad-cast, and the seed is covered by a ploughing. Even in the 
worst soil, there is no absolute necessity for dung ; but when any can 
be spared, the crop will doubtless be benefited by manure. It ripens 
wthout further care in three months, is cut close to the ground, and 
gathered into stacks. Five or six days afterwards it is spread on a 
threshing-floor, and the grain is trampled oul by oxen. That intended 
for sowing is dried in the sun, and lied up in straw mudes. The 
remainder is prescr\'ed in kanajas. It is sometimes boiled whole, like 
rice ; at others, ground into flour for cakes. All kinds of cattle eat the 
straw, which is also esteemed the best for stuffing pack-saddles,' 

HaYane.— There are two varieties cultivated in the Mysore District ; 
the one called AvVit/tf, or short ; and the other y'tf/x/, or long ; and dotida^ 
or great. Unless a quantity of dung can be spared, it is never .«iown on 
the two worst soils. On the two best soils it requires no manure, and 
does not injure the succeeding crop of n-igi. In the spring, plough six 
times. When the heavy rains commence, sow, and plough in the seed. 
It requires neither weeding nor hoeing, and riixrns in three months. 
Cut it close to the ground, and stack it for eight days ; then spread it 
to the sun for a day, and on the next tread out the grain with oxen. 
The seed for sowing must l>e well dried in the sun, and preserved in 
a mide. The remainder is kept in a kanaja. It is made into flour for 
hi^tu or pudding, and is also frequently boiled whole, hke rice. The 
straw is used for fodder, but is not good. They/'/« navafie is some- 
times put in drills with rdgi, in place of the avare or togari. 

Toward Madgiri the navane is of three kinds, ^///, which is cultivated 

* The following analysis of the grain (with husk) is given by Professor Church : — 
In 100 parts ihere are cniiuinecl, water 12*0 ; aUaimitioids, 8'4 ; starch, 7a"5 ; t>il, 3*o ; 
fibre, 2"2 ; ash I "9. The nulrient ratlu v. \ : 9-5, nntl the nutrient value 88. 



¥ 




"7 



on watered land ; kempu^ which is cullivatcd in jinlni gardens ; and 
Mo3ir, which is cultivated in dry field. It is sometimes sown along 
with cotton, but it is also culti%-ated separately. It grows on both nigi 
and jdja ground, and docs not injure the succeeding crop of either. 
In the course of twenty or thirty days, any time in Jyeshtha, Ashadha, 
or Srd.\-ana, the third, fourth, and fifth months after the vernal equinox, 
plough four times. If dung can Ite obtained, it ought to bo put on 
after the first ploughing. \Vith the next rain, harrow with the rake 
drawn by oxen, sow broad-cast, and harrow again. The straw is 
icckoned next in quality to that of ragi ; but the grain, in the opinion 
of ihe natives, is inferior. 

The navane cultivated on dry field in Sira is that called bUi^ and is 
laised etlhcr on the two poorer soils, or on a black mould that has been 
prtupared for it by a crop of the pulse called hesaru. It is considered 
as exhausting to the ground ; but this is obviated by ploughing up the 
fidd imojediaicly after the navane has been cut, thus exposing tlie soil 
CO the air. In the two months following the vernal equinox, plough 
times. With the next good rain, harrow with the rake drawn by 
and sow the seed with the drill ; putting navane in the kurigg^ and 
the pulse called avare in the sudiki. In three months it ripens without 
farther trouble. For cattle, the straw is better than that of rice. 

Baraga — is of two kinds ; white and black. .V sandy soil of any 
kind agrees with this corn, which is also valuable as requiring very 
Utile rain. The straw is better fodder than that of rice. In the second 
month after the vernal equinox, plough three times. After the next 
cain, in the following month, either sow with the drill, and harrow with 
tbc rake drawn by oxen, or sow broad-cast, and plough in the seed. 
In three months it ripens without farther trouble, and in a favourable 
nuon produces sixteen seeds. 

There is only one kind cultivated in Kolar. After the hea\7 rains 
have ceased, plough twice, and without manure sow broad-cast, and 
plough in the seed- Without any farther trouble it ripens in two 
Bhonlhs and a half, is cut down close by the ground, stacked for one or 
two day^ and then trodden out. The grain is kept in store-houses, 
and preserres well for two years. It is boiled entire, like rice. The 
EDaw ts only used for fuel. A good crop produces twelve seeds, a 
middling one, eight. It requires a rich black clay.^ 

Haraka — as it is found to injure the succeeding crop of ragi, is 
ne\er in the south cultivated on the best soil, and rarely on that of the 

' The following i* given l>y Professor Church as the chemical composition of the 
^nin:— In lOo parts theic arc, water, i2'0 ; albuminoUls, :2-6 ; surch, 69-4; oil, 3*6 ; 
W«, 1-0 : uh 1-4. The nutrient ratio is 1 : 6, and the n»»trieni value 89. 




I 




second quality. It is commonly followed by a crop of horse gram, ar 
is seldom allowed any manure. In the spring plough five times. The 
dung, if any be given, must be put on before the last ploughing. When 
the heavy rains commence, sow broad-cast, and plough in the seed : 
next day form drills of togari in the same manner as with rrigi. When 
the sprouts are a span high, hoe with the kttntc^ once longitudinally and 
once across the tield. Next weed with the ujare. It ripens in six 
months ; and having been cut down near the root, is stacked for six days. 
It is then trodden out by cattle. The seed reserved for sowing must be 
well dried in the sun. The remainder is preserved in the kannja^ but 
does not keep long. It is both bulled like rice, and made into flour 
for dressing as hittu, or pudding. The straw is eaten by everj* kind of 
cattle ; but, of all the fodders used here, this is reckoned the worst. 

The following is the process of cultivation in the east. At the 
commencement of the rains, plough three times in the course of a few 
days. As soon as the heavy rains begin, sow the seed broad-cast, and 
cover it by a third ploughing. It requires no manure, and here the 
pulse called togari is never sown with hiraka. At the end of a 
month weed it with the implement called woravdrL It requires six 
months to ripen, and is cut near the root, stacked on the field for five 
or six days, and then dried in the sun, and trodden out. The grain is 
commonly presened in pits, and does not keep longer than one year. 
It is never made into fiour. The straw is bad farage» and is used 
chiefly for manure. The produce in a good crop is twenty-fold ; in a 
middling crop fifteen-fold. 

Hdraka at Madgiri is sown in low soft places, where, in the rainy 
season, water is found near the surface. The soil is of different kinds. 
In Wiis'Akha, Jye.'^htha and .Ashadha, or three months following the 
middle of April, plough three times in the course of thirty days. After 
the next rain that happens, harrow with the rake drawn by oxen, sow 
broad-cast, and then repeat the harrowing. It ripens in six months with- 
out farther trouble. As fodder for cattle, the straw is reckoned equal 
to that of rdgi, or of hurali. The produce in a good crop is forty-fold. 

Alaandi.^Of this grain there is but one kind, and it is cultivated 
in the south only as a kdr crop, which is performed exactly in the 
same manner with that of the kdr udtfu. The green pods, and ripe 
grain, are both made into curries, by frying them in oil with tamarinds, 
turmeric, onions, capsicum, and salt. Horses eat the grain ; but the 
straw is only useful as manure.* 

' According to I'rofessor Church loo parts of ihe Jiusked bcmn conUun — water, 
I2'5 parts; altmniinoKis, 24' I ; .starch, 56*8; oil, fj; tibrc, i 'S ; and ash, 3*5, of 



which I 'o consisLs of phusjihonc acid. 




rt9 



^^^Bflhffali or horse-gram is of two kinds, black and white or red .: both 
^Ke Km-n intermixed. The worst qualities of soil are those commonly 
used for this grain in the east ; and on the same fitlds, same, haraka 
ind huchchellu are cultivated, without one crop injuring the other, or 
without a rotation being considered as of the smallest benefit. For 
honc^nmi plough twice» in the course of a few days, any time in 
Kirtika. Then after a shower sow broad-cast ; or, if none happen, 
steep the seed for three hours in water. Plough in the seed. It has 
no manure, and in three months ripens without farther trouble. Cut 
il down early in the morning, stack it for one day, and then dry it five 
days in the sun. Tread it out, and clean it with a fan. It preser%'es 
best in a store-house, but does not keep longer than one year. The 
iuage is here reckoned inferior to rfgi straw. The produce in a good 
onp is fifteen-fold ; and in a middling one ten-fold. 

In the south the two varieties, the red and the black, are always 
»wn intermixed. In the last half of Srdvana, plough three times. 
Sow broodost with the first rain of Bhadrapada. It requires no 
■anurt% and the seed is covered by a fourth ploughing. In three 
tbs it ripens without farther trouble, and is then pulled up by the 
and stacked for eight days : after which it is spread in the sun to 
tfcy, and next day is trodden out by oxen. The seed for sowing must 
be well dried in the sun, and preserved in muifts ; the remainder is 
kept in pots, or in the kanaja. It is used for human food, cither 
dfCSfted as curr)*, or i>arched ; but the chief consumption of it is for 
cattle, both horses and bullocks. The straw is an excellent fodder, and is 
preferred even to that of rdgi. It is generally sown on the two worst 
aoab« in fields that are never used for anything else; but it also follows as a 
•ecood crop after jd]a : or, when from want of rain the crop of rdgi has 
fiuled, the field is ploughed up and sown with horse-gram. In this 
Oic, the next crop of ragi will l>e very poor, unless it be allowed a 
peat quantity of manure. In places where the red and black horse- 
g^ams are kept separate, the black kind is sown from twelve to twenty 
djys later than the other. 

The only kind cultivated towards the north-east is the white. 
Except after kdr c//w, or upon new ground, it never succeeds. The 
k)nger the ground has been waste, esi>ecially if it has been overgrown 
with small bushes of the fangtitii\ or bandAri {cassia auricuhita and 
dfidonta viscosa\ so much the better for hura/J. It grows best upon ash- 
ooloured soil, and next to that prefers a red soil, in which there is 
much sand. In Sra%-ana, burn the bushes ; and either then^ or in the 
oounc of the ne.\t month, plough once. After the next good rnin sow 
Ibe swrd broadcast, and plough the field across the former furrows. 




m 



FLORA 



The hurali at Sira is black and white mixed. It grows better on 
stony than on sandy soils ; and gives the greatest crops when cultivated 
on land that has been waste, and over-run with bushes ; but it also 
thrives tolerably on land that is alternately cultivated with it and same, 
or sajje. In the month which precedes and that which follows the 
autumnal equinox, sow the seed broad-cast, and then cover it with the 
plough. In four months it ripens without farther trouble. Both straw 
and husks are reckoned good for lalxiuring cattle ; but they are said 
to be bad for milch cows.* 

0ddu — is of two kinds ; chik uddity and diui uddu. The chik uddu 
seems to be a variety, with black seeds. It is cultivated in Mysore 
District as follows : — The ploughing commences ten days after the feast 
Sivardtriy in February. Previous to the first ploughing, if there has 
not recently been any rain, the field must have a Uttle water, and then 
it is three times ploughed. The seed is sown immediately before the 
third ploughing, by which it is covered. This crop obtains neither 
water, manure, nor weeding. The straw, when ripe, is pulled up by 
the roots, stacked for three days, dried two days in the sun, and then 
trodden out by bullocks. The flour, made into cakes, and fried in oil, 
is here a common article of diet It Is also mixed with rice Hour, and 
made into white cakes called do$i^ which are also fried in oil, and are 
a favourite food. The straw is reckoned pernicious to cattle. It is 
thrown on the dunghill, and serves to increase the quantity of manure. 
The grain is always preserved in the mude^ or straw bag. 

Dod uddu is also called hain uddu. It is cultivated and managed 
exactly like the other kind j but the first ploughing is on the eighth 
day after the Swama Gauri vrata^ in August. The sowing season is 
fifteen days aflenvard.s. The straw is equally pernicious to cattle, but 
the grain is reckoned better than that of the (hik uddu. 

About Madgiri it grows best on a black soil, which it docs not 
injure for the succeeding crop of jija. Plough twice in Ashadha or 
Sravana, the fourth and fifth months after the vernal equinox. After 
the next rain sow broad-cast, and plough in the seed In three and a 

' The following is the result of F'rofess^tr Church's analysis of horae-gnun : — 











la loo port* 


lo 1 lb 










unhiiftked 


IM JO. 


Water 


.. 






... no 


I n^ 


Albuminoids 






... w*5 


3 262 


StAfch 


., 






... 56-0 


8 4» 


on ... 


.. 






... 1-9 


133 


Fibre 


1. 






... 5*4 .. 


378 


A»h ... 


... 






... Z-2 


324 


TTie nutrient ratio is I 


:a7. 


and 


the 


nutricni co-efficient 8j. The uh containa 



nearly one-third Its weight of phosphoric add. 



tit 



lonths it ripens without farther trouble. The straw is only useful 
tibdder for camels. 

/>i}if uddu is cultivated in the west on good rdgi soils, and is taken 
as an alternate crop with that grain. After cutting tlie rdgi the field is 
ploughed once a month for a year. At the last ploughing some people 
sov the seed broad-cast^ and cover it with the plough ; others drop it 
into the furrow after the plough. In this last case, the young plants 
ire always too thick ; and when they are a month old, part of them 
must be destroyed by the hoc drawn by oxen. If sown broad-cast, the 
weeds at the end of a month must be removed by the hand. The 
broad-cast sowing gives least trouble. The drill uddu produces a little 
metre. It ripens in three months. 

The ckittu^ or lesser uddu^ is cultivated at the same season with the 
kdr riigj\ and requires four months to ripen. Owing to a more 
ImurianC growth, even when sown broadcast, it requires the use of the 
hoe drawn by oxen. It is not, however, so productive as the great 
uddu. Cattle eat the straw of uddu when mixed with the husks, and 
with those of hurali, kadale, avarc, and logari, and wiih the spikes of 
rag), after these have been cleared of grain. This fodder is reckoned 
superior to even the straw of rigi, 

HeaartL^It is of one kind only, but is cultivated in the south both 
as a Aiii/t and as a hfr crop ; in both of which the manner of cultivation 
hi catactly the same as that of the uddus. The straw, being equally 
imfit for cattle, is reserved for manure. The grain is dressed as curry. 

In the east it is commonly raised on dry field. It requires a black 
day ; and, although it have no manure, it does not injure the following 
crop of rdgi. In the course of a few days in Vais'dkha, plough twice, 
sow broad-cast, plough the seed, and harrow. In three months it 
ripens without farther trouble. It is then cut by the ground, stacked 
for six days, dried in the sun for four, and trodden out by oxen as 
usual The grain, for use, is preserved in store-houses, and does not 
keep good more than two months, even although it be occasionally 
dried The straw is totally useless, and will not even answer for 
manure. 

The htsaru cultivated at Sira is called kari^ or black, and requires 
a black soil, to which it is said to add much strength. It is therefore 
taken alternately with nafatje^ or with huchchellu^ both of which are 
considered as exhausting crops. It is cultivated exactly in the same 
manner as kurali is, and ripens in three months. Except for feeding 
camds, its straw or husks are of no use. 

In a few places in Shimoga where there is a moist black soil, the 
rice-ground produces a second crop of kadale, and of haant. For the 




J 



133 



FLORA 



hesarii, the fivid after the rice Iianest must be ploughed twice. In the 
month following the shortest day, it must be watered from a reservoir, 
and smoothed with the implement called koradu. As a mark for the 
sower, furrows are then drawn through the whole field, at the distance 
of four cubits ; and the seed having l)oen sown broadcast is covered 
by the plough. The field is then smoothed with the koradu^ and in 
four months the crop ripens. 

Wollellu — is cultivated near Seringapatam, and in some places is 
called phuiagana eliu. It is raised exactly like the kar uddu, cut down 
when ripe, and stacked for seven days. It is then exposed to the sun 
for three days, but at night is collected again into a heap ; and, 
between ever)- two days drj'ing in the sun, it is kept a day in the heap. 
By this process the capsules burst of themselves, and the seed falls 
down on the ground. The cultivators sell the greater part of the seed 
to the oil-makers. This oil is here in common use with the natives, 
both for the table and for unction. The seed is also made into flour, 
which is mixed with jaggor>', and formed into a variety of sweet cakes. 
The straw is used for fuel and for manure. 

In Kolar it is more commonly called achcheliu^ and is culti\'ated as 
foUows. In Vais'ikha plough twice, without manure, sow broad-cast, 
and plough in the seed. In three months it ripens without farther 
trouble, is cut down by the ground, and is afterwards managed exactly 
like the uddu. The seed is preser\'ed in the same manner. The 
produce in a good crop is twenty seeds, and in a middling one twelve. 
The straw is used for fuel 

North of the Tilmkdr District are cultivated two kinds of sesamum^ 
the karu or woiieijuy and the gure//u. The last forms part of the 
watered crops ; the kar-ejju is cultivated on dr)- field. The soil best 
fitted for it is darty or stony land, which ansv^crs also for same 
and humli. The ground on which kar-eUu has been cultivated will 
answur for the last-mentioned grain, but not so well as that which has 
been uncultivated. After it, even without dung, same thrives well. 
The same ground will every year produce a good crop of this e//u. If 
a crop of el|u is taken one year, and a crop of samt- the next, and so on 
successively, the crops of cUu will be poor, but those of same will be 
good. After the first rain that happens in Vais'akha, which begins 
about the middle of April, plough three times. With the next rain sow 
broad-<'ast, and plough in the seed. In between four and five months, 
it ripens without farther trouble. The produce in a good crop is 
eighty-fold. 

In the west the kar-(llu is sown on ragi fields that consist of a red 
soil, and does not exhaust them. The field is ploughed as for rdgi, 



WOLLELLU 



»*3 



not allowed manure. The seed is mixed with sand, sown broad- 
harrowed with the rake drawn by oxen. It ripens in four 
ilhs withoui ferther trouble. The seed is equal to half of the ragi 
»oul(I l*e sown on the same field. The produce is at>out twenty 
The straw is burned, and the ashes are used for manure. 
Hochchella — or the foolish-oilplant^ is near Seringapatam most 
cnnmonly sown aAcr jdja as a second crop. AV'hen that has been 
jMped, plough four times in the counie of eight days. Tow.ard the end 
Srivana, or about the middle of August, after a good rain, sow 
and plough in the seed. It requires neither manure nor 
and ripens in three months. It is cut near the root and 
ttied for eight days. Then, having been for two or three days 
c^Cfled 10 the sun, the seed is beaten out with a stick, and separated 
bgn ftagincnts of the plant by a fan. The seed is kept in pots. Part 
w parched and made into sweetmeats with jaggor>' ; but the 
part is sold to the oil-maker for expression. This oil is used in 
Otekay. but is reckoned infcriur to that of wo{le//u. The stems are a 
fcroorite food of the camel ; but are disliked by the bullock, though 
tut often forces this animal to eat them. When not used as a second 
ODp ifier jdja, it is always sown on the two poorer soils. 

Tbt kuchcfuKu near Bangalore is managed exactly in the same 
taner as the tvolMJu The 70 seers measure require a little more 
mer than the other c}lu, and gives 65 seers of oil (or a little more 
- callons). This also is used for the table. The cake is never 
r cuiT)-, but is commonly given to milch cattle. 
Uiuhekeiju is never sown at Kolar as a second crop. After the male, 
» hairy rains are over, plough once, sow broad-cast, and plough in the 
«*4 It gets no manure, and in three months ripens without farther 
■fulile. It is then cut down near the root, stacked for six days, dried 
■ the Sim for three, and trodden out. The seed is prcser^'ed in store- 
^^Ks ; the straw is used only as manure. 

^^■b Madgiri huchchellu is .sown in places called javugu, or sticking- 
^fc, which arc situated at the bottom of rocks ; from whence in the 
OBiTveason the water filters, and renders the soil ver>' moist. In such 
pbca nothing else will thrive. When the rain has set in so late as to 
pnrcnt the cultivation of anything else, the huchchelju is sown also on 
wjrland, especially on rdgi fields. On such soils, however, it does not 
•BtokL In Bhidrapada or Asvija (from about the middle of August till 
rinut thai of October), plough once, sow broad-cast, and plough in the 
Jeni, whic-h ripens in four months. 

fiaralo. — Two varieties of it are common ; the ckikka^ or little 
binlii, cultivated in gardens ; and the dodda, or great haralu, that is 



124 



FLORA 



cultivaled in the fields. To grow the latter : — Tn the spring, plough 
five times before the 15th of Vais'Akha. With the first gtXKi rain tliai 
happens afterwards, draw furrows all over the field at a cubit's distance ; 
and having put the seeds into these at a simibrdisunce, cover them by 
drawing furrows close to the former. ^Vhen the plants are eight inches 
high, hoe the inter\'als by drawing the kuntc first lo"g'tu*Ji"alIy, and 
then transversely. When the plants are a cubit and a lialf high, give 
the intervals a double ploughing. The plant requires no manure, and 
in eight months begins to produce ripe fruit. A bunch is known to be 
ripe by one or two of the capsules bursting ; and then all those which 
are ripe are collected by breaking them off with the hand. They are 
afterguards put into a heap or large basket ; and the bunches, as they 
ripen, are collected once a week, till the commencement of the next 
rainy acason, when the plant dies. Once in three weeks or a month, 
when the heap collected is sufficiently large, the capsules are for three 
or four days sprcjid out to the sun, and then beaten with a stick to 
make them burst The seed is then picked out from the husks, and 
either made by the family into oil for domestic use, or sold to the oil- 
makers. It is cultivated on the two best qualities of land, and on the 
better kinds of maraiu. When the same piece of ground is reserved 
always for the cultivation of this |>l;inl, the succeeding crops are better 
than the first ; when cultivated alternately with rdgi, it seems neither to 
improve nor injure the soil for that grain. 

In Kolar District both the great and small kinds are cultivated ; but, 
although the mode of cultivation is the same for both, they arc alwa>'s 
kept separate. In the beginning of the female or slight tuins plough 
twice. When the rains become heavy, plough again ; and then, at the 
distance of three-quarters of a cubit from each other in all directions, 
place the seeds in the furrows. When the plants are a span high, weed 
with the plough, throwing the earth up in ridges at the roots of the 
plants. At the end of the first and second months from the former 
weeding, repeat this operation. In four months it begins to give ripe 
fruit ; and once in four days the bunches that are ripe are collecteci in 
a pit until a sufficient quantity is procured. It is llien exposed to the 
sun, and the husks are beaten off with a stick. In the May following, 
the plant dries up^ and is cut for fuel. It is only cultivated in the good 
rdgi soils, which it rather improves for that grain, although it gels no 
dung. The small kind is reckoned the best, and most productive. 

Haralu is cultivated in the north-east on a particular soil, which is 
reserved for the purpose, and consists of ash-coloured clay mixed with 
sand. There are here in common use three kinds of haraiu \ the 
phoia or field ; and the do^ifa, and chiffUt which are cultivated in 



HA R ALU 



'25 



prdens, A red kind is also to be seen in gardens, where it is raised 
nan ornament The <hit haraiu produces the liest oil. Next to it is 
^fkUiX that is culti\-ated in the fields. In the couree of a few days, 
time in the three months following the vernal equinox, plough 
limes. With the nest rain that happens, plough again, and at 
same lime drop the seeds in one furrow at the distance of one 
id a half, and then cover them with the next furrow. A month 
hoe with the kunie^ so as to kill the weeds, and to throw the 
in ridges toward the roots of the plant. It ripens without farther 
uhic At the time the htxrafu is planted, seeds of the pulses called 
and levari arc commonly scattered through the field. In four 
flwuhs after this, the haralu begins to produce ripe fruit, and for three 
Oflnihs continues in full crop. For two months more it produces 
■I& quantities. 
AncAe, of the kind called phoia, is cultivated at Sira. For this a 
wil is reckoned best : and as it is thought to improve the soil, 
Btlle dgi that is sown on dry field generally follows it. In the first 
winih after the vernal equinox, plough twice j then, with the first rain 
ffltfaenext month, at every cubit's distance throughout the field, draw 
fcnt;¥» intersecting each other at right angles. At every intersection 
iift'pa seed, and cover them with another furrow. After two months 
•wtJ rith the plough ; and with the kunU, or hoe drawn by oxen, 
^wpthc earth in ridges toward the young plants. In six months it 
to give ripe fruit, which for three months is gathered once a 

San&ba. — For the cultivation of this plant as pursued in the 
t)istrict, the soil ought to be red or black, like the best kind 
for cutlivation of rdgi. It is allowed no manure ; and the seed is 
broadcast on the ground, without any previous cultivation, at the 
when the rains become what the natives call male, that is to say, 
ihey become heavy. After being sown, the field is ploughed 
once lengthwise, and once across ; but receives no farther cultiva- 
At other times the sanabu is cultivated on rice ground in the 
'Kason ; but it must then be watered from a canal or reser\'oir. It 
K|tures four months to ripen, which is known by the seeds ha^-ing 
\c t3 fiill maturit)'. After being cut down, it is spread out to the 
and dried. The seed is then beaten out by striking the jwds 
: a stick. After this, the stems are tied up in large bundles, about 
blhoms in circumference, and are preserved in stacks or under 



Cotton.— The soil on which it is sown at Sira is a black clay con- 
taining nodules of limestone. In the two months following the vernal 



t26 



FLORA 



equinox, plough three times. At any convenient lime, in the two next 
months, mix the seed with duny, nnd drop it in the furrows after the 
plough, forming lines about nine inches apart. A month afterwards 
plough again between the lines ; and in order to destroy the super- 
fluous plants and weeds, use the hoe drawn by oxen three limes, cross- 
ing these furrows at right angles. The second and third times that this 
hoc is used, it must follow the same track as at rtrst , otherwise too 
niany of the plants would be destroyed. Between each hoeing three 
or four days should intervene. In six months the cotton bt^ins to 
produce ripe capsules, and continues in crop four more. The plants 
are then cut close to the ground ; and after the next rainy season the 
field is ploughed twice in contrary dirct'tions. A month afterwards it 
is hoed once or twice with the same implement, and it produces a crop 
twice as great as it did in the first year. In the third year a crop of 
sdme or navmc must be taken, and in the fourth year cotton is again 
sown a.s at first 

The principal crop in the fine country towards Narsipur and Talkad 
is cotton, which there is never raised in soil that contains calcareous 
nodules. The black soil that is free from lime is divided into three 
qualities. The first gives annually two crops, one of j61a and one of 
cotton ; the two inferior qualities produce cotton only. 

Cotton is raised towards Harihar entirely on black soil, and is either 
sown as a crop by itself, or drilled in the rows of a navane field In 
the former case, two crops of cotton cannot follow each other^ but one 
crop of j61a at least must intervene. In the second month after the 
vernal equinox, the field is ploughed once, then manured, then hoed 
with the Jie^ kuntc ; and the grass is kept down by occasional hoeings 
with the boiu kufiie, until the sowing season in the month preceding 
the autumnal equinox. The seed is sown by a drill having only 
two bills, behind each of which is fixed a sharppointed bamboo, 
through which a man drops the seed ; so that each drill requires the 
attendance of three men and two oxen. The seed, in order to allow 
it to run through the bamboo, is first dipped in cow-dung and water, 
and then mixed with some earth. Twenty days after sowing, and also 
on the thirty-fifth and fiftieth days, the field is hoed with the edife kunfe. 
The crop season is during the month before and that after the vernal 
influence. 

Tobacco is sown in Banavar in the dry field cultivated for ragi and 
other similar grains, of which a crop must intervene between every two 
crops of tobacco. When the season proves very wet, it cannot be 
cultivated, and it requires a good ragt soil. A few small stones do no 
harm, but it will not grow on the hard soil called dare; and, in fact, 




TOBACCO 



t%r 



the soil of the first qualit>' is that usually employed, though sometimes 
the tobacco is planted on the best fields of the second quality. In the 
ihiee months following the vernal equinox, the field ought, if possible, 
to be ploughed ten limes; but some of these pioughings are often 
neglected. .Vfter the fourth or fifth time, sheep and cattle must for some 
nights be kept on the field for manure. During the last fifteen days of 
the second month after midsummer, small holes are made ihroughout 
the field. They are formed with the hand, and disix>scd in rows distant 
fitom each other i \ cubit ; and in every hole a young tobacco plant is 
set This being the rainy season, the tobacco requires no watering, 
aiik»b during the first ten days from its having been transplanted tliere 
should happen to be two successive fair days. In this case, on the 
second fair day, water must be given with a poL On tlie fifteenth day a 
Utile dung is put into each hole, and the field is hoed with the krink. 
Every fourth or fifth day, until the tobacco is cut, this is repeated, so as 
10 keep the soil open and well pulverized. At the end of a month and 
a half, the top shoots of the plants are pinched off, and every eight or 
ten days this is repeated ; so that six or seven leaves only are permitted 
to remain on each stem. In the month preceding the shortest day, it 
K fit for cutting. 

Tbc stems are cut about four or five inches from the ground, and 
are then split lengthwise ; so that each portion has three or four leaves. 
These half stems are strung upon a line, which is passed through their 
root ends ; and then for twenty days they are spread out to the sun and 
air. Every third day they are turned, and they must be covered with 
mats should there happen to be rain ; but at this season that seldom 
comes. The tobacco is then taken into the house, put into a heap, and 
tnmcd four or five times, with an interval of three days between each 
time. It is then fit for sale, and by the merchants is made up into 
bundles which include the stems. 

In order to prepare the seedlings, a plot of ground must be dug in 
the nionth which precedes the longest day. It must be then cleared 
frtMD stones, and separated by linle banks into squares for watering, in 
^riie same manner as in this country is done to kitchen gardens. The 
^HpbMXO seed is then mixed with dung, and sown in the squares, which 
^mrc wnoothed with the hand, sprinkled with water, and then covered 
with branches of the wild dale. Kvery third day it must be watered. 
On the eighth day the planta come up, and then the palm branches must 
be removed. If the plants be wanted soon, they ought to have more dung, 
and to be kept cle.^r from weeds. With this management, they arc fit 
for transplanting in from a month to six weeks. If they are not wanted 
for two months, or ten weeks, the second dunging is omitted, and the 



n 



A 



t« 



FLORA 



growth of the plants is checked by giving them no water for eight days 
after they come up. 

Saslve is a mustard which is always sown, m the east, mixed with 
rigi. It ripens sooner than that grain ; and, when dry, the branches 
are broken with the hand, exposed two da)^ to the sun, and then 
beaten out with a stick. In this country, oil is never made from the 
seed, as is usual in Bengal ; it is employed as a seasoning in curries and 
pickles. 

Kadale always requires a black mould ; and is cultivated, in the 
west, partly as a second crop after rigi, and partly on fields that ha:'e 
given no other crop in the year. In this case, the produce is much 
greater, and the manner of cultivation is as follows : — In the two months 
preceding the autumnal equinox, the r^gi having been cut, the field 
is ploughed once a month for fourteen or fifteen months. Then in the 
course of four or five days plough twice. After the last ploughing, drop 
the seed in the furrows at six inches distance from each other, and it 
ripens without farther trouble. The seed is sown as thick as that of 
rigi. 

it is a considerable crop in the south-east of the Mysore District, but 
80 exhausts the .soil of even the richest fields that it is seldom taken 
from the same ground oftcner than once in seven years. It is generally 
sown after j6la in place of cotton, and must be followed by wheat 
wollellu or rdgi. The two former may be followed by cotton, the rdgi 
cannot. In the third year, when rag! has been used, the field is sown 
with navane or jdja, succeeded as usual by cotton. Immediately after 
the j(5]a has been cut, which is about the autumnal equinox, the field is 
ploughed once, then dunged, and then ploughed three times, all in the 
course of a month. In the beginning of the second month after the 
autumnal equinox, the kadale is sown in drills like the cotton ; but the 
drills are only half a cubit distant. Helween the drills, on the fifteenth 
day, the hoe drawn by oxen is used. On the thirtieth the weeds are 
removed by the Maie kudagoiu. If the soil be rather hard, about the 
thirty-third day the hoe drawn by oxen must be again used. In four 
months the katiaie ripens. Kadale is sometimes sown after a fallow ; in 
which case the ground is prepared in a similar manner as for cotton in 
the two poorer soils. 

Towards Harihar, a few rich spots are reserved solely for the cultiva- 
tion of kaiiaU, and these are cultivated in the following manner: — In 
the month following the vernal equinox the field is ploughed once, then 
manured, and in the following month is hoed with the heg kunie. 
Between that period and the month preceding the shortest day, the 
grass is ploughed down twice, and the seed is sown with the sharp 




niTEAT 



129 



bgmboo following the plough, and covered with the he^kunk. It ripens 
io three months. ' 

Wheat— There are two kinds cultivated, jave gMi {/n'ticum 
mmnaitm) and hotk gbdhi {iritiaim spelta). For the fonner, in Kolar, 
the ground is sometimes ploughed five times ;. and sometimes dug with 
the hoe called koi gudali to the depth of one cubit, which is reckoned 
pttfcnblc In Jy(5shtlia (May — June) the seed is sown broad-cast^ and 
cofwed with the hoe. Channels and squares are then formed, and the 
is smoothed with the hand and dunged ; while such of the seed 
happen to be above the ground is pushed down with the finger, 
ly-five days the field must be watered nine times. It is then 
■esded with the instrument called worai*ari\ after which one watering 
m SUE days suffices. It ripens in three months, is cut, tied up in small 

P*^" and stacked for four days. It is then dried one day in the sun, 
isbed out by beating the sheaves against a log of timber. To 
the awns, the grain is then beaten with a stick. In the fields 
It, radishes are planted on the mounds which divide the 
fqoares. 

In the bhck clay in Madgiri, wheat of the kind called y^tv godhi 
i*tbe roost common crop. It is but a poor grain, and five-twelfths 
'i It consist of husks. Any time in Pushya. (Dec. — Jan.) plough once ; 
oeaday, if there be no rain, water the field, and plough again across, 
(^wppi^g the seed in the same manner as in sowing \6\7l The plots 
taat be formed in the same manner. It gets no manure nor weeding, 
ffid requires only three waterings, on the fortieth, sixtieth and cighu'eth 
(hyv It is much subject to disease, and not above one crop in four 
• good. After reaping the wheat, the field, in order to expose the soil 
I the rain, must be immediately ploughed. 

[In Sira, in place of the Vais'dkha crop, when there is a scarcity of 

wheat, bothyrtcr and hatte^ are sown on rice-lands. These grains 

be followed by a Kdrtika crop of rdgi ; but by this process the 

is as much exhausted as if it had been sown with navane. If 

Church gives the following analysis of the composition of chick pea, or 
2IVO ' — 






In ioopwt« 


In lib 




HuikH mth btttlc 


huslcMl 


W.ler 


... 11-5 ... II-2 ... 


J ost 367 grs 


Albuminoids 


... 317 ... 19-5 - 


3 n 307 „ 


Starch 


... 59-0 ... 53-8 .., 


. 9 .» »92 » 


Oil 


... 4-2 ... 4-6 - 


. „ 294 ,. 


Fibre 


... 1*0 ... 7'S .. 


. „ 70 .. 


Ash 


... 2*6 .,. 3*1 .. 


. „ 182 „ 



Tie Mb of husked conlaia'S n, and of unhusked o*S of phosphoric acid. The 
HBtel ntio of the unhu&Wed peas is i t 3*3 ; the nutrient value 84. 

K 



130 



FLORA 



the Kdrtika crop he altogether left out, the VaUtikha crop of rice follow- 
ing wheat will be as good as if the ground liad been regularly cultivated 
for rice alone ; and in India it is a commonly received opinion, that 
where a supply of water admits of it, ground can never be in such good 
heart as when regularly cultivated by a succession of rice crops. VVheat 
requires a clay soil, and the manner of cultivating both kinds is the 
same. In the two months preceding, :^nd the one following the autumnal 
equinox, plough five times. In the following month, alter a rain, or 
after having watered the field, plough again, and drop the seed into the 
furrows. Then divide it into sijuares, as for j61a, and water it once a 
month. The straw is only used for fire. If given to cattle for fodder, 
it is supposed capable of producing the distemper. 

A very small quantity of the wheat called Jave godhi is raised near 
Periyapatna on fields of a very rich soil, from which alternate crops of 
hadaie and of it are taken. The manure is given to the kadale ; but 
wheat requires none. From the winter to the summer solstice plough 
once a month. Then in the following month plough twice, sow broad- 
cast, and cover the seed with the plough. It ripens in four months 
without farther trouble. 

The wheat raised near Narsipur in the Mysore District is of the kind 
called }iott€ gbdhi^ and there are two seasons for its cultivation, the hain 
and kdr. It is sown on the best soil only, and always after a crop of 
kadale. The krir season, when the rains set in early, is always pre- 
ferred, not only as the wheat is then more productive, but as in the 
same year it may be followed by a crop of cotton, which is not the case 
with the hain wheat. In the two months following the vernal equinoic, 
the field for kdr wheat is dunged, ploughed two or three times, and 
then hoed with the kunU^ which is drawn by oxen. The seed is then 
sown, in drills one cubit distant, by dropping it in the furrow after a 
plough. On the fifteenth, twenty-eighth and thirty-fifth days the hoe is 
again used, and two or three days aftenvards the weeds are removed by 
the kah kuda^^olu. This wheat ripens in three months and a half, and is 
immediately followed by a crop of cotton. The wheat is liable to be 
spoiled by a disease called arsina mdri\ owing to which, in the course 
of one day, it becomes yellow and dies. 

When the rains are late in coming, the hain crop of wheat is taken 
after kadale. Cotton cannot be taken in the same year. The manner 
of cultivation is the same as for the kdr crop, only the season is 
different. The ploughings arc performed in the month which pre- 
cedes the autumnal equinox, or in the beginning of that which follows. 
At the end of this month the .seed is sown. The produce is about 
one-half only of iliat of the kar crop. 



RICE 



n^ 



Bloe.— Of the varieties of this grain io8 specimens have been 
coliectcd in ihe Governmenl Museum, each bearing its appropriate 
nnocuUr name. There are three modes of sowing the seed, from 
vhencc arise three kinds of cutiivaiion. In the first mode the seed is 
»fn dry on the fields that are to rear it to maturity : this is called the 
Unhtta txx pynaji. In the second mode the seed is made to vegetate 
Wore it is sown ; and the field when tilted to receive it is reduced to a 
puddle: this is called imlc batta. In the third kind of cultivation the 
Md is sown very thick in a small plot of ground ; and when it has 
Jbotup to about a fool high, the young rice is transplanted into the 
fiddsirhere it is to ripen : this is called ndti. 

Tbc lands of rice cultivated at Seringapatam are as follow: — dod^a 

Atffii, htitU ktmbatti, arstna kewhatti\ sukadds^ murarjUa, ydhkki raja^ 

hemali, bin sanna baita^putta batta^ ktiri kallu. With the exception 

of the first, which takes seven months, all the other kinds ripen in five 

Md 1 half months. 

Ic ihc hain crop the following is the management of the dry-seed 

Itreaimn. During the months Phalguna, Chaitra and Vais'dkha, that 

ikErom February till May, plough twice a month; ha\ing, three days 

rious to the first ploughing in Phdlguna, softened the soil by giving 

field water. After the fourth ploughing the field must be manured 

ig, procured either from the city or cow-house. After the fifth 

»g the fields must be watered either by rain or from the canal ; 

Kid three days afler\\'ards the seed must be sown broad-cast and then 

corcrwi by the sixth ploughing. Any rain that happens to fall for the 

iiRl thirty days after sowing the seed must be allowed to run off by a 

bnaifh in the bank which surrounds the fields ; and should much rain 

1*11 at this season, the crop is considerably injured. Should there have 

been no rain for the first thirty days, the field must be kept constantly 

inundated till the crop be ripe ; but if there have been occasional 

siiowcPi the inundation should not commence till the forty-fifth day. 

W^ecding and loosening the soil about the roots of the young plants 

with the hand, and placing them at proper distances, where sown too 

or too far apart, must be performed tlirec times ; first on the 

■fifth or fiftieth day; secondly twenty days afterwards; and thirdly 

days after the second weeding. These periods refer to the crops 

that require seven months to ripen. For rice which ripens in five and 

a half months, the field must be inundated on the twentieth day ; and 

wecdings are on the twentieth, thirtieth and fortieth days. 

the liain crop llie following is the manner of conducting the 

s|)Touied-seed culti\'ation. The ploughing season occupies the month 

ihifiha (June — July). During the whole of this time the field is 

K 3 



FLORA 



inundated and is ploughed four times ; while at each ploughing it is 
turned over twice in two different directions, which cross each other at 
right angles. This may 1^ called double ploughing. About the ist 
of Sra\*ana the field is manured, immediately gets a fifth ploughing, and 
the mud is smoothed by the labourers' feet. All the water except one 
inch in depth must then be let off, and the prepared seed must be sown 
brwid-cast. As it sinks in the mud it requires no labour to cover it. 
For the first twenty-four days the field must once every other day have 
some water, and must afterwards, until ripe, be kept constantly inun- 
dated The weedings are on the twenty-fifth, thirty-fifth and fiftieth 
days. In order to prepare the seed it must be put into a pot, and kept 
for three days covered with water. It is then mixed with an equal 
quantity of rotten cow-dung, and laid on a heap in some part of the 
house, entirely sheltered from the wind. The heap is well covered 
with straw and mats ; and at the end of three days the seed, having 
shot out sprouts about an inch in length, is found fit for sowing. This 
manner of cultivation is much more troublesome than that called dry- 
seed : and the produce from the same extent of ground is in both nearly 
equal ; but the sprouted-seed culti\'ation gives time for a preceding 
crop of pulse on the same field, and saves a quarter of the seed. 

Two distinctions are made in the manner of cultivating transplanted 
rice; the one called /'arrtwi^' or hy dry plants ', and the other called 
nirtigi or by wet ph fits. For both kinds low land is required. 

The manner of raising the dry-seedlings for the hain crop is as 
follows: — Uibour the ground at the same season, and in the same 
manner as for the dry-seed crop. On the ist of Jyeshtha, or in May, 
give the manure, sow the seed very thick and cover it with the plough. 
If no rain fall before the eighth day, then water the field, and again 
on the twenty-second ; but if there are any showers these waterings 
are imnt-cessar)-. From the forty-fifth till the sixtieth day the plants 
continue fit to be removed. In order to be able to raise them for 
transplanting, the field must be inundated for five days before they are 
plucked. The ground on which the dry-seedlings are to be ripened is 
ploughed four times in the course of eight weeks, commencing about 
the 15th of Jy&htha ; but must all the while be inundated. The 
manure is given before the fourth ploughing. After this, the mud 
having been smoothed by the feet, the seedlings are transplanted into 
it, and from three to five plants are stuck together into the mud at 
about a span distance from the other h'ttle bunches. The water is then 
let off for a day : afterwards the field, till the grain is ripe, is kept 
constantly inundated. The weedings are performed on the t^ventieth^ 
thirty-fifth and forty-fifth days after transplanting. 



ft. 




RICE 



m 



manner of raising the wct-seodlings for the transplanted crop in 
n season is as follows :— In the month Phdlguna (Feb. — Mar.) 
ptougb the ground ihree limes, while it is dr>'. On the ist of 
]j6htha inundate the field ; and in the course of fifteen days plough it 
foe tiroes. After the fourth ploughing smooth the mud with the feet, 
«tthe seed very thick and sprinkle dung over it: then let off the 
■ilcr. On the third, sixth and ninth days water again j but the water 
nnat be let off and not allowed to stagnate on the field. After the 
twrffih day inundate until the seedlings be fit for transplantation, 
liiidi will be on the thirtieth day from sowing. The cultivation of the 
BeJd into wiiich the seedlings are transplanted is exactly the same as 
tt«t for the dry-seedlings. The plot on which the seedlings are raised 
produces no crop of pulse ; but various kinds of these grains are sown 
OQ the fields that are to ripen the transplanted crop, and are cut down 
nmuedialely before the ploughing for the rice commences. The pro- 
Akc of the transplanted crop is nearly equal lo that of the dr)'-seed 
odlivation ; and on a good soil, properly cultivated, twenty limes the 
aeol sown is an average crop. 

The Icir crops, according to the time of sowing, are divided into three 
hods. WTien the farm is properly stocked, the seed is sown at the 
most Cavourable season, and the crop is then called the Kumba kdr\ 
fafll if there be a want of hands or cattle, part of the seed is sown 
CBriier, and part later than the proper season ; and tlien it produces 
fiwn thirty to fifty per cent, less than the full crop. When sown too 
early the crop is called Tuh kdr ; when too late it is called Misha kdr. 
ITie produce of the hain and Kumba kdr crops is nearly the same.^ 
Xo Tula kar dry seed is ever sown. The ploughing season for the 
mba lUr dry seed is in Hhidrapada (August), and the seed is sown 
ibout the end of Mdrgasira (December). In the M^sha kar dry-seed 
ihe ploughing commences on the ist of Chaitra (March), and the seed 
El wwn at the feast of Chitra Paurnami in April. The Tula kir 
^ntnUed seed is sown on tlie ist Kirtfka (October), the ploughing 
having commenced with the feast Navardtri, in September. The 
Kumba kar sprouted seed is sown in Pushya, alwut the ist of January. 
The ploughing season occupies a month. The ploughing for the 
b^l^sha kar sprouted seed commences about the 15th of Chaitra. The 
^Hbd is sown about the 16th of Vais'akha (May). The Kumba kdr 
lr;insplanted rice is cultivated only as watered seedlings. The ground 
for the seedlings begins to be ploughed in the end of Kdrtika or 
middle of November, and the seed is sown on the r5th Pushya or 
end of December. The fields on which this crop is ripened are begun 
A'tfNvAs or Kumbkit is, tlie sign Aquariuii ; Tttla is Libra ; and M/sha is .'Krics. 



■JTw 



»34 



to be ploughed in the midtllt of Margasira (isl December). The 
transplanting takes place about the 15th of Migha or end of 
January. The Tula Icdr transplanted rice also is sown nirdgi al)OUt the 
30th of Asvfja or middle of October, and in a month afterwards is 
transplanted. The Mesha kdr transplanted rice is also sown as watered 
seedlings, about the 15th of Vais'ikha (May), and about a month 
afterwards is transplanted. The regular kdr crop of the transplanted 
culdvation does not interfere with a preceding crop of pulse ; but this 
is lost, when from want of stock sufficient to cultivate it at the proper 
time the early or late seasons are adopted. The various modes of 
cultivating the rice give a great advantage to the farmer ; as by 
dividing the labour over great part of the year fewer hands and less 
stock are required to cultivate the same extent of ground than if there 
was only one seed-time, and one harvest. 

The manner of reaping and preserving all the kinds of rice is nearly 
the same. About a week before the corn is fit for reaping, the water is 
let off, that ihe ground may dr)-. The com is cut down about four 
inches from the ground with a reaping-hook called kudagolu or kudagu. 
Without being bound up in sheaves it is put into small slacks, about 
twelve feel high ; in which the stalks are placed outwards and the ears 
inwards. Here the corn remains a week, or if it rains, fourteen days. 
It is then spread out on a threshing-floor made smooth with clay, cow- 
dung and water, and is trodden out by driving bullocks over it If 
there has hjcen rain, the corn, after having been thrcslied, must be dried 
in the sun ; but in dry weather this trouble is unnecessary. It is then 
put up in heaps called rdshi^ which contain about 60 kandagas, or 334 
bushels. The heaps are marked with clay and carefully covered with 
straw. A trench is then dug round it to kee|> o/f the water. For 
twenty or thirty days (formerly, till the division of the crop between 
the Government and the cuUi\'ator took place) the com is allowed to 
remain in the heap. 

The grain is always preserved in the husk, or, as the English in 
India say^ in paddy. There are in use here various ways for keeping 
paddy. Some preserve it in large earthen jars that are kept in the 
house. Some keep it in pits called hagevu. In a hard stony soil they 
dig a narrow shaft, fifteen or sixteen cubits deep. The sides of this 
are then dug away so as to form a cave with a roof about two cubits 
thick. The floor, sides and roof are lined with straw ; and the cave is 
then filled wiih [laddy. These pits contiin from fifteen to thirty 
kandagas. When the paddy is wanted to be beaten out into rice, the 
whole pit must at once be emptied. Other people again build kanajas^ 
or store-houses, which are strongly floored with plank to keep out the 




RICB 



«3S 



or tats. In these store-houses there is no opening for air ; 
ve a row of doors one above another, for taking out the 
gninisit is wanted. Another manner of preserving grain is in small 
{jfadrical stores, which the potters make of clay, and which are called 
>iU!e. The mouth is covered by an inverted pot ; and the paddy, as 
irotcd,isdrawTiout from a small hole at the bottom. Finally, others 
pteem; their paddy in a kind of bags made of straw, and called miudt. 
Ofihcse different means the kanaja and wbde are reckoned the best. 
hdd]' irill keep two years without alteration, and four years without 
tdog unfit for use. Longer than this does not answer, as the grain 
IvooDKs both unwholesome and unpalatable. No person here 
to preserve rice any length of time ; for it is known by 
opoience to be very perishable. All the kinds of paddy are found to 
ptecn-e equally well. That intended for seed must be beaten off from 
il»c slow as soon as cut down, and dried for three days in the sun, 
>fier which it is usually kept in straw bags. 

There are two manners of making paddy into rice ; one by boiling it 

IBrooosly to beating ; and the other by beating alone. The boiling is 

ibodone in two ways. By the first is prepared the rice mtended for 

the use of rajas, and other luxurious persons. A jwt is filled with 

Rpfll parts of water and paddy, whirh is allowed to soak all night, and 

in the morning is boiled for half an hour. The paddy is then spread 

oat in the shade for fifteen da>'s, and afterwards dried in the sim for 

two hours. It is then beaten, to remove the husks. Each grain is 

broken by this operation into four or five pieces, from whence it is 

oiled aidu nugu akki^ or five-piece rice. When dressed, this kind of 

oce swells very much. It is always prepared in the families of the 

nlJAi* and is never made for sale. The operation is very liable to fail ; 

and in that case the rice is totally lost. 

Rice prepared by boiling in the common manner is called kudupai 
•Uj', and is destined for the use of the Sudras, or such low persons as 
« able to procure it Five parts of paddy are put into a pot with one 
J«fft of water, and Ixiiled for about two hours, till it is observed that 
one or two of the grains have burst. It is then spread out in the sun 
for two hours ; and this drying is repeated on the next day ; after which 
the paddy is immediately beaten. Ten parts of paddy, by this 
, Op eration, give five parts of rice, of which one part goes to the person 
^Btt prepares it, for his trouble. Ten seers of paddy are therefore 
^(jnal in value to only four seers of rice. 

The rice used by the Brahmans, and called kasi akki, is never 
boded. On the day before it is to be eaten, the paddy must be 
cspoaed two hours in the sun. If it were beaten inmiediately after 



13* 



FLORA 



being dried, the grain would break, and there would be a considerable 
loss. Even with this precaution many of the grains break ; and, when 
these are separated from the entire rice to render it saleable, the hast 
akki sells dearer than the kudupa! akki^ in the proportion of nine to 
eight. 

The beating is performed chiefly by women. They sometimes, for 
this purpose, use the yiUa, or a block of timber fastened to a wooden 
IcvcT, which is supported on its centre. The woman raises the block 
by pressing with her foot on tlie far end of the lever, and by removing 
her foot allows the block to fall down on the grain. The more 
common way, however, of beating paddy, is by means of a wooden 
pestle, which is generally about four feet in length, and three inches in 
diameter, which is made of heavy timber, and shod with iron. The 
grain is put into a hole formed m a rock or stone. The pestle is first 
raised with the one hand, and then with the other ; which is very hard 
labour for the women. 

The kinds of rice cultivated at Mandya are di^dda batia^ putta baita^ 
hofe kcmhatti^ konawaii^ and muiu batta. The first four take each 
five months to ripen, and the last, three. Every kind may be 
cultivated, either as kain or kdr. The mulu batta is never sown 
except when there is a deficiency of water. The only cultivation here 
is the mole batta^ or sprouted-seed ; the manner of preparing which is as 
follows: Steep the seed in water all night ; ne.\t morning mix it with 
cow-dung, and fresh plants of the tumbc soppu {ph/omis esculeftf(i\ and 
put it in a mthie. On the mwie place a heavy stone, and on the two 
following days sprinkle it with water. On the third day it is fit for 
sowing. 

For the hain crop^ the ploughings, from about the ist of June till 
the middle of July are nine in rmmber. Dung and leaves are then put 
on the field, and trampled into the mud. The water is now let oflT, 
until no more than a depth of one inch remains ; afterwards, the seed 
is sown and a slight sprinkling of dung laid over it A watering once 
in three da)-s is then given ; and after the third time, the field is 
inundated till the grain ripens. The weeds are removed on the 
twentieth, fortieth and sixtieth days. The kar cultivation is exactly 
the same, only the ploughings are in November and December. In 
both kinds of cultivation, and in every species of rice, an equal quantity 
of seed is sown on the same extent of ground, and the produce is 
nearly equal. 

Of the different kinds of rice cultivated at Maddur arisina kembalii^ 
putta batta^ ydiakki raja^ sukadns, konavali^ and murarjila^ are equal 
in produce. The first four ripen in 4^ months, the next in five, and 



>37 



in six. The produce on tirst quality of soil is 114 seeds, on 

quality 100 :><:edS} and on third, half chat quantity. Hoie 

koHiti vn^ doii^a or bili hatfa, which ripen in five raontlis, produce 

]Q or 40 fold, according to quality of soil. All the kinds 

rictniay be raised cither as hain or kir crops, or the mole or nati 

of cultivation. No puuaji is ever attempted. The seedlings for 

biitation, in the naii cultivation, are always raised as nfrdgi. 

The ]jroducc of the same kind of rice in the same soil, whether 

ntcd as bain or kdr» or as mole or nati, is nearly the same. 

Tbe seasons for cultivating rice in the Kolar District are two; and 

ihc iTO croi>s, from the months in which they ripen, are named the 

£i>r>idxDd Vaii'dkha. In this neigbourhood no rice is transplanted. 

ffbcn the seed is sown dry, the cultivation is called /«/«!*// ; when it is 

pR^orcd by being sprouted, it is called mole. 

fhe only kind of rice cultivated as puUdiy or dry seed, is the doty^^ 
^ant; and it is only sown in this manner for the Kartlka crop. In 
tic course of Vais'akha and Jy^shtha plough the ground without water 
ft«D times. About the end of the latter monih (June), after a day's 
oWi WW the seed broad-cast, and cover it with the plough. Then 
(■now the field with the implement called haiivt. The crop has no 
mmnc, and the field is not inundated till the end of the second 
■Wtb; when it must be harrowed again, and the weeds removed by 
tic hand. A good crop of this is reckoned fifteen seeds, a middling 
«t ten seeds. 

The inoie for the Kanika crop is cultivated as follows : In Ashadha, 

od the first half of Snlvana, plough from .seven to nine times, the field 

bong ahrays inundated. Then manure it, either with leaves or dung ; 

Udi are rarely gi%'en : but, could ihey be procured, this would greatly 

•acftasc the produce. Then let out all the water, except two inches in 

iiid sow the prepired seed broad-cast. Next day the field is 

lud sprinkled with some dung. At the end of three days it is 

ftwcrwl with water for four hours. On the seventh, water the field for 

• vholc day. After the tenth day, it must Ije kept constantly 

BoaiUtcd to the depth of two inches. At the end of the month 

iiBTDW it once lengthwise ; oa the third day harrow it across ; 

«d on the fifth day liarrow again lengthwise. Four days afterwards 

»ftd with the hand, and repeat this after an interval of two weeks. 

<\I1 kinds of rice are cultivated in the same manner. The rice for 

^Md, after being uodden out, must be dried three or four days in the 

^^; and may be kept either in a straw nmde., or in a store called 

^maja, WTien it is to be prepared, it must be dricti one day in the 

Mto; then soaked a night in water ; the next morning it must be mixed 



138 



FLORA 



with Jmraiu leaves and dung, and tied up in straw. This is dipped in 
water, and placed under a large stone. In two days it must again be 
dipped, and is then fit for sowing. The produce of the dodda baira, 
which is the common coarse grain of the counlr>', is the greatest. A 
good crop of tilts is said to be fifteen seeds, and middhng crop about 
ten seeds. The other kinds, on the same extent of ground, produce 
eight or ten seers less. 

The mole cultivation for the Vais'Akha crop is as foUows : Ha\*ing 
inundated the field, plough it five or six days during the course of the 
twenty days preceding the feast Dip^\7ili. In the course of the next 
month plough four times. Then let out all the water, except two 
inches in depth ; manure with leaves ; and, having trodden these well 
into the mud, sow the prepared seed broad-cast. Next day dr)- the 
field, and manure it with duug. Three days after, water for two hours. 
Then ever)' second day, for three times, water for four or five hours. 
Afterwards keep the field inundated. At the end of the month 
harrow, with the kalivt^ three times in three directions, with a day's 
rest between each harrowing. A week afterwards weed with the hand, 
and in two weeks repeat this operation. This is the most productive 
crop, and gives from one to two seeds more than that which is reaped 
in Kdrtfka. 

The mode of cultivation, or the season of sowing, makes no 
difference here in the quality of the grain, nor in the length of time 
that it will keep good. The grain is alwa>'s preserved in the husk ; and 
until wanted for immediate consumption, is never beaten. In store- 
houses, or kanajaSy if well dried in the sun previous to its Iiaving been 
put up, it preserves well for two years. Paddy is sometimes kept in 
pits, or in the straiv packages called miuks ; but these are inferior to the 
store-house. 

At Madgiri, when there is plenty of water, the same ground in the 
course of the year gives two crops, the Ktirfika and yais'dkha. The 
former, provided two crops are taken, is the most productive ; but, if 
the Kdrlika be omitted, the Vais'dkha gives a greater return than the 
Kirtika alone would have given ; not, however, equal to the produce of 
both crops. The quality of the grain in both crops is the same. The 
Vais'akha crop, although raised in the dr)* season, is the one most 
regularly taken. For this crop all the kinds of rice may be sown ; for 
the Kartlka crop the Hit sauna batla and kari channat\gl are never 
sown ; as with rain they are apt to lodge. The soil used for tripati 
sanna batta, bill channan^^ kari channangi^ and put raj\ is maralu or 
sandy. The others require a clay, which in the low grounds is always 
black. The red soil is always confined to the rising grounds, and is 



ihmfore never cultivated for rice, except when it can be watered by 
■addflo; and if the water is more than jij feet from the surface, 
dhcK arc n«-er used- Two men and four oxen can, by means of the 
OBcbiDe called hi/^i/r, supply an acre and a half of ground with water 
fldoent to raise a crop of rice. One set works four or five hours in 
the naming, and the other as much in the evening. 

The only manner of cultivating rice that is in use here is the mo/r, or 
ipoiiutl-secd ; the manner of preparing which is as follows : — The ears 
mat be cut off, the grain beaten out immediately, and then dried in 
tfctsun three or four days. It must be preserved in straw or in jars. 
Who wanted for som'ng, it must be exposed to the sun for a days and 
««fced in water all the following night It is then put upon a layer of 
ttrku'esof the yfJtkn {c(x(ofn>pis s^\K(tntfa\ or of /w/vz/w, mixed with 
ificp's dung, and is surrounded by stones, so as to keep it together. It 
• ihcD covered with handdri {dodonaa viscosa) leaves, and pressed down 
ttfti stone. Next morning the upper leaves are removed, and a pot 
afvaer is thrown on the seed, which must be turned with the hand, 
ttdLhen covered again with the leaves and stone. Daily, for three or 
iw (lines, this operation must be repeated, and then the sprouts from 
ifeici'd will be almost an inch long. 

For the Kdrtlka crop plough seven times in the course of thirty 
dijnv the ground all the while being inundated. In the next place 
ninun: the ground with leaves, and tread them into the mud. Then 
ta off the water, and sow the seed broad -cast, covering it with a little 
An^ On the fourth day cover the ground with water, and immediately 
lAenRuds let it run oS*. Repeat this daily till the eighth time, after 
•ifch the field must be kept constantly inundated to the depth of 
«oe nxii for ten days, and four inches for the remainder. The weed- 
i^p are at the end of the sixth, tenth, and twelfth weeks from sowing. 
Tbe iruDn for ploughing continues all the months of Jyfshtha and 

For the Vais'dkha crop the same process is followed; but the plough- 
is from the 15th of As^'fja till the last of Margasirx By 
the whole seed must be sown ; and the nearer it is done to it 
Abetter. 

The Uige-grained rices, do^da baita, which ripens in 4^ months, 
Mdiffrr <hannaHgi and diii chtinnan^\ which ripen in four months, 
irodoce in a good crop twenty-fold, and in an indilTerent crop one-fifth 
lesL Ktmbatli ox doddix kembatti^ and gantda or' sun fta kemhatfi y\c\6. 
C»enty-threc and thirteen-fold respectively in a good crop, or fifteen 
and scvcTffold in an inferior one. The first ripens in five months, the 
acooad in four. Of the small-grained rices, hUi sauna batia^ kari sanna 



FLORA 

batia, put raj vtX\.A tripati sanmi haita^ the first rif>ens in five months, 
the second in five and a half, the third in four, and tlic laurlh in three 
and a half. Their respective yield in a good crop is twenty-four, 
thirty-two, fifteen and seventeen- fold 

In Periyapatna and the west the principal cultivation is the trans- 
planted or ndti^ and by far the greatest quantity of rice cultivated is the 
?iain crop or tmapuiH. The other kinds raised are kembatti^ konatkili^ 
sanna baftn, sanna keitdmita^ and khru ; all ripen in six months, except 
the last, which ripens in five. The following is the manner of 
cultivating the hain ndti or crop of transplanted rice growing in the 
rainy season : — The ground on which the seedlings arc to be raised 
gets seven or eight ploughings between the middle of Vais'akha and 
the loth of Jyeshtha, which are the second and third months after the 
vernal equinox. In the intervals between the ploughings the field is 
inundated ; but at each time that operation is performed, the water is 
let off. After tlie last ploughing, manure with the leaves of the cJuindra 
maiiige {tmrabilis) or ummatU {datura stratnonium) ; but, if these 
cannot l>c had, with the leaves of the chaudangi {solanunt). Then 
tread the leaves into the mud, sow the seed ver>' thick and cover it 
with dung. The seed is in general prepared for sowing by causing it to 
sprout : and the reason assigned for so doing is. that it is thereby 
secured from the birds. If the seed iias been prepared, or mol^^ the 
field has water during the third, sixth, and ninth days, the water being 
allowed to remain on the field all day, and being again let offat night On 
the lenth day the field is filled with water an inch deep and is kept so 
till the eighteenth, when that water is let off. Immediately afterwards 
the field is filled to three inches deep, and is kept thus inundated 
until the seedlings be fit for transplantation. If the seed be sown dry* 
it receives water on the first, second, and third days. On the fourth it 
has the manure which is given to the mok^ when that is sown. It 
receives water again on the seventh, which is let off on the ninth. 
Water is again given on the thirteenth, seventeenth, and twenty-first ; 
and the field is then inundated, until the seedlings are fit for trans- 
pkintation. They must be transplanted between the thirtieth and 
forty-sixth days. 

The ploughings for the fields into which the seedlings aie to be 
transplanted are performed during the time in which these are growing j 
and are done exactly in the same manner as for the field in which the 
seed lias been sown. Stiff ground requires eight ploughings ; in a light 
soil six are suflficJent. The manure is given before the last ploughing. 
The seedlings are pulled in the evening, and kept in water all night. 
Next morning the field has the last ploughing, and the mud is smoothed 




f4» 



ring a plank drawn over it. The seedlings are then planted, and 
pi no water until the eighth day. On the eighth, twelfth, sixteenth and 
hreirieth days the water is kept on the field, and is let off at night. 
Tbcytllow colour occasioned by the transplantation is then changed 
IDlo a deep green ; after which, until the crop ripens, the field is 
OQiBtantly inundated. In a bad soil, the weeds are removed on the 
Thirtjdh day, in a good soil, on the forty-fifth. 

ThctamnTs here make their sproutedseed in the following manner: 
The teed is soaked all night in water, and is then placed in a heap on 
jpieoe of sackcloth, or on some leaves of the plainlain-tree. There 
i) s tnixcd with some buffalo's dung, and the leaves of the Imrikc 
i^cftatm mofU\ and covered with pack-saddles. In the evening it is 
iprinktrd with w^rm water, and covered again. In the morning and 
oomg of the second day it is sprinkled with cold water, and next day 
flisfitfor sowing. 

Ewry kind of rice that is sown in Nagar takes six months to grow ; 
odlhey are of less variety than usual, namely. bUJ baita or heg^ai, and 
Aii^F*ow. which may be cultivated both as drj'-seed and as transplanted ; 
H ^-'jj-ffia, or kimpu^ which can be sown only as dry-seed. 

ira-baUo cuUix'ation is conducted as follows: — In the course of 
ihc tivc months following the winter solstice, the field gets four single 
ptoughings. In the second month after the vernal equinox, it is 
nanured with leaf dung, and ploughed once. ^\fter the next rain, the 
seed is mixed with dr)' cow-dung, sown broad-cast, and covered by the 
tnpleaient called karadu. A month after sowing, when the young rice 
ii about four inches high, the field is turned over with a small plough, 
to kill the grass and to destroy part of the young com, which is always 
•wn too thick. After this, the field is again smoothed with the same 
BDpIement, and harrowed with a bunch of thorns. In the second 
month after the summer solstice, all the Ixinks are repaired, to retain 
the water on the fields, which are then ploughed again and smoothed 
•itb the implement called aliginn koradu. A large rake, called halahi, 
iltben drawn by the hand over the field, to remove the weeds. In the 
month preceding the autumnal equinox, the weeds are removed by the 
bud. In the two months preceding the shortest day, the crop is ripe. 
It is cot close by the ground, and for four days is allowed to lie loose 
on die 6eld. It is then stacked in heaps, with the ears inward, but 
without having been bound up in sheaves. In the course of three 
Booths, it is trampled out by oxen. The grain with the husk is 
mserved in store-houses, or straw bags, and is only made into rice as 
maybe wanted for immediate use. 
The process for transplanted rice, called here w////* is as follows : — ■ 



FLORA 

In order to raise the seedlings, in the course of fifteen or twenty days' 
during the nionlh following the vernal equinox, a plot is inundated, 
and ploughed four times. It ts then manured with any kind of fresh 
leaves, and with the dung made by cattle that have been littered with 
dried leaves. These are ploughed down, and the mud is stnoothedt 
first with the noU^ and afterwards by the mara^ which is a square log 
of timber yoked in the same manner. The field is then drained so 
that three inches of water only remain. In any of the three months 
between the vernal equinox and the summer solstice, the seed is sown 
broad-cast. As this is the dry season, the seedling plot must be very 
low, so as to receive a supply of water from some rivulet. On the 
fifth day after the seed has been sown, the whole water is allowed to 
drain from the plot ; and for three days this is kept dr>-, after which it 
is constantly inundated, till the seedlings are fit for transplantation. 
The field into which they are to be removed is inundated during the 
two months following the summer solstice, and in the couree of three 
days during that period ploughed four times. It is then manured, in 
the same manner as tliL' plot was ; an<l afterwards, in the course of two 
or three days, it is ploughed again three times. The mud is then 
smoothed with the noHy above mentioned ; and the water having been 
let oif to the depth of three inches, the seedlings are transplanted into 
the field, which must be always kept under water ; and a month after 
it has been planted, the weeds must be removed by the liand. The 
liar>'e-st is in the month preceding the winter solstice. 

All the fields are capable of both modes of cultivation. The trans- 
planting is reckoned most troublesome and least productive, and 
requires most seed. A kandaf^a of land is an extent that in the trans- 
planting cultivation rci.juires one kandaga of seed ; '\\\ dry-seed 
cultivation, il requires only fifteen kolagas. The produce of all the 
three kinds of rice is nearly the same, only the heggai gives rather most. 
Of this grain a kandaga of land of the first quality, cultivated by 
tran.splanting, produces eleven or twelve kandagas; land of the second 
quality produces eight kandagas ; and land of the third quality pro- 
duces six kandagas. I'he same ground, cultivated with dry-seed, 
would produce from half a kandaga to one kandaga more. 

The kinds of rice cultivated at Shimoga are samfige dtUa^ he(ta 
kendiii, kemhatti and sanabatti^ producing in a good crop ten, twelve 
and nine-fold respectively, the last two being equal. PC^ these require 
six months to grow. They are all large-grained, except the sanahatti, 
which sells five per cent higher than the others. The lowest ground is 
used for the sami/>a//i, the highest for the iewfift//i. 

The cultivation of all soils and all kinds of rice here is the same, and 




M3 

die onprepared seed is sown by a drill. Immediately after h.in-est, the 
pound is once ploughed. ^Mien the rains commence during the two 
nontht following the vernal equinox, it is ploughed again twice, 
SDOOthwl with the implement called /loradu, and then hoed twice with the 
kt^kwit/, which is drawn by two oxen. This removes the grass ; after 
iritich the clods are broken by drawing the koradu twice over the field, 
•hich rn some measure serves as a rolling-stone. The dung is then 
ipRid ; and after the first good rain the seed is sown with the drill or 
i^, and covered with the koradu. At this season the rain comes in 
Aatm, k)Clwecn which are considerable intervals. On the third day 
after having been sown, the field is hoed with the heg kunity which 
boe a called also ka/ndutige. On the twentieth day, when the seedlings 
' ' >> high, the koradu is used again; then the tdde kufitt\ 
Iiij and finally the harrow, w hich is made of a bunch of 
ihomy bamboos. On the thirtieth day, more grass having sprung, the 
tidi iantie is a^in used, the rows of young corn passing between the 
bxs; and this must be repealed as often as the grass springs. In the 
tod month the water is confined, and then for the last time the edde 
b«fr must be used. The mud raised by this is smoothed by the 
i«n^ ; but in this operation the same implement is called aravusi. 
Afl these weedings are not sufficient, and the remaining grass must he 
mnmtd by the hand and weeding-iron. The rice is cut with the 
ftiav. and for two days is allowed to lie loose on the field. It is then 
put in ricks, without having lx:en bound in sheaves, and remains there 
until trodden, which may be done any time in the course of three 
BQttfas. It is always presened in the husk, and when wanted for con- 
Bmi|itiun is cleaned hy a hand-mil! of the usual form, but made 
entotiy of timber, which removes the outer husk ; but the inner one, 
or ban, most be separated by beating in a mortar. Eight measures of 
ckm rice, as usual in India, are equal in value to twenty of that which 
nsiub the husk. 

South of the Chitaldroog District, all the rice ground is cultivated as 
Ipvooted-sced. The seed is sown equally thick, yet in Budihal tlie 
taod often produces sixty-fold, and the ordinary crop is forty seeds; 
fhilc towards (ianidagiri, the usual produce is twenty seeds. In the 
OJWieof one year there are frequently from the same field two crops 
of net 

The kinds of rice cultivated at Belur are hasudi, Ma »uUJigf.j bili 
'■cnnahitia^ kirivanria and pufta daf/a, which ripen in eight months; 
wAchifij^a^ kesari, kumbara kesari, kcmpu sanna daftii, and mfldara^ 
which ripen in seven months. On nirdvari land, or that which h:is 
1 supply of water from tanks, the rices most commonly cultivated are 



FLORA 



hiriifanna and hasude. All the three kinds of cultivation are in use ; 
but in ordinary seasons the dr)' seed is by far the most prevalent. In 
extraordinary wet seasons a good deal is transplanted, and some is sown 
sprouted- 

The cultivation of the dry-seed is conducted as follows : — In the 
month following the winter solstice, the ploughing commences, and in 
the course of two months the operation is eight limes repeated. The 
little banks, inclosing the plots for confining the water, are then repaired, 
and the field is manured In the month preceding the vernal equinox, 
after a shower of rain, the clods are smooched with the ada, qv ^dde 
mam, which is the same implement which at Nagar is called no/i. 
Eight d3>'s afterwards, the field is again ploughed and again smoothed 
with the ada. The seed is sown by the drill, according as the rainy 
season commences, during the two months and a half which follow the 
vernal equinox. It is then covered by the ada. On the twenty-third 
day after having been sown, the field is hoed with the <dJe kuttte^ and 
this is repeated twice, with an interval of four days between each time. 
The field is then inundated by confining the water, and the kunte is 
drawn a fourth lime in the mud. On the day following, the soil is 
smoothed with the ada. Eight days afterwards, the field is drained 
until the weeds can be removed by the hand. After a month or six 
weeks, this must be repeated. The rice is cut with the straw, and 
trodden out by oxen. 

\\'hen the rains are heavy, a good deal of rice is raised by transplanta- 
tion. For every kandaga land, two kandagas of seed must be sown ; 
and the produce of lliis, on the best land, is only twenty-one or twenty- 
two kandagas. Very little sprouted-secd is sown ; but it seems to be 
the cultivation that would answer best. For a kandaga land fifteen 
kolagas of seed are sufficient, and the produce is little less than in the 
dry-seed. On the makke land, or that which depends entirely on rain 
for a supply of water, the seed is always sown without preparation, and 
managed exactly in the same manner as on the niravari. The produce 
on the best land is twenty-two kandagas, from thirty kolagas sown on a 
kandaga field. 

Sngar-oane. — A considerable quantity of sugar-cane is cultivated 
near Seringapatam. It is of t^vo kinds, raj/rf//and paitdpatti} Both 
yield bdia ^^ja^gory ; but the natives can extract sugar from the patta- 
patti alone. The jaggory of the latter is also reckoned the best. The 
rastdli can be planted only in Chaitra ; the pattipatti may also be planted 
in Srdvana or Mdgha. The crop of rastiili is over in a year ; that of 

> RastAU is the original sugar-cane of the counlrj' ; paifApaffi was introduced, It U 
taid, fi'om Arcot, in the time of Hatdar, by Mustaia Alt Khan, a payniasler->general. 



SUGAR-CANE 



M5 



(i requires fourteen months, but may be followed by a second 

, as is said in the West Indies, by a crop of raioonsy which 

require iweh-e months only to ripen. The rastdli will not survive for a 

ucDodcrop. 

When the ground is to be cultivated for sugar-cane, it is 1^'atered 

days, and then for the same length of time it is allowed to dr)% 

the next eight days it must be ploughed five times, and the clods 

mst be beaten small with a kind of pickaxe, called io/ ^tpidaii. The 

fidd must then be manured, and ploughed a sixth time. The ground 

nof rests fifteen days ; after which, in the course of one or two days, 

iltaost Ix; ploughed twice, and then be allowed eight days more rest. 

It & afterwards ploughed a ninth time. These operations occupy 

fcm-four days ; six more are employed in planting the cane, which is 

done by the instrument czdled yah gudaii* With this the field is divided 

iaiobeds of about six cubits wide. These beds are separated by small 

which are about fourteen inches wide, and eight deep. In 

alternate trench are dug small wells about two feet deep. The 

from the canal flows through all the trenches, and, a quantity of 

jing in these wells, is taken out with pots for watering the plants 

tht hand. Across every bed, at the distance of a cubit, are dug five 

about six inches in diameter and three in depth. In each of 

are placed horizontally two cuttings of the cane, each containing 

joints. These are covered slightly with earth, over which is laid 

dung. Wlien the cane is planted in Chaitra, the trenches must be 

with water from the tank, and every hole must be watered by pots, 

the other seasons the trenches are full, it being the rainy weather; 

e»en then, for one month, the holes containing the canes must 

be watered by the hand. The earth in the holes is then stirred up 

I stick, and a little dung is added. Next month the daily watering 

be continued, and at the end of it the whole field must be dug up 

the yaie gudali ; and round every cluster of young canes there 

be formed by the hand a small cavity, into which a little dung is 

puL In the third month the canes must be watered every other 

At the end of the third month, if the canes have grown with 

the field must be dug over again with \\\^ yule f;uda/i ■, l)Ul, 

are rather .stunted, the watering must be continued all the fourth 

month, before they get the third weeding. At this time, the earth at 

Af roots of the cane is heaped up into ridges, crossing the beds at right 

angles to the trenches. Afterwards, no water is given immediately to 

the plants ; but for three da>'s the trenches must be kept full. It is 

ifien let out for a week. If there be rain, there is no occasion for more 

ing ; but, if it be dry weather, the trenches, for a month, must be 

I. 



FLORA 



filled with water one day in the week. Then the weeding with the 
yah gudali must be repeated, and the earth must be smoothed with the 
hand, and placed carefully lound the canes. The young shoots from 
each hole will be now ten or twelve in number ; those which are sickly 
must be cut off; and the healthy, which are about a cubit long, must 
be tied up with a leaf of the plant into bundles of two or three, in order 
lo prevent them from spreading too much. Should there be no rain, 
the trenches must once in fifteen days be filled with water, till the canes, 
having grown higher, again require to be tied together. In a month 
after the first tying they ought to be two cubits high, WTien the plants 
are eight months old they will have grown another cubit, and will 
require another tying. The farmer now begins to repair his apparatus 
for making jaggory : the lUe mane, or boiling-house ; the gdna^ or mill ; 
the kopparige^ or boiler : the achchu^ or mould ; the kunu, or cooler ; 
\h^ gormancy or ladle; and \\\c chi/ut/u, or skimmer. In the eleventh 
month he begins to cut the rastdli, and the crop must be finished within 
the year. The patdpattiis ripe in twelve months, and two months may 
be allowed for cutting it. 

If it be intended to keep the field of paitapatti for a second year's 
crop, the dry leaves which are cut off at crop season must be burned on 
the spot, and the whole field must be dug with thi^ yaie ^^udn/i. The 
trenches nmsl then be filled with water, and for six months the watering 
must be continued once in eight or ten days, unless there be rain. The 
weedings during this time ought to be three ; at each of which dung 
ought to bu given. x\l the end of six months, the cane*) having grown 
one cubit high, the weakly plants must be removed, and the strongest 
tied up, as in the first crop. The manner of conducting the two crops 
after this is quite similar. The canes of the second crop must be all 
cut within the year. 

Tlie kinds of sugar-cane cultivated in Kolar are four, which are 
esteemed in the following order : first rastd/i, second p^^Udpattiy third 
mara kahbu^ fourth ka{(e kabhu. The two last are very small, seldom 
exceeding the thickness of the little finger ; yet the katte kabbu is the 
one most commonly cultivated. This is owing to its requiring little 
water ; for by means of the,l'<//^^ it may have a supply .sufficient to bring 
it to maturity. From the end of I'hdiguna to the end of Chaitra (Mar. 
— .\pril) plough eight or ten times. Manure the field with dung, and 
plough it again. Then spread leaves on it, and cover them with the 
plough. By the small channels that are to convey the water, the field 
is then divided into beds eight cubits braid. Furrows are then drawn 
across the beds at the distance of nine inches from each other. The 
cuttings of cane, each containing four or five eyes, are then placed 



rise in the Tuitows, the end of the one touching that of the 
They are covered with a very little earth, over which is laid 
some dung. They are then watered, the water flowing through every 
channel, and entering every furrow. For one month the watering is 
repeated once in three da}-s ; the earth round the canes must thun be 
loosened with the point of a sharp stick. For fifteen days more the 
watering must be continued ; when the whole field should he hoed, 
and levelled with the koi ^udali. Four days afterwards, l^etween every 
second row of sugar-cane a trench is dug, and into this the water flows 
{irocD the channels. Thus \r\ the projfress of its cultivation each bed 
jssuoaes two forms. ^Vhen there is no rain, the field requires to be 
watered once in fifteen days. When four or five months old, the canes 
wc lied up in bundles ; and when they are a cubit and a half high this 
IB repeated. In eleven months they arc ripe, and a month and a half 
arc allowed for the crop season. The soil here used for sugar-cane is 
ilie rich black soil called ere ; and after sugar it requires one or two 
;t>rs' rest before it gives a good crop of rice. The sugar-cane is all 
■mSc into jaggory ; seventy-four seers measure, or nearly eighteen ale- 
pSons of juice^ are said to produce fifty kachcha seers weight (about 
iift\ lb. aTOtrdu{K>is) of the jaggory. 

The sugar-cane field at Madgiri is divided into two equal portions, 

vhidi are cultivated alternately, one year with sugar-cane, and the other 

with grain ; the cane, however, thrives better when the field, in place of 

being cultivated for grain, is allowed an intermediate fallow ; but then 

the loss It heavy, as after cane the grain thrives remarkably. The grains 

culti\-ated are rice, ragi, and jdla ; the first injures the cane least, and 

the jdla injures it most. The kinds of cane cultivated are the rastali 

and mora kabbu. In Kartikaand Mdrgasira(Oct.^Dec.) plough seven 

Gmcs, and manure with sheep's dung and leaves. Then with the hoe 

ailed yaU gudaH form channels at a cubit's distance. In these also, at 

a cubit's distance, plant single shoots of the cane, each about a cubit in 

lenglh. If the soil be poor, they must be planted rather nearer They 

art laid down in the channel)-, which are filled with water, and then 

people tread the shoots into the mud, by walking through each channel. 

A W/r^a of bnd requires 18,000 shoots, on which data it ought to 

contain r8 acre. If the soil be of a moist nature, the cane has water 

once in eight days ; but, if it dry quickly, it must, until ripe, be watered 

once in six days, except when there is rain. At the end of the first 

lunth the field must l>e hoed with the kali kudnli. Near each cane, as 

manure, some leaves of the hori^^e are then placed, and they are 

with a little mud ; so that the channels are now between the 

of cane, and the canes grow on the ridges. When these are 




L 2 






14* 



FLORA 



cubits high, they are tied up in bunches of three or four ; and as they 
grow higher, this is three or four times repeated. Twelve months after 
planting, the crop season begins ; and in six weeks it must be finished : 
250 maunds of jaggory is here reckoned a good crop from a kolaga of 
land, which is very nearly 15 cwt an acre ; 150 maunds, which is about 
9 cwt. from the acre, is reckoned a bad crop. Black clay gives the 
greatest quantity of jaggory, but it is of a bad quality. A sandy soil 
produces least jaggory, but that of a high value. One kapile can water 
an acre and a half of sugar-cane land 

The ground for cultivating sugar-cane in Sira is also divided into 
two equal parts, which are alternately cultivated ; one year with cane, 
and the other with rice. It is watered either from the reser\'oirs, or by 
the kapile. In the last case, a field of two kolagas^ or three acres, one- 
half of which is in sugar-cane, and the other in rice, requires the con- 
slant labour of four men and eight oxen. Day-labourers must also be 
hired to rebuild ihe boiling-house, to tie up the cane, and to weed. 
WTien the field is watered from a reservoir, one man only is regularly 
employed ; but to plough, to plant, to weed and to tie up the cane, 
both men and cattle must be hired in addition. Three kinds of cane 
are here cultivated. The most valued is the rastifit\ which grows best 
on a black soil in which there is much sand or gravel ; a good crop of 
this, on a kolaga land, produces 100 maunds of jaggory ; which is 
about 29 s cwt. on an acre. The next in quality is the kari kabbu^ or 
black cane. It requires a pure black mould, called ere hhumi\ and, in 
a good crop, produces, from a kolaga land, sixty maunds of jaggory, or 
from an acre nearly 175 cwt. The poorest cane is the mara kabbu^ or 
Slick cane. It is cultivated on the same kind of soil with the rastali ; 
but produces only half as much jaggory as the kari kabbu, and that of 
a very bad quality, for it is quite black. 

The cultivation of the rastdli, however, is comparatively much more 
troublesome. In the course of the eight months following the summer 
solstice, the field must be ploughed eleven times ; and once a month, 
during the whole of that time, 1,000 sheep must be folded for one night 
on the field. It is then manured with mud from the bottoms of the 
reservoirs, and ploughed again twice. The channels are then formed, 
and in them the cuttings are laid down, two and two being always 
placed parallel. A kolaga of land requires 50,000. The channels are 
then filled with water, and the cuttings are trodden into the mud with 
the feet. The second watering is on the fourth day, the third watering 
on the twelfth ; afterwards the field, if the soil be good, must be 
watered once a fortnight ; or onrc a week, if it part with its moisture 
quickly. On the twentieth day the field is weeded with the small hoe 



Sl/GA 



M9 



molu poiMt which implies that the operation is done very super- 
On the tfairty-iirth day the whole field is dug with the large 
ailed yale gk4a/i; and, the earth being thrown up toward the 
in ridges, the channels for conveying the water run between the 
About the ninetieth day the canes are tied up with a leaf of the 
pim in parcels of five or six, and once a month this is repeated. 
Wlxn ibe cane is ten months old, the crop begins, and in thirty days it 
not be finished 
Towards Periyapatna, the cane is watered from resen^oirs ; the 
moisture of the climate not being sufficient to raise it, and 
y being never employed. The kinds cultivated, besides* little 
p^ijatti, arc rastili and mara kabbu, both of which grow nearly to 
thtnroe length, which is in general about six feet. The rasiali ripens 
in :ittlvc months, while eighteen are required to bring forward the 
naa kabbu ; so that as a crop of rice must always inter\ene between 
'crofHi of sugar-cane, the rotation of the former occupies two years, 

in that of the latter three arc consumed. 

Iw the mara kabbu plough twenty limes either in Asvija and 

blu, the tHU months immediately following the autumnal equinox; 

cr in Kirtika and Margasira, which is of course one month later. The 

one are planted in the second or third months after the winter solstice. 

letter to plant the cane, longitudinal and transverse furrows are 

lirn throughout the field, distant from each other one cubit and a 

'; at every intersection a hole is made, nine inches wide, and of 

same depth ; in each hole are laid hori^onially two cuttings of 

one, each containing three joints ; 5naUy under them is put a little 

An^ above them an inch of mould Then water each hole with a 

poi^ from a channel running at the upper end of the field. On the 

(■0 foltowing days this must be repeated. Until the end of the third 

BMh, water every other day. From the third to the sixth month, 

ihtSeldmust, once in eight days, be ploughed between the rows of 

batn ; and at the same time, should there be any want of the usual 

■in, \x must be watered, .^t the first ploughing a little dung must be 

poi, and at the end of six months the field must be copiously 

uaored At this time channels arc formed winding through among 

the canes ; so that every row is between two channels. When the 

oiny season is over, these channels must be filled with water, once 

in eight days in hot weather, and once a month when it is cool. 

At Ibc beginning of the eighth month the whole field is hoed, and at 

the end of two months more this is repeated The cane here is never 

tied op. 

The sugar-cane cultivated in Nagar is the mara kabbu. The groimd 



15® 



FLOn.A 



fil for it- is that whTcli has a supply of water in the dr)' season. Any 
soil will do, but a red earth is reckoned the best. In the month 
preceding the venial equinox plough four times ; and then througliout 
the field, at the distance of one cubit and a half, form with the hoe 
trenches one cubit wide, and one span deep. Then cover the field 
with straw, dry grass, and leaves, and burn them to serve as a manure. 
The soil in the bottom of the trenches is afterwards loosened with a 
hoe ; and a man, with his hand, opens up the loose earth, puts in a 
little dung, and upon this places horizontally, and parallel to the sides 
of the trench, cuttings of the cane, each contiining four or five joints. 
These he covers with a little dung and earth. The cuttings are pbced 
in one row in each bed, the end of the one being close to that of 
another. Once a day, for a month, the canes must be watered with a 
}>ot ; the young plants are then about a cubit high ; and, the earth 
round them having been previously loosened with a sharp-pointed stick, 
a httle dung should be given to their roots. After this, the ridges are 
thrown down, and the earth is collected toward the rows of young 
cane, which by this means are placed on ridges, with a trench inter- 
vening between ever)' two rows. Until the rains commence, these 
trenches must ever)* other day be filled with water. In the month 
preceding the autumnal equinox, in order to prevent them from being 
eaten by the jackals and bandicoots, the canes are tied up in bundles 
of from five to ten, and each of these is surrounded by a series of 
straw rope. In ten months they are fit for cutting, and require no 
farther trouble. The crop season lasts one month. On the second 
year a crop of ratoons is taken, in the third year the roots are dug up, 
and the field is again planted with cane ; so that it is never reinvigor- 
ated by a succession of crops. 

Sugar-cane is at Harihar the roost considerable irrigated crop. In 
the inten-als between the crops of cane, a crop of rice is taken, should 
there be a sufficient supply of water ; but that is seldom the case, 
and the iritermediate crop is commonly some of the dry grains. The 
cane may be planted at any time ; but there are only three seasons 
which are usually employed. One lasts during the month before 
and month after the summer solstice. This is the most productive 
and most usual season ; but the cane requires at this time longer to 
grow, and more lalxjur, than in the others. The other two seasons 
are the second month after the autumnal equinox, and the second 
month after the shortest day. Those crops arrive at maturity within 
the year. 

The kind of cane cultivated is the mam kabhu^ and the following 
is the process in the first season : — In the second month after the 




SUGAR-CA. 



151 



il equinox, the field must bo watered, and eight da)'s aftenvards 

a ploughed once. After another rest of eight days, it must be 

hed again with a deeper furrow, four oxen having been put into 

yoke. After another interval of eight days it is ploughed, first 

ifflphwise, and ilien acrt>ss, with a te-am of six oxen. Then, at the 

liiaance of three, or three and a half cubits^ are drawn over the whole 

Wd fumiws which cross each other at right angles. In order to make 

liiMC furrows wider, a stick is put across the iron of the plough. In 

lb* planting season, two cuttings of the cane, each containing two 

<j!^ are laid down in every intferseciion of the furrows, and are 

owed slightly with mud. The furrows are then filled with water, 

this is repeated three times, with an interval of eight days betAveen 

two waterings. A little dung is then put into the furrows ; and 

there happens to l>e no rain, the waterings once in the eight 

are continued for three months. W'hen the canes have been 

cd forty days, the weeds must be removed with a knife, and the 

otnals are hoed with the hoe drawn by oxen. This operation is 

Rpatt-d on the fifty-fifth, seventieth, and eighty-fifth days, and the 

art is thrown up in ridges toward the canes. In the beginning of 

the fourth month, the field gets a full watering. Fifteen days after* 

wnb, the intervals arc ploughed lengthwise and across ; and lo each 

of plants a basket or two of dimg is given and ploughed in. 

weeds are then destroyed by a hoe drawn by oxen ; after which, 

must be formed between the rows; and until the cane ripens, 

Wies from fourteen to seventeen months, these channels are 

Bled mth water once in fifteen days. The crop season lasts from one 

fiKinih to .six weeks. 

CArd&moma — are propagated entirely by cuttings of the root, and 

in clumps exactly like the plantain-tree. In the month follow- 

Ihe autumnal equinox, a cluster of from three to five stems, with 

roots adhering, are separated from a bunch, and planted in the 

row, one between every two areca nut palms, in the spot from 

a plantain-tree has been removed. The ground around the 

om is manured with ntf/i {emblica) leaves. In the third year, 

t the autumnal equinox, it produces fruit. The capsules are 

ed as the}' ripen, and are dried four days on a mat, which during 

day is supported by four sticks, and exposed to the sun, but at 

is taken into the house. They are then fit for saic. Whenever 

whole fruit has been removed, the plants are raised, and, all the 

9i|)crfluous stems and roots having been separated, they are set again . 

but care is taken never to set a plant in the spot from whence it was 

a change in this respect being considered as necessary. Next 



I 



»5* 

year these plants give no fruit, but in the year following yield capsules 
again, as at first. After transplantation, the old stems die and new 
ones spring from the roots. Each cluster produces from a quarter to 
one seer weight of cardamoms, or from -Jj^^ to -^ of a pound. 

Areca-nut.— In the gardens near Channapatna the areca palm 
requires a rich black soil, and is planted in such places only as produce 
water on digging a well two cubits deep. There are here two varieties 
of the areca, the one bearing large and the other small nuts. The 
produce of both kinds is nearly equal in value and quantity. 

I'hc following is the manner of forming an areca-nut garden : — A 
plot of ground having been selected for a nurser>\ is dug to the depth 
of one cubit \Vhen the seed is ripe, which happens between the 
middle of January and that of Februar)', trenches must be formed in 
the nurscT)', a span broad and a cubit deep. The trenches arc half 
filled up with sand, on the surface of which is placed a row of the ripe 
nuts. These are again covered with five inches of sand, and two inches 
of rich black mould, and watered once in three days for four months, 
at-which time they are fit for being transplanted into the garden. The 
garden having been fenced with a hedge of euphorbium lirttcailiy or 
jiUropha a/nas, is dug to the depth of a cubit at the same time with 
the nursery and planted with rows of plantain-trees at the disLince of 
three cubits. When the young palms are fit for being transplanted the 
garden must be dug again to the former depth, and two young arecas 
must be set in one hole between every two plantain trees. \N'hen there 
is no rain they must have water ever>' third day. WTien the rainy 
season commence.s, a trench must be dug between every third row of 
trees ; that is to say, so as between every trench to form beds each of 
which contains two rows of the areca. These trenches serve to carry 
off superfluous water and to bring a supply from the reservoir when 
wanted. The garden must be dug twice a year to keep it clear of 
weeds. At the end of three years the original plan tain -trees are 
removed, and a row is set in the middle of each bed and kept up ever 
afterwards in order to preserve a coolness at the roots of the areca. 
When the areca-trecs are about five feet high, which requires about five 
years, they receive no more water than what is given to the plantain- 
trees, which in dr>* weather must be watered twice a month. The tree 
when five ycar.s old begins to produce fruit, and lives from thirty to 
forty years. 

Each tree pushes out three or four spadices which from the middle 
of August until that of November become fit for cutting at different 
intervals of twenty or thirty days, one after the other. Wlien the nuts 
have been cut, the skin is removed with an iron knife, and a quantity 



I 




ARECA'NUT, 



m 



IS put inlo a pot with some water, in which it must be boiled till the 
cfcs be separated. The nut is then cut into three or four pieces and 
for three or four days dried on mats exposed to the sun, when it becomes 
fit for sale. The plantations are interspersed with cocoa-nut, lime, jack 
and other trees, which add to the shade and to the freshness of the 
soQ. Under the trees are cultivated ginger, and various vegetables. 

The situation that is reckoned most favourable for areca gardens in 
Madgiri is a black soil which contains calcareous nodules. It differs 
from that in which cotton is raised by haxnng the limestone a cubit or 
wo deep ; whereas the cotton requires it to be at the surface. The 
gtnlens at this place arc watcrc-d from rescr\'oirs, from canals, and from 
veils by means of the kapUe. 

To make a new garden, — in Srdvana, the fifth month after the vernal 

eqmnox, plough four times. Then with the hoe called >v7/<r^/^rf// form 

the garden into beds six cubits wide. Between every two beds is a 

xMxseA channel for bringing a supply of water ; and in the centre of 

each bed is a deep channel to carrj' off what is superfluous. The beds 

art (fivided into plots ten or twelve cubits long. Then plant the whole 

with shoots of the betel vine, and for its support sow the seed of the 

hihtdna^ agase and nugge. Then surround the whole with a thick 

htf^e, and once a day for three months water with a pot. \Vlienever 

vcedftgrow they must be removed ; and at each time the betel vines 

Bnot get some dung. Between every two rows of the vines, in the 

fourth month, is put a row of young plantain-trees. Once in four 

diys afterwards, the water is given from the reservoir or well. In six 

months the vines must be tied up to the young trees. At the same 

lime, for ever)' zvokkaia land, 3,000 nuts of the areca must be planted near 

the roots of the vines. When they arc three years old a thousand of them 

win be fit for use, and 800 arc required to plant a wokkala land, or 

ibrat an acre and a half. They are planted distant in every direction 

from each other five cubits. At the same time plant on the inside of 

the hedge some rows of cocoa-nut palms and orange, lime, mango, or 

jick trees. 'ITie 800 areca palms, at five cubits distance, would only 

occupy about an acre ; but a considerable space is taken up by a walk, 

«m1 by the rows of fruit-trees between Ihem and the hedge. 

In nine years from the first formation of the garden the betel vines 
and most of the tret;s that supjiorted them are removed. A few of the 
^41/ and allthe plantains are allowed to remain. In the twelfth year 
the areca palms begin to produce fruit. The remaining (I^^j^ trees, 
and one-half of the plantains are then removed. After this the garden 
requires water only once in eight days when there is no rain ; and the 
•hole is dug over, and formed like rice-ground into proper squares 



ii 



«54 



FLORA 



and channels for distributing the water. One year it is manured with 
dung ; in the second with the leaves of the hntige and ko^^hi^ and in the 
third year with mud from the bottom of a reser\oir. So long as the 
gardt^n lasts this siicccHsion of manures should, if possible, be con- 
tinued ; and when the palms attain their full growth, which is in the 
fourteenth year of the garden, the plantain-trees are entirely removed. 
For thirty years from its arri\-ing at maturity the palm continues 
Wgorous, and for fourteen years more gradually dechnes ; during 
which time a new garden ought to be formed, and then the old trees 
should be cut, and the ground cultivated with grain, till the- second 
formed garden again begins to decay. In place of those that die, some 
poor farmers plant new trees, and thus constantly keep up a garden on 
the same spot ; but here this is looked upon as a had practice. 

The crop season lasts two months before, and one after, the autumnal 
equinox. The nut, after being peeled, is cut into seven or eight pieces, 
and put up in a heap. Then take one seer of the nut, one seer of cut 
terra japonica^ and a hundred leaves of the piper bekl^ beat them 
together repeatedly with some water, and strain the juice thus obtained 
into a pot. Take twenty seers of the bark of the kari jdii ixxxA boil it 
during a whole night in a large pot with forty seers of water. With 
this decoction mix the juice expressed frtim the former materials, and 
boil again. While it is boiling, put in the areca-nut, after it has been 
cut, until the pot be ftill. Immediately after, lake it out with a ladle, 
and put in more, till the whole is boiled. In order to be dried, it must 
be three days exposed on mats to the sun, and is then fit for sale. 
Forty maunds of dried nut is here reckoned the common produce of 
a kolaga land, which is about 6 J cwL an acre, or for each tree about 

a lb. 

Near Chiknayakanhalli the areca thrives best in the rich bbck mould 
called ere^ or krishna bhitmi. The natives here look upon it as a matter 
of indifference, whether or not, on digging a liltlt; depth, water may be 
found in the soil. All that is required is to have a proper supply of 
water either from the reservoir or by means of machinery. 

In the second month after the winter solstice, the nut intended for 
seed is cut ; and, having been put in a heap, is for eight or ten days 
kept in the house. A seed-bed is tlien dug to the depth of a foot, and 
three inches of the mould is removed from the surface, which is then 
covered with a little dung. On this the nuts are placed with their eyes 
uppermost, and close to each other. They are then covered with an 
inch of mould, and for three months are watered every other day. The 
seedlings arc then three or four inches high, and must be transplanted 
into a fresh bed that is prepared in the same manner : but in this they 





ARECA-mXT 



Bj^lri^ cubit distant from each other. Here they grow for three 
recti ring water once every other day ; and once a month they 
art cleaned from weeds and have a little dung. 

One year after planting the seed, the ground that is intended for the 
garden miLit be dug to die depth of a cubit, and the soil exposed for 
!»o months. Voung plantain-trees are then placed in it at sixteen 
tabits distance from each other, and it is surrounded by a screen of 
cocoa-nut |xilms, and of jack, lime, and orange-trees, which are defended 
by X hedge of the milk-bush. At the same time seeds of the agase are 
|}knt£tl throughout the garden, at the distance of four cubits. When 
there IS no rain the garden must once in fifteen tlays be watered by 
danocls niade for the purpose. In the second month after the summer 
ahxicG of the third year, the young arecas are fit for transplantation. 
Thta throughout the garden, at the distance of sixteen cubits, and in 
tbc middle between every two plan tain- trees, are formed pits, a cubit 
dttpand a cubit wide. In each of these piLs a young areca is put, and 
il VBC be carefully raised from the seed-Iied with much earth adhering 
to ib roots ; and, after it is placed, the pit must be filled with earth, 
«nd then receive a pot of water. The young arecas are then between 
twoand three feet high, and have four or five branches. If there be 
•Bar in the rvservoir, an irrigation once a month is sufficient ; but the 
i^iit must be used once in ten days, as the waterings given by it are 
tot fcanty. For three years afterwards the whole garden must be com- 
|ilelcly hoed twice annually. At the one hoeing, for every four arecas, 
It nuuit liave a bullock-load of dung; and at the other hoeing, every 
tiee must be allowed an ox load of red soil. The mud of reservoirs is 
hrre thought to be very bad for an aieca-nut garden. Ever afienvards 
tbc garden is hoed completely once a year only, and is then manured 
•ilh dung and red earth. At the intermediate period of six months, it 
fthoed near the trees, and has a little dung. At the end of the first 
Ihrec years the agase trees arc cut. The plantains are always rcser\'ed ; 
^ JLs the old stems are cut, which is always done in from twelve to 
eigfaleen months, the young shoots are conducted to a distance from 
•We the (jarent was originally placed ; and when the garden is twenty 
-■an old. in these spots are planted other young arecas, to supply the 
--1CCS of the old ones when they decay. This second set are again 
Jiiplantcd by a third, growing where the first set did, and thus a con- 
sttot iiuccession is preserved. In a new garden the areca begins to 
twr (luit in nine years ; but fourteen or fifteen years are required to 
tnng forward those which are planted among old trees. They con- 
tinue to bear for sixty or seventy years ; but after having been twenty- 
fi*« Of thirty years in perfection ihcy begin to decay. 



I 



156 FLORA 

There are annually two crops of areca-nut : one in the second month 
after the summer solstice, the other in the two months which precede 
the shortest day. The last crop is superior both in quantity and 
quality. The nut, on being cut, is skinned in the course of two days, 
and put into a large pot with as much water as will cover it two inches. 
It is then boiled for about three-quarters of an hour until a white scum 
rises. 'Ihc largest are then cut into eight pieces, and the smallest into 
two, with the others in proportion to their size. During the four 
following days they are spread out in the sun to dry, and every night 
they are gathered in a heap, \\1ien the fruit has been allowed to 
approach too near to maturity, the nut loses its colour; and a deceit is 
attempted by adding a little reddle to the water in which it is boiled. 
This frequently deceives the consumer, but never the experienced 
dealer ; and seems to be done purposely to enable him to defraud the 
unwar)'. 

A garden of i,ooo trees, allowing eight cubits square for each tree, 
ought to contain rather more than 3 J acres; but a young garden, 
containing trees at sixteen cubits, will require 8 J acres. The produce 
is reckoned from forty to si.\ly maunds. The areca-tree is never cut 
till its leaves have turned brown. Its stem has then acquired great 
hardness, and in building is vcr)' useful. 

The following process is adopted in Periyapatna to make a new 
plantation of areca :— Take a piece of ground consisting of black mould 
or a substratum of limestone, with water at no greater depth than 
three cubits, and surround it with a hedge of the euphorbium tirucaiit^ 
and some rows of young cocoa-nut palms. Then, at the distance of 
twelve cubits, dig rows of pits, two cubits deep and one and a half in 
diameter. These pits are six cubits distant from the nearest in the 
same row. In the second month after the vernal equinox, set in these 
pits young plantain-trees, and give them water once ; after which, 
unless the weather be uncommonly dry, they require no more. Two 
months afterwards hoe the whole garden and form a channel in the 
middle between every two rows of plantain-trees. The channels are 
intended to carrj' off suiierfluous water, and are a cubit wide and two 
feet deep. In the month immediately following the winter solstice, 
hoe the whole garden a second time. In the following month, l>etween 
every two rows of plantain-trees make two rows of holes, at six cubits 
distance and one cubit wide and deep. Fill each hole half up with 
fine mould ; and in this place two ripe nuts of the areca, six inches 
asunder. Once in two days for three months water each hole with a 
pot. The shoots come up in Vais'akha^ after which they get water 
once only in five days. The holes must be kept clear of the raud that 




is brought in by the rain ; and for three years must, on this account, 
be daily inspected. In the month following the autumnal equinox 
give a little dung. Ever afterwards thi^ whole garden must be hoed 
three times a year. 

After they are three years old the :ireca palms must be watered every 
other day in hot weather; when it is cool, once in every four or five 
days, and not at all in the rainy season. The waterings are performed 
by pouring a pot-full of water to the root of each plant. In the begin- 
ning of the seventh year the weakest plant is removed from each hole ; 
snd at each digging, for three years more, every tree must receive 
manure. After this, for three years, the young palms have neither 
dung nor water. In the fourteenth year they begin to bear, and in the 
fifteenth come to perfection, and continue in vigour until their forty- 
fifth year, when they are cut down. The crop season lasts over Asvija, 
iUrtika, and Margasira. A good tree gives 857, and an ordinary one 
600, nuts. Sixty thousand nuts, when prepared for sale, make a load 
of between seven and eight maunds. One thousand ordinary trees at 
this fate should procure seventy-five maunds. 

In Xagar the nursery is managed as follows :^Tn the month preceding 

tbc rcmal equinox the seed is ripe. After having been cut, it is kept 

eight days in the house. In the meantime a bed of ground in a shady 

pbce is dug, and in this the nuts are placed nine inches from each 

other, and with their eyes uppermost. They must be covered with a 

finger-breadth of earth. The bed is then covered with dry plantain 

Ittves, and once in eight days is sprinkled with water. In the month 

preceding the summer solstice, the plantain leaves are removed, and 

foong shoots are found to have come from the nuts. In the second 

month afterwards, leaves of the ntlli are spread between the young 

plants. In the month preceding the vernal equinox, they get a little 

dtmg. In the dry season they are watered once in from four to eight 

diys, according to the nature of the soil. 

In the month preceding the autumnal equinox of the second year, the 
S'oung plants are removed into another nursery, where they are planted 
\ cubit distant and manured with nclii leaves and dung. This nursery 
most be kept clear of weeds, manured twice a year, and in the dry 
scison should receive water once in eight days. The seedlings remain 
in it two years, when they are fit for transplantation. When the arccas 
a» three years old, they are removed into the garden, planted close to 
the drains for letting off the water, and remain there two years, when 
ibeyare finally placed in the spots where they are to grow. Once in 
twenty or thirty years only the watering channels are filled up with 
fresh earth, and then are not allowed water. During that year the 



^ 



tjS 



FLORA 



garden is kept moist by occasionally filling the drains. The water in 
these is, however, reckoned verv* prejudicial, and is never thrown upon 
the lieds. Once in two years the garden is dug near the trees and 
manured. The manure is dung, above which are placed the leafy 
twigs of all kinds of trees. When an areca dies, a new one is planted 
in its stead ; so that in an old garden there are trees of all ages. When 
the trees are sixteen years old they are employed to support pepper 
vines. The extent of a garden of a thousand rated trees is about 
i8j acres. Its produce of areca-nut weighs gao^lb., and of pepper 
1171b. 

COGoa-nut. — There are four \*arieties of the cocoa-nut : ist, red ; 
and, red mixed with green ; 3rd, light green ; and 4th, dark green. 
These varieties are permanent ; but, although the red is reckoned 
somewhat better than the others, they are commonly sold promiscu- 
ously. Their produce is nearly the same. 

The soil does not answer \n the Bangalore District unless water can 
be had on digging into it to the depth of three or four cubits; and in 
such situations a light sandy soil is the best. The black clay called ere 
is the next best soil. The worst is the red clay called kebi^e ; but with 
proper cultivation nil the three soib answer tolerably well. 

The manner of forming n new cocoi-nut garden is as follows : — The 
nuts intended for seed must be allowed to ripen until they fall from 
the tree ; and must then be dried in the open air fur a month without 
having the husk removed. A plot for a nursery is then dug to the 
depth of two feet, and the soil is allowed to drj* three daj-s. On the 
U^ddi feast (in March) remove one foot of earth from tlie nursery, and 
cover the surface of the plot with eight inches of sand. On this place 
the nuts close to each other, with the end containing the eye upper- 
most Cover them with three inches of sand and two of earth. If the 
supply of water be from a \\e\\, the plot must once a day be watered ; 
but, if a more copious supply can be had from a reservoir, one watering 
in the three days is sufficient. In three months the seedlings are fit 
for being transpbnted. By this lime the garden must have l>een 
enclosed and hoed to the depth of two feet. Holes are then dug for 
the reception of the seedlings, at twenty feet distance from each other 
in all directions ; for when planted nearer they do not thrive. The 
holes are tivo feel deep and a cubit wide. At the bottom is put sand 
seven inches deep, and on this is placed the nut with the young tree 
adhering to it. Sand is now put in until it rises two inches above the 
nut, and then the hole is filled with earth and a little dung. Every 
day for three years, except when it rains, the young trees must have 
waler. 



cocoA'Nxrr 



'59 



The cocoa-nut palm licgins to i>rodur'e when seven or eight years 
«kd* and lives so long iliat its period of duration cannot readily be 
ined. Voung irees, however, produce nuore fruit, which comes 
forward at all seasons of the yenr. A good tree gives annually a 
huDdred nuts. A few are cut green on account of the juice, which is 
used as drink ; but by far the greater part are allowed to arrive at some 
decree of maturity, although not to full ripeness j for then the kernel 
would become useless. 

Cocoa nut palms arc planted in Chiknayakanhalli in rows round the 
ut gardens, and also separately in spots that would not answer 
cultivation of this article. The situation for these gardens 
must be rather tow, but it is not necessary that it should be under a 
reservoir ; any place will answer in which water can be had by digging 
to the depth of two men's stature. 'Ihe soil which is here reckoned 
ixw36t favourable for the cocoa-nut is a red clay mixed with sand. It 
must be free of lime and saline substances. Other soils, however, are 
employed, but black mould is reckoned very bad. The cocoa-nuts 
intended for seed are cut in the second month after the winter solstice. 
A square pit is then dug, which is sufficiently large to hold them, and 
is ibout a cubit in depth. In this, fifteen days after being cut, are 
pbccd ihe seed-nuts, with the eyes uppermost, and contiguous to each 
"^rr . and then earth is thrown in so as just to cover ihem, upon 
!s spread a little dung. In this bed, every second day for six 
mooths, the seed must be watered with a pot, and then the young 
[alms are fit for being transplanted. \Vhencver, during the two 
iDoaths following the vernal equinox, an occasional shower gives an 
op{tortunity by softening the soil, the garden must he ploughed five 
UBtfiL .VU the next month it is allowed to rest. In the month follow- 
ing tbe summer solstice, the ground must again be ploughed twice ; 
ind next month, at the distance of forty-eight cubits in every direction, 
iherc must be dug pits a cubit wide and as much deep. In the bottom 
of eadi a little dung is put; and the young plants, having been 
ptevtously well watered to loosen the soil, are taken up, and one is 
pkoed in each pit. 'I'he shell still adheres to the young palm, and 
(be pit must be filled with earth so far as to cover tbe nut. Over this 
ifc pal a Utile dung. For three months the young plants must be 
•aiwed every other day ; afterwards every fourth day^ until they are 
years old, except wlicn there is rain. Afterwards they require 
w»lcr. 

Every year the garden is cultivated for rrigi, uddu, hesaru, or whai- 
HCT other grain the soil is fitted for, and is well dunged ; and at the 
amc lime four ox-loads of red mud are laid on the garden for ever)* 



TKl 



FLORA 

tree that it contains, while a h'ttle fresh earth is gathered up toward 
the roots of the palms. The crop of grain is but poor, and injures 
the palms \ it is always taken, however ; as, in order to keep down 
the weeds, the ground must at any rate be ploughed ; as the 
manure must be given ; and as no rent is paid for (he grain. On this 
kind of ground the cocoa-nut palm begins to bear in t>velve or thirteen 
years, and continues in perfection about sixty years. It dies altogether 
after bearing for about a hundred years. They are always allowed to 
die ; and when they begin to decay a young one is planted near the old 
one to supply its place. 

In this countrj', wine is never extracted from this palm, for that 
operation destroys the fruit ; and these, when ripe, are coasidered as 
the valuable part of the produce. A few green nuts arc cut in the hot 
season, on account of the refreshing juice which they then contain, 
and to make coir rope : but this also is thought to injure the crop. 
The coir made from the ripe nuts is very bad, and their husks are 
commonly burned for fuel. 

The crop begins in the second month after the summer solstice, and 
continues four months. A bunch is known to be ripe when a nut falls 
down, and it is then cut. Each palm produces from three to six 
bunches, which ripen successively. A middling palm produces from 
sixty to sevcnt}' nuts. As the nuts are gathered, they arc collected in 
small huts, raised from the ground on posts. When a mercliant offers, 
the rind is removed, at his expense, by a man who fixes an iron rod in 
the ground and forces its upper end, which is sharp, through the fibres ; 
by which means the whole husk is speedily removed. He then, by a 
single blow with a crooked knife, breaks the shell without hurting the 
kernel, which is then fit for sale, and is called kobbari. A man can 
daily clean 1,300 nuts. From twenty to thirty per cent of them are 
found rotten. 

Betel Vine* — The betei vine thrives best in low ground, where it can 
have a supply of water from a reser\otr. If that cannot be had, a place 
is selected where water can be procured by digging to a small depth. 
A black soil is required. A betel-leaf garden is thus managed in the 
east : — In Chaitra or Vais'dkha, trench over the whole ground one cubit 
deep, and surround it with a mud wall ; immediately within which plant 
a hedge of the euphorbium tirucalii, and of the arttndo tibialis. When 
there is not plenty of rain, this must for six months be regularly watered. 
Then dig the garden, and form it into proper beds, leaving a space of 
about twenty feet between them and the hedge. From the main 
channel for conducting the water to the garden, draw others at riglu 
angles, and distant twenty-two cubits. Between every two of these, to 




BETEL VINE 



drain off the superfluous water, draw others about a cubit wide, and 
deeper than the former. The garden is thus divided into rows ten 
cubits in widths having on one side an elevated channel for supplying it 
with water, and on the other side a deep canal, to carry off what is 
superfluous. These rows are divided into beds, each also having on 
Qtvt side a channel to supply it with water, and on the other a 
canal to carry off wliat is superfluous ; and it is surrounded by a narrow 
bank, about six inches high, which excludes the water that flows 
thiough the channeb : within these little banks the divisions of the 
beds are carefully levelled. 

In the centre of each division is then formed a row of small holes, 
dittant from each other one cubit j and in Pushya (Dec. — Jan.) in 
every hole are put two cuttings of the betel-leaf vine, each two cubits 
long. The middle of each cutting is pushed down, and slightly 
covered witti earth ; while the four ends project and form an equal 
number of young plants, which for the first eighteen months are allowed 
to climb upon dry sticks that are put in for the purpose. For the first 
week after being planted, the shoots must be watered twice a day with 
pots; for another week once a day, and until the end of the second 
month once in three days. A small drill is then made across each 
Ansion of the beds, and between ever>' two holes in each ; and in 
these drills are planted rows of the seeds of the agase, nuggc and 
ViTJepu, The young betel plants must then have some dung, and for 
months more must be watered with the pot once in three days, 
rds, so long as the garden lasts, all the channels must once in 
four days be filled with water. This keeps the ground sufficiently 
It, and water applied immediately to the plants is injurious. The 
len ought to be kept clean from weeds by the hand, and once a year, 
in December, must have dung. 

Arisen the plants arc a year and a half old they are removed from 
the sticks ; two cubits of each, next the root, is buried in the earth ; 
the remainder, conducted close to the root of one of the young 
liees, is allowed to support itself on the stem. At the end of two 
ytars two cubits more of each plant are buried in the ground ; and ever 
afterwards this is once a year repeated. At the beginning of the fourth 
year the cultivator begins to gather the leaves for sale, and for six or 
seten years continues to obtain a constant supply. Afterwards the 
plants die, and a new garden must be formed in some other place. In 
order to give additional coolness to the garden, at its first formation a 
plantain-tree is put at each corner of every bed, and by means of 
soon forms a cluster. So long as the garden lasts these 

liters are prescr\'ed. At all times the gardens are very cool and 





l63 



FLORA 



pleasant ; but they are not neatly kept ; and in the space between the 
hedge and the beds, a great variety of bushes and weeds are allowed to 
grow. 

In the west, the betel vine is grown with the areca palm in the follow- 
ing manner: — U'hen the arcca plantation is fifteen years old, in the 
month immediately following the vernal equinox, a hole is dug near 
every tree, one cubit deep and one and a half in width. After having 
ex|x>sed the earth to the air for a month, return it into holes and allow 
it to remain for another month. Then take out a little of the earth, 
smooth the surface of the pit, and bury in it the ends of five cuttings 
of the beteMeaf vine, which are placed with their upper extremities 
sloping toward the palm. Once ever)- two days, for a month, water the 
cuttings, and shade them with leaves. Then remove the leaves and 
with the point of a sharp stick loosen the earth in the holes. In the 
first year the waterings must be repealed every day, and the whole must 
once a month be hoed j while at the same time dung is given to every 
plant. In the second year, the vines are tied up to the palms ; once 
in two months the garden is hoed and manured ; and it is in the hot 
season only that the plants are watered. At the end of the second 
year the vines begin to produce saleable leaves. In the third year and 
every other year afterwards, so much of the vines next the root as has 
no leaves, must be buried. Once in six months the garden must be 
hoed and manured ; and in the hot season the vines must be watered 
every other day. 

The owners of these plantations are annoyed by elephants, monkeys 
and squirrels ; and, besides, both palms and vine are subject to diseases ; 
one of which, the anibe^ in the course of two or three years kills the 
whole. Except when these aiuses of destruction occur, the vine con- 
tinues always to flourish; but the palm begins to decay at forty-five 
years of age, and is then removed, care being taken not to injure the 
vine. Near this is made a fresh hole, in which some persons place two nuts 
for seed, and others plant a young seedling. In order to support the 
vine during the fifteen years which are required to bring forward the 
new palm, a large branch of the Adruvtina, or erythrina^ is stuck in the 
ground, and watered for two or three days; when it strikes root and 
supplies the place of an areca. 

CofTee.' — The variety of coffee cultivated in Mysore appears to be 
the true coffta arah'ca, which Rhind informs us was originally intro- 
duced into Arabia from Abyssinia. It was introduced into this 
Province some two centuries ago by a person named Baba Budan, who, 

* Aflapfw] frnm a memorandum I»y Mr. Graham Anderson, Cl-T., Baigua £.4Ate, 
Man^rabad. 




COFFEE 



««3 



on his return from a pilgrimage to Mecca, brought a few seeds, which 
he planted on the range of mouniains still bearing his name.' 

In the selection of land for coffee cultivation, care must he taken to 
obtain a tract well sheltered by nature from undue exposure either to 
the south-west or the east wind, and situated, with a northern, north- 
Cftstemy or north-western aspect, within the zone that is favoured with 
as I&ige as possible a share of the March and April showers and yet 
not visited by too large a share of rain in the south-west monsoon. 
There is in (act a line or coffee zone in every coffee- producing country, 
and more cs|K.'cially in Mysore, even a mile beyond which the coffee-tree 
villnot exisL The plant rejoices in a damp^ warm temperature, such as 
is procurable in the west of Mysore at elevations from 2,500 to 3,500 
fcct above sea-level, although the tree will grow under certain circum- 
stinces at ele>'ations both below and above these. A good rich loamy 
soil, of any colour, with a good deposit of \'egetable matter on the 
surface, and not much sheet rock underlying it, is required. 

There are five descriptions of land in Mysore in which coffee has 
beea planted* : — the forest termed kdns ; hea\7 gliat forest, termed 
mdt ; village jungles, termed uduve ; kumriy or land the original timber 
00 vhich haWng been cut has been followed by a secondary growth of 
bees of a smaller type ; and kanavej or lands covered with hard-wood 
tiets and bamboos. Some of the finest estates have been formed on 
lands of the first and third classes, which have the decided advantage 
orrr all otlier descriptions, of possessing a rich deposit of decayed 
vegetable mould that has not been exposed to atmospheric influences, 
and hence contains an almost inexhaustible store of organic and in- 
organic constituents available as food for the coffee plant. 

The kdfu are generally situated in mountainous country, intersected 
bjr streams of clear water, with rocky or sandy beds. The peculiarity 
trf the ravines through which these streamlets flow is, tlial the under- 
^wth is entirely different from that found under similar circumstances 
in the ghat forests, consisting as it does of a gigantic species of 



' Further particulars of ihc history of coAec cultivation wil! be found under Kadur 
nd Fiusan Districts in Vol. II. 

' Tbb drscriptiun applies to the Malnid, w}icre alone exleiuive coffee plantations 
iBTchllfacrto been formed. But forty years ago there were coffee gardens in fianga- 
lae, and a few plants were grown in private gardens under welU by European 
ruidtuts since iben, yielding sufficient for domestic wanls. The SAme practice seems 
to have been common in Cochin so fur back as 1743, according to Cantcrvisscher's 
"Lotenfrom Malaliar." Of late years an cxjxrriment on a larger scale has been 
-- '■- -! HangaJr»rc, by Mr. Minakshaiya, aixl coffee grown with great success on 
1 land. The consequence has been a demand by European planters for land 
wiUoic (of the purpose near Ilangalore and Mysore, and in other Maidin parts. 

M 2 




A 



triangular coffee-wwd (called in Canarese hana/ or J:(/>-^t7rAa/)j and 
other succulent plants, whereas in the latter case basket reeds (termed 
wartt) and canes {betta) of every description are generally found in a 
tangled mass. Uduve is strictly village jungle or forest, sometimes 
almost entirely surrounded by rice-fields. The trees are frequently 
large and of good descriptions, and the undergrowth is principally 
small coffee-weed, bamboos and thorns. There are fewer ravines in 
this kind of land and they are generally smaller and less precipitous, 
but frequently old excavations, termed wanigalu^ are met with, which 
evidently were dug out as approaches to villages formerly situated in the 
very heart of the foresL MaU tracts are situated close to the crest of the 
ghats and generally contain gigantic timber, but can seldom boast of 
good soil, except in protected situations, the generality of the land 
having suffered from wash caused by the almost incessant rainfall in 
the monsoon. The great height of the trees also proves prejudicial to 
coffee, which is cut to pieces by the drip. The situation being bleak, 
windy, and exposed to terrific rainfall, is seldom profitable for coffee 
cultivation. Kumri lands frequently contain magnificent-^rv/t/w^- soil, 
but a certain amount of virtue hxs gone out of it by former exposure, 
and although coffee has been planted and fine estates made on such 
land, still the operation is always accompanied by a considerable, 
amount of risk, and always by heavy extra expenditure. In karjavc 
lands ravines containing fair average soil and trees are to be met with, 
and these places are the only portions suitable for coffee. This 
description of land has the disadvantage of .showing a maximum area 
of holding with a minimum of space available for cultivation. 

CUaring for a plantation consists of removing with the axe and 
cutting all undergrowth and olistructions, and such trees as are not 
required. Large trees that have a thick foliage in the hot weather and 
little or none in the monsoon, are left as shade at regular distances, 
attention being paid to leave fewer trees on portions with a northern 
aspect than on those facing the south, all quarters exposed to the wind 
especially requiring protection. This accomplished, the ground is either 
cleared by lopping and laying in line to await the process of rotting in 
the monsoon, or fire is u.sed to facilitate matters. Lines of pegs, 
generally at 6 x 6 feet, are then laid down, and the land is holed, each 
hole being generally one foot wide by two feet deep. This is done to 
remove all ob.stacles to the roots of the young plants, and to make a 
nice loose bed for their reception. Roads are traced to and from 
convenient points in the property, and these are again intersected by 
paths to facilitate the general working of the estate. 

For nurserks^ convenient situations, with facilities for irrigation or 




COFFEE 



tiss 






river or lank frontage, are selcctt'd and entirely cleared of trees, 

)eing dug to the depth of two feet or more, and every root and 

Jtooe removed- This is then laid out into beds, generally about four 

fed '.ride, separated by paths, and the whole well drained and put in 

order with llic same care as a flower garden. Manure is applied and 

titc beds are then cut up into furrows, at six inches apart, into which 

the seeds are placed, about one inch apart. The whole bed is then 

dwirred up with dry leaves and watered by hand, care being taken to 

namtain a uniform state of moisture, which must not be excessive. 

^Tltt seed germinates in six weeks, and from the bean, which is raised 

on 1 stender green stem of about eight inches in height, burst forth two 

small ov:al leaves. These two-leafed seedlings are pricked out into 

beds at cither 4x4 or 6x6 inches, and require from tun to 

fourteen months, with constant attention and watering, to form into 

pood plants, which should have three or four pairs of small primary 

buaches and be from one foot to one and a half in height. 

Ptanting is performed in the months of June, July and August. The 

ts being carefully removed from the beds and the roots trimmed, 

are planted either with a matnoti or planting staff by a regular 

90% of e.\-j>erienced men. Great attention is paid to this operation to 

sec that the holes are properly filled in and that the roots arc not bent 

ormjured, and lastly that the plants are firmly set in the ground and 

not hung. 

Under favourable circumstances, the plants arc ready for topping in 
the second year. A topping stafl*, duly marked to the proper height, 
is placed alongside of the young tree, and the top or head and one 
primary branch are removed. Trees are ioi)ped at heights varying 
from two feet to four and a half feet, but the medium of three feet is 
{enoaUy preferred. This operation has the effect of directing the sap 
the primary branches and making them throw out secondary 
is, which come from each eye along the branch. An abundance of 
ni^ur has the effect of forcing out a number of shoots under the junc- 
lioo of the upper primaries with the stem, and also from the stem at 
vinous places. These are termed suckers, and are all removed by 
gings of women and boys. The first crop generally appears in the 
dkitd year, and consists merely of a few berries on the primar)* branches, 
igj^egating about one maund per acre. In the fourth year a return of 
about one cwL per acre may be expected, and it is not until the seventh 
•T eighth year that the planter is rewarded by a full crop, which, even 
dcr the most favourable circumstances, rarely exceeds five or six 
cwis. per acre. 
The crop commences to ripen in October and November. As soon 






i66 ^^^^^ FLORA 

as the chenies are of a fine red colour, they are picked into basVets, 
and brought to the pulper to be either measured or weighed, and 
deposited in a vat made for their reception. They are passed through 
the pulper with a stream of water either the same ddy or early next 
morning, and the pulp or outer skin being thus removed, the beans are 
allowed to ferment for twenty or twenty-four hours, without water, to 
facilitate the removal of the saccharine matter which surrounds them. 
After the mass has been washed and well stamped out in three waters, 
all light beans and skins being carefully separated, the beans are re- 
moved to the draining mats, where they are constantly turned over and 
allowed to remain for a day or more, or until all water has drained off. 
They are then spread out thickly on the drying ground in order to dry 
slowly. This is an operation requiring constant attention for six or 
eight days, the whole having to be covered up every evening to protect 
it from dews. The beans should not be dried too thinly spread, or too 
suddenly exposed to the full rays of the sun, as they are apt to become 
bleached and bent. A drjing ground protected by large trees is the 
best, as in that case portions in shade and sun are both available. 
When the beans arc sufficiently dried, they are baggc-d and despatched 
to the coast or Bangalore for preparation and shipment. 

The yield of an estate that has been well maintained in cultivation 
may be put down at from three and a half to four cwts. per acre. As 
much as six cwts. per acre have been produced off portions, but of 
course only under the most favourable circumstances, and such is 
an exception to the general rule. An accurately calculated estimate 
shows that, in a series of years, the crop is more frequently below 
three and a half cwts. than above. But the result varies in different 
places. 

The earliest official notice' of coffee in Mysore is said to have been 
in 1822. But though the plant has been known for so long, it is only 
of recent years that coffee has come into use among natives, and chiefly 
in the towns. When Mr. Elliot first settled in Mysore, in 1856, he 
was repeatedly asked by the farmers of the country whether Europeans 
ate the berry, or of what use it could possibly be. The variety of 
coffee originally cultivated here came to be known as Chick, probably 
from Chickmagalur, the principal town at the foot of the Baba Budan 
hills, the Mysore home of the plant This variety had thriven well and 
promised to do so for an indefinite period of time, but in 1866 and the 
three succeeding years there were dr)* hot seasons, which caused a 
wide-spread attack of the Borer insect About the same time a general 

' The inrurmation in the following imragraphs is tak^n cliieily from C&U^ Sport and 
Coffti-planting in Mysore, by Mr. K. 11. Elliot, of Baitchinhulla Estate, Mitnjarabod. 



COFFEE 



m the constitution of the trees became manifest. So serious 
result that coffee-planting seemed likely to come to an end in 
except in the case of a few elevated tracts in the Baba Budan 
At this juncture, in 1870, Mr. Stanley Jupp, having obserN-ed 
es in the coffee grown in Coorg, recommended his brother 
pluSers CO introduce seed from that province. The young plants raised 
ban the imported seed throve with extraordinary vigour, and it was 
a found that the new variety would grow and crop well, and even 
land on which all attempts to reproduce the Chick variety had 
ly failed. "Then this sinking industry rose almost as suddenly as 
hid fallen ; old and abandoned estates, and every available acre of 
forest and even scrub, were planted up ; and land which used to change 
hnds at from Rs. 5 to 10 an acre was eagerly bought in at twelve times 
ihoe rates." Another cause for anxiety, however, now arose, for when 
die produce of the new variety came into the market^ brokers objected 
10 pay Mysore prices for Coorg coffee. But, as the trees from Coorg 
iced aged, the produce each year assimilated more and more in appear- 
lacc and quaiitj' to that of the old Mysore plant. Consequently the 
Coorg variet)-, the stock of which is kept up by continual importations 
(tf fresh seed, has been permanently adopted as a plant which crops 
Bore regularly and heavily than the Chick, and the produce of which 
\a& so improved under the influence of the soil and climate of Mysore, 
Ifatt, with the exception of the long-established brand of "Cannon's 
Mwore," and the produce of a few other estates that still grow Chick, 
in the Baba Budan hills, there is little difference in value. 

The high reputation of Mysore coffee, the best quality of which is 
commonly quoted at los. to 15s. a cwt. above that of any other kind 
that reaches the London market, is attributed partly to the soil and 
te, and partly to the coffee being slowly ripened under shade, 
pioneers of the industry, following the practice in Ceylon, had 
away all the forest and planted their coffee in the open. That 
was a fatal mistake was not at first decisively apparent. But the 
astations of the Borer and leaf disease, the great enemies of coffee, 
tually put the question beyond all doubt. And so clearly is the 
vital necessity of shade now recognized, ihat^ in Mr. Elliot's o[>inion, 
fonned after ample experience, "if good shade of the best kind is 
grown, it is absolutely impossible to destroy a plantation in Mysore, 
even with the worst conceivable man;igemcnt or neglect." The easiest 
of the methods that have been adopted for providing shade is to clear 
down and burn the entire forest and then plant shade trees along with 
the coffee. Another plan is to clear and burn the underwood and a 
in portion of the forest trees, leaving the remainder for shade. 





A 



CINCHONA 

Commissary -General, about the time when leaf disease was causing such 
destruction. It was thought that this hardier plant, native of a hotter 
dimate and lower region, might be found proof against the disease. 
Bui, notwithstanding %-arious experiments, whether the flavour of the 
berry is inferior, or frgm whatever cnu.sc, it has not supplanted the 
old variety.^ A hybrid, a cross between the two, is said to be more 
promising.' 

Among //rtffA of economic value introduced into the country in recent 
wars, the following are deserving of mention : — 

Casa&rina. — None has been more successful or more extensively 
cultitaied, principally as a fuel tree, than Casunrina ^uhetifoHa^ called 
by the natives kharike. It is an Australian tree, the swamp oak of 
Queensland, but better known as the Tinian pine or beefwood tree. 
The numerous and extensive plantations formed of it, especially in the 
BiDgalore District, have visibly altered the landscape in some parts. 
Asfdel it develops more heat in a given quantity than any other kind 
rflocal wood ; in fact, for locomotive and domestic purposes it is found 
NORsary to use inferior fuel with it, in order to moderate the intense 
laCwbkh would otherwise prove destructive to tngines and utensils. 
In experiments on the Mysore State Railway it was reckoned that 
cuuarina logs ran a train over a distance thirteen per cent, in excess of 
Ifcal attained by the next best kind of fuel available in the Mysore 
farcsts. 

Cinohona. — Two plantations were originally formed; one in 1866 
«I Kalhaiti on the Baba Budnn hills (Kadur District), with 5,000 plants, 
ttd the other in 1867 on the Biligiri Rangan hills in Yelandur (Mysore 
Ihstrkt), with 2,000 plants. The only kind permanently cultivated 
»as C, succiruiTa ; the more valuable but less hardy species of 
C caiisaya and C. officinalis were also tried, but w ithout success. The 
nimii»er of trees in the first plantation had increased to 24,000, and a 
Dombcr had been distributed to favourable localities in the western 
Districts, when in 1871 the Ijark of trees from both plantations was 
submitted to analj-sis by Mr. Broughton, Quinologist to the Madras 

^ Mr. Cameron says: — " UTicn first introduced, the Lilwrian specie* had the 
llfHrtAtkin of being tropical in its miuircmenls, and that its cullivalion would extend 
to tbe (lUini of India. Experience has not proved this capaciLy, although, no doubt, 
anilcr shade, llic plant can endure a considerably higher degree of tcntpemture 
the Antjimn shrulj. Bui under full exposure to the sun the former died outright, 
the csiabltsbed species grew vigorously and produce<l good crops of coffee." 
' The followirig f^rafts have been established at ihc Ijil Ilagh for exj>eriment : — 
Libefuii on AraHan slock, Arabian on Libcriaji btuck, Maragogipc on ^Viabian 
iCnck, Liherian on llaelf, Arabian on itself. 



Commissaiy-General, about the time when leaf disease was causing such 
destruction. It was thought that this hardier plant, native of a hotter 
climate and lower rcjjion, might be found proof against the disease. 
But, noiwiihsianding various experiments, whether the flavour of the 
berrj' is inferior, or from whatever cause, it has not supplanted the 
old variety.' A hybrid, a cross between the two, is said to be more 
pronitsing.* 

Among plants of economic value introduced into the countr)' in recent 
years, the following are desennng of mention : — 

CaBD&Hna. — None has been more successful or more extensively 
cullivaied, prindi>a!ly as a fuel tree, than Casuartna equisetifolia^ called 
by the natives kharike. It is an Australian tree, the swan^p oak of 
Queensland, but better known as the Tinian pine or beefwood tree. 
The numerous and extensive plantations formed of it, especially in the 
Bangalore District, have visibly altered the landscape in some parts. 
As fuel it develops more heat in a given quantity than any other kind 
«f local wood ; in fact, for locomotive and domestic purposes it is fouttd 
ntctssATy to use inferior fuel with it, in order to moderate the intense 
he^l, which would otherwise prove destructive to engines and utensils. 
In experiments on the Mysore State Railway it was reckoned that 

^^■Muarina logs ran a train over a distance thirteen per cent, in excess of 

^Hvt attained by the next best kind of fuel available in the Mysore 

■ forests. 

" Cinchona. — Two plantations were originally formed; one in 1866 
at Kalhaiii on the Baba Budan hills (Kadur District), with 5,000 plants, 
and the other in 1867 on the Biligiri Rangan hills in Yelandur (Mysore 
District), with 2,000 plants. The only kind permanently cultivated 
was C. suidruha ; the more valuable but less hardy species of 
C (aliiaya and C, offmtuilis were also tried, but without success. The 
nrniber of trees in the first plantation had increased to 24,000, and a 
number had been distributed to favourable localities in the western 
Districts, when in 187 1 the bark of trees from both plantations was 
aibmitled to analysis by Mr. Broughton, Quinologist to the Madras 

* Nr. Guncaxm says: — '*W}icn 6nit inlroducwl, the IJberian species had ihe 
■Vfiotation of being tropical in its rct^uircmcnls, »nd that Its cultivation wmitd extend 
to llir plains of India. l-lx]xrricncc has not proved this caiMcity, although, no doubt, 
vhm under shade, the plant can endure a consitlcrahly higher degree of temperature 
dun the Arabian shrub. But under full exposure lo the sun the fonner JiciJ outright, 
vm« the citabUAhc<l spcdcs grew vigorously and produced good crops of coffee." 

• TTic foltuwing gnfu have Iwcn established at the Lai Hugh for ex[>eriment : — 
librruin on Arabian stock, Arabian on Liberian slock, Maragogipe on Arabian 
ilaek, Lilienan on itself, Aintn&n on itself. 



J 



CINCHONA 



Commissar^'-General, about the time when leaf disease was causing such 
dttttuction. It was thought that this hardier plant, native of a hotter 
dimalc and lower region, might be found proof against the disease. 
But, notwithstanding various experiments, whether the flavour of the 
bmy is inferior, or frgm whatever cause, it has not supplanted the 
old variety.* A hybrid, a cross between the two, is said to be more 
promising.' 

.\mong plants of economic value introduced into the countr)- in recent 
j««, the following are deser\'ing of mention : — 

Cuaarina. — None has been more successful or more extensively 
cultivated, principally as a fuel tree, than Casuarina tquisttifolia^ called 
by tlie natives kharike. It is an Australian tree, the swamp oak of 
Queensland, but l>etter known as the Tinian pine or laeefwood tree. 
The numerous and extensive plantations formed of it, especially in the 
Bangalore District, have visibly altered the landscape in some parts. 
As fuel it develops more heal in a given quantity than any other kind 
of local wood ; in fact, for locomotive and domestic purposes it is found 
fcocssary to use inferior fuel with it, in order to moderate the intense 
bat, which would otherwise prove destructive to engines and utensils. 
la experiments on the Mysore State Railway it was reckoned that 
Oiuarina logs ran a train over a distance thirteen per cent, in excess of 
thit attained by the next best kind of fuel available in the Mysore 
fomts. 

dnchona. — Two pbntations were originally formed; one in 1866 
at Kalhaiii on the Baba Budan hills (Kadur District), with 5,000 plants, 
ind the other in 1867 on the Biligiri Rangan hills in Yelandur (Mysore 
District), with 2,000 plants. The only kind permanently cultivated 
»is C. sucdrubra ; the more valuable but le.s.s hardy species of 
C calisaya and C. officinalis were also tried, but w ithout success. The 
mnnber of trees in the first plantation had ijicreased to 24,000, and a 
number had been distributed to favourable localities in the western 
Diitncts, when in 1871 the bark of trees from both plantations was 
submitted to analysis by Mr. Broughton, Quinologist to the Madras 

' Mr. Cuneron says: — "When first introduced, the IJberian species had ihc 
it{ntati"n of beii^ tropical in its requirements, and ihal its cultivation would extend 
lo the plains 'if India. Experience has not proved this caiiacity,althuugh, no doubt, 
irh^Q under shade, the plant can endure a considerably higher degree of temperature 
IIiBn the Aiabian shrub. But under fill! exposure to the sun the former died (.lutrighl, 
while the established spccicA grew vigorously and prtxiuced gi>od cro]»s of coffee." 

• The following grafts have l>cen established at the Lai Bagh for eK]»eriincnt : — 
Libcfian on .Arabian Mock, Arabian on Liberian stock, MaT.igogipc on Arabian 
Aock, LiberUn on itself, Arabian on it&elf. 




172 



FLORA 



accidentally, and thus secures the fruit, but in this countrj' no such 
insect has yet made its appearance. We inubt therefore adopt our 
own means to fecundate the flowers. The process is simple when 
once acquired. The organs of reproduction (unlike the ordinary state 
of things) are disposed in a peculiar form, as if to prevent natural 
fecundation, and until this takes place by artiBce, or chance as 
explained, the beans which comprise the economic product of vanilla 
will not be obtained. 

Cocoa. — The chocolate-nut tree, theobroma coeoa^ is indigenous to 
South America and the W. Indies, where it has been cultivated for 
various uses for many generations. The tree is an evergreen, which 
grows from sixteen to twenty-five feet high. The leaves are entire, 
smooth, and very glossy in appearance j the flowers, which are diminu- 
tive, are borne on the stem and principal limbs of the tree ; hence the 
rare and curious appearance which the capsules present suspended from 
the bare stem. The trees in the Government Gardens have produced 
fruit freely. The jxiculiarities of the cullivation consist in the applica- 
tion of dense shade, moderate moisture, and decomposed vegetable 
soil, chiefly. Salt is also an indispensable ingredient in a compost for 
chocolate trees. 

Rhea. — The Rhea plant or China grass of commerce is the boehmeria 
nivea. The librc produced from the bark of this plant is very strong 
and delicate, but the difl^icully of preparing it by machinery continues 
to obstruct its utility on an extensive scale. There are three species 
of boehmeria in the Lai Bagh, and the climate of Mysore seems to 
facilitate their growth. The young shoots which produce the fibre 
grow more regular and free under half shade than when fully exposed 
to the sun's rays. The species nhiea is quite established here, but 
never produces seed. It possesses the great advantage, however, that 
it can be helped by man ; so that its naturalization in most parts of 
India is almost certain. 

The following are other plants whose experimental cultivation has been 
more or less successful, some of them being permanently established: — 



Acnscarjius fraxini- Shingle-lree 

folius 
Agave rigidA 
Aniptex numtnuIiriA 
Artocarpua cannonl 



Artocarpus indsa ... 
Bambusa I'ulgaiis... 
Barringtonta speci- 
oea 



Sisol hemp 
Salt bush 
Copper-coloured 

foliage 
Seef]less bread fruit 
Goldtn bamboo 
Onrnrncntal tree 



Cra&sica chinenaU... 
HrotMsonctlia papy- 

rifera 
Bursaria spinctsa .., 
Qesalpinia corioria 
Carissa eduUa 
Cftstonospermum 

auMrale 
Castilloa clostica ... 



Shantung cabbftge 
Paper mulbeny 

tree 
Omuneolal tree 
Divi-din uec 
(Edible berry) 
Moreton - bay 

cliestnut 
Ccn I ral American 

rubber 



EXOTICS ^^^ 173 


Ceralcmia iiliqua ... Carob-bean lr« 


Manihot glaziovii ... Ceara-rubber tree 


Qftu&ena wnmpi ... Wampi (fruit) 


Mentha viridis ... Spearmint 


Cola acuminata* ... Kola nut 


Millin^tonia porlensb Indian cork tree 


CoK-Ulea raccmoa OmamcDtal tree 


Monstera deliciou. Climbing aroid 


Cotiroupita guianensis Cannon-ball tree 


Opuntia ficus indica Malta pnckly-|>ear 


Crescentta alata ... Calabash tree 


I'anicum sarmciito- Mautiiiui grass 


CTphomandra be- Tree tomato 


sum 


tacca 


Paritium elatum ... Cuba bast 


^pacus fuilonum Fullers' teazel 


I'armentiera cerifem Candle tree 


£r>-lhro3tylon coca Yields cocoolne 


f'hfcnix daclylifcra Date-palm 


Cuchl^vna luxurians Ikiflalo grass 


Pithecolobium saman Rain tree 


Fagi/pyrum csculen- Buckwheat 


Poinciana regin ... Gold-mohur tree 


iwn 


KuHa tlnctorum* ... M.iddcr plant 


Grevillca robusta ... Silver oak 


KuImis idanis ... Raspberry 


GjrDoctrdia odoraU Yields chaulmugra 


Smilav sarsapariUa Yields sarsaparilla 


uil 


Stillingia sebifera ... Chincie lallow tree 


Hyoscyunos niger Henbane 


Trapa bispinosa ... Zinghora nut. 




water chestnut 




Trisiania confena... Tlmlwr tree 


Lcndolphia watsoni Yield« caoutchouc 


Vaxi^eria cdu1u&... Fniit tree 


Milaclicm ca(»Uta Yields 6bre 


Vitis martini . . . Cochin -China vine 


Experiments have also been made with several varieties of cotton and 


paiatocs, Varieties of cocoa-nut liave been imported from Colombo 


in Ceylon ; also trial has been made of various kinds of grape vines, 


loquai and bhere fruit (zizyphus jujuba). 


It may be useful here to give the following list of plants whose 


1 cultivation has been attempted without any pcrnianeni success at 


1 Bangalore : — ^^m 




Durio zibeihinus ... Durltn ^^H 


AnrnoBcia eaeulenta Amaicha 


Eucalyptus globu- Blue gum ^^H 


Atcsh. eUuiui ... Cotumnn uU 


^H 


CimHIia thcifera ... Tea plant 


Garcinia mangos- Mangostecn ^H 


Caryophyllus aro- Clove tree 


^H 


malicus 


Glycine hispida ... Soy bean ^^| 


Cusia obovata ... Tinnevelly itenna 


Helianthus annuus Russian sunflowcf ^H 


Castanta vulgaris . . . Spanish chestnut 


Humulus lupnlus ... Hop vine ^H 


Calalpa speciosa ... Califoraian limber 


Myristica fragrans Nutmeg tree ^^| 


tree 


Platanus orientalis Oricnul plane ^^| 


Cephwlis ipecacu- Ipecaaianhu 


' Syroph)tumasperri- Prickly comfrey ^^| 


an ha 


mum ^^1 


Cyperu* esculeotus Ground almond, 


I Utlticus tiihernKUS Tuber ^^H 


ruKh-nut 


Withavia (Punceria) Chccsc-makcr ^^^k 


Cyperus pangorei... Sedj^e 


coagulans ^^| 


» BoUnically not fiir removed from the indigenous kcttdale mora <sterculia urens). ^H 


^ The plant which yields Indian madder has been found wild in Kankanhalli and ^^| 


other parts. ^^| 


■ Eucalyptut saligna, rostnita, raar^nata and citriodora are established in the ^^| 


gaidens an<l furnish seed. ^^| 


* Graiting it on the gamboge tree (Garcinia moiella) seems to have been socccssful ^H 


in Jamaica. ^^H 



172 



accidentally, and thus secures the fruit, but in this country no such 
insect has ytt made its appearance. We must therefore adopt our 
own means to fecundate the flowers. The process is simple when 
once acquired. The organs of reproduction (unlike the ordinary stale 
of things) are disposed in a peculiar form, as if to prevent natural 
fecundation, and until this takes place by artifice, or chance as 
expbined, tlie beans which comprise the economic product of vanilla 
will not be obtained. 

Cocoa. ^The chocobte-nut tree, thcobroma cocoa^ is indigenous to 
South America and the W. Indies, where it has been cultivated for 
various uses for many generations. The tree is an evergreen, which 
grows from sixteen to twenty-five feet high. The leaves are entire, 
smooth, and very glossy in ap[>earance ; the flowers, which are diminu- 
tive, are borne on the stem and principal limbs of the tree ; hence the 
rare and curious appearance which the capsules present suspended from 
the bare stem. The trees in the Government Gardens have produced 
fruit freely. The peculiarities of the cultivation consist in the applica- 
tion of dense shade, moderate moisture, and decomposed vegetable 
soil, chiefly. Salt is also an indispensable ingredient in a compost for 
chocolate trees. 

Bhea, — The Rhea phni or China grass of commerce is the boehmeria 
niixa. The fibre produced from the bark of this plant is very strong 
and delicate, but the difficulty of preparing it by machinery continues 
to obstruct its utility on an extensive scale. There arc three species 
of boehmeria in the Lai Bagh, and the climate of Mysore seems to 
facilitate their growth. The young shoots which produce the fibre 
grow more regular and free under half shade than when fully exposed 
to the sun's rays. The species nivca is quite established here, but 
never produces seed. It possesses the great advantage, however, that 
it can be helped by man ; so that its naturalization in most parts of 
India is almost certain. 

The following are other plants whose experimental cuIti\-ation has been 
more or less successful, some of them being permanently established: — 



Acrocarpus &axiiu- Shingle-iree 

folius 

Agave rigida ... Sisal hemp 

Artiplei: nummularia Soil bush 

Ailocarpus cannoni Copper-coloured 



Artocarpus incisa ... 
Batnbusa vulgaris... 
Borringtonia sped- 



foliage 

Seedless bread fruit 
Golden tnmlHX) 
Ornamental tree 



Brassica cbincnsLS... 
Broussoneltia papy- 

rifera 
Bursaria spinosa .-. 
Ocsalpinia coriaria 
Carissa edulis 
Castnnnspermum 

nutttrale 
Caslilloa claslica ... 



Shantung cabbage 
I'aper mulberry 

tree 
Ornamental tree 
Dm-divi tree 
(Edible berry) 
Moreton • bay 

chestnut 
Central Ameriaui 

rubber 



^^^^^^^^^^^^EXOT^C^^^^^^^^^i^^^^^ 


Coaloaia sllqtMi ... Corob-bean tree 


Manihot glaziovii ... Ceara-rubber tree ^^H 


Gbuisena wimpi ... Wampi (fniit) 


Mentha ^-iridis ... Spearmint ^^H 


CoU Acuminata^ ... Kola nut 


MUlingtonia partcnsis Indian cork tree ^^H 


Colvillea racemosa Ornamental tree 


Monstera dcliciosa Climbing aroid ^^H 


Couroupita guiancnsis Cantion'bull tree 


Opuntia ficus indica Malu prickly-pear ^^H, 


Cnsoeatia alata ... Calabash Ucc 


l^anicum sarmentu* Mauritius grass ^^H 


Cfphooundia. be- Tree tomato 


^^H 


t&oa 


Paritium datum ... Cuba liost ^^H 


Mpaacns fallooDin Fullcn' teazel 


Parmcntiera ccrifem Candle tree ^^H 


Erjrthroxylon coca Yields cocnairiL' 


I'hrvnix dactylifera Date-palm ^^| 


Enchlirna luxurianji Bullalo grass 


Pithccolobium saman Rain tree ^^^ 


Fagopjmiro esculen- Buckwheat 


ruindaoa tegia ... Gold-mohur tree ^^H 


ton 


RuHa tinctorum* ... Madder plant ^^H 


GnrOIe* robusta ... Stiver oak 


Rubusidxus ... Kasplxtrry ^^H 


Gfoocardia otlonitA Yields chaulmugia 


Smjlax sorMparilla Yields sarsaparilla ^^H 


oil 


StiUingia &cbifera . . . Chinese Lallnw tree ^^H' 


HycMcyamus n^cr licnbane 


Trapa. bispinosa ... Ztnghara nut, ^^^H 


Ij^ouu patersonii Foliage tree 


water chestnut ^^H 


Lwdolphiakirkii... Yields caoutchouc 


Tristonia conferui... Timber tree ^^| 


Landotphia watsoni Yields caoutchouc 


Y&nguerta edulus... Fruit tree ^^H 


UUacheai capttala Yields fibre Viiis martini ... Cochin-Chiim vine ^^H 


Experiments have also been made with several varieties of cotton and 1 


potatoes. Varieties of cocoa-nut have been imported from Colombo H 


m Ce)'Ion ; also trial has been made of various kinds of grape vines, 1 


loquai and bhere fruit (zizyphus jujuba). J 


It may be useful here to give the following list of plants whose ^h| 


cultii-ation has been attempted witliout any permanent success at ^^H 


Bangalore : — ^^| 


Ackdm decurrens ... Black wattle 


Durio ribethinus ... Durtan ^^H 


ilmoda esculenta Arracacha 


Eucalyptus globu- Blue gum ^^^H 


Anna elatior ... Common oat 


^H 


Casidlta iheifera ... Tea plant 


Gordnia mangos- Mangostecn ^^H 


CMjophyUtts aro- Clove uee 


■ ^H 


tamiicxa 


Glycine bispida ... Soybean ^^H 


Canftobovata ... Tinnevclly senna 


Helianthus annuvis Russian sunHowet ^^H 


CufitiTfi vulgaris ... Spanish chestnut 


Hamulus lupulus ... Mop vine ^^^H 


Caii]p« specion ... Califoniian limber 


Myriatica iragrans Nutmct; tree ^ 


tree 


PUtanus orientaiis Oriental pline f 


CeplucUs ipecacu- Ipecacuanha 


Symphytum asperri- Prickly comfrey 


•aha 


mum 


Cyperus csculcmtus Ground almond, 


UUucus tubcrosus Tuber 


nish-nul 


Withavia (Puneeria) Cheese-maker 


Cypcfftis pangorei... Sedge 


coagulans 


> Bottnkally not tax rtmoved from ihc indigenous hudaU mam (stcrculia urens). 


* The plant which yield* Indian inailder has been found wild in Kankanhalli and 


ocherputs. ^h 


* Eucalyptus saligna, rmtrata, niarginaU and cttriodora are cstabli^hcrl in the ^^H 


guJena and furniith seed. ^^H 


* Grafting it on the gamboge tree (Garcinia morelU) seems to have been successful ^^H 


in Juoaica. ^^H 



<74 



FAUNA 
FERJE NATURiE 



Nothing less than a separate treatise, and that a voluminous one, 
could do justice to the marvellous wealth of the animal kingdom in a 
province under the tropics marked by so many varied natural features 
as Mysore, An attempt has been made to present a list of the main 
representatives, with the Kannacla names, where they could be ascer- 
tcuned. A few notes on the localities frequented by particular animals 
will be found in Vol. II. 

Hammals— Mammalia.' 



Primates. 
Ctrcopitfucidit — ^fonkcys — KSd. 

Macacus silenus ... SingaHka, karkddaga .. 
Macacus siniciu ... K6ti, manga, k6daga ... 

Scmnopitheois eatHlus Musu, musuva, musuku'.. 

Semnopithccus priamos Konda-musulcu, koniln- 

mosava 
Semnopithecu!) johni 

l^mitrtJa — Lemurs. 



The lion-tailed monkey 
The common monkey of the 

couHtry 
The langur, or Hanuman 

monkey 
The Madras langur 

The Nilgiri langur 



Loris gracili.s 



Nata, afiavT manushju ... The slender IotU 



Felida—CM iribe- 
Felis lifiris 
FeUs pardus ... 

Felis t^engalensis 
Felis chaus 
C>'nxUirus jubata 



Hull, hebhvjli 

Kiraba, ibbendi, dod-ibba 

IluUbekku^bottinabeUku 

K4du bekku 

Chinte,sivttngi,chircha ... 



Carnivora. 

-BekJ:u. 

The tiger* 

The IcojraTrl or panther,* com' 

monly called chccta 
The Icoimrd cat 
The wild or jungle cat 
The hurling leopard, the 

projicr chceta 

' The classificalion and names are taken from W. T. Blanfurd's work on XhsFauMa 
of British India^ and the vernacular names hax'c been re\'ised. 

" It &eema duublful if this monkey is found in the South, and the names may 
belong to S. priamus. 

■ There arc said to l>c two s-arieties, — the heb-hnU, or large roj-al tiger, found in 
the large jungle : and the huU, which u much .smaller and is more destructive to 
human life, frequenling inhabited [Mirls of the country. It has the black stripes 
closer f^ether over the hind quarters. 

* The black variety is occasionally met with. 




f 



^^^^^^^^^^^^Sf^SJSS* 


• >75 


■ 


FSwrrja*— Chrets. 




^H 


Viverricula malacL-eosU Punagina liekku, javddt 


The dvet cat 


^^H 


bekku 




^^H 


Panuloxurus niger . . . Kira bekku, kabbu bekku 


The tree cat or toddy cat 


^^H 


Hcrp«t« tnungo ... Munguli, mungast, kira . 


Tlic inungoose 


^^H 


Herpestes smith i 


The ruddy mungoose 


^^^ 


Ifyrnukt — Hjrapnas — A'irabu. 




^^^ 


Hyana striata ... Kirabu, katle kiraha 


The striped hyaena 


^^H 


Omidtt—Do^ tribe— A'Jyi. 




^^1 


Canis pftllipcs T6|a 


The Indian wolf 


^^H 


Cants aureus Nari, ballu, gujla nan ... 


The jackal 


^^H 


Cyon dcccanensis ... Sil n£)-i 


The Indian wild dog 


^^H 


Vulpes bengalensts ... Kemi>u nari, channangi 
nari 


The Indian fox 


^H 


Ututtlid^r—^'c^Xs. 




^H 


Mcllivora inclica 


The Indian ralcl 


^^H 


Lutra vulgaris ... Nir-niyi 


The common otter 


^H 


UrHdtr—hcnn—ICaradi. 




^^^ 


Mdursus ursinus ... KaruHi 


The Indian bear 


^H 


InsectiTora. 




^H 


5»rw»<&-~Shrcws — Sttmf t'/t'J 




^^H 


CnxiHura cmilca ... Sund ili, sonJ ili 


The musk rat or shrew 


^^1 


Croddora pcfToteti ... Milg-tii ... 


Pigmy rat or shrew 


^H 


Chlroptera. 




^1 


FUrapeduia^ — Frugivorous bats — Bhial. 




^^^ 


Pterojns cdwardsi ... Tt^I t>avali, toval or 


The Indian fruit bat or flying 


^^H 


tole hokki 


fox 


^^H 


CyfMpteru.1 marginatus 


The short-nosed fruit bat 


^H 


iUMmb^M^— Insectivorous bats — /Can-kafpa{e. 




^^1 


RhinolophuK luctus 


The great horse-shoe bat 


^^H 


Rliinolophus afTinis ... 


The allied horse-shoe liat 


^^H 


Hipposidenis speoris 


Schneider's Icaf-nosed Ijai 


^^H 


Htppouderus hicolor 


The bicoloured leaf-noxed bat 


^^^ 


AfWirjiir. 




^H 


Megadenna lyra ... 


The Indian vampire bat 


^^^ 


VtspertHumida. 




^^^ 


Vespcrugo mordax 


The grizzled bai 


1 


Vopougo circumdatus 


The black hat 


1 


Veqieni^ abramus ... gabbilayi 


The Indian pipistrelle 




Vespcmgo kuhli 


The whit e-bordc red bat 




Nyctcccgus dormcri 


Dormer^s bat 




Nycfewgus kuhli 


The common yellow bat 




Emha/ftmurida. 






Taphozous meUnopogon 


The black-limrded sheath- 
tailed bat 




Taphotoos longimanus 


The long-armed sheath-tailed 
Ut 




TapfaoBOOs saccotencus 


The pouch -l>eafiiig sheath ■ 
tailed bat 




^m * Properly sundii iU. 




J 



^^r 176 ^^1 


Rodeotia. 


^^H 


^^^^^^ SnurititE — Squirrels— Udnte. 




^^^H Pteromys oml 


lUruva bckku ... 


.. The brown flying sqdrrel 


^^^B Sciurus indicus 


Kcs nlilu. kemp-ajili 
kend-alilu 


, The large Indian squirrel 


^^^H SduriM macrurus 





The grizzled Indian squirrel 


^^^B Sciurus palnuirum 


Alila, aoilu, uduie 


.. The common striped squirrel 


^^^P Sciurus irisiridtus 


Kad-a{ilu 


. , The jungle striped squirrel 


^^^H MuruiiC—^^\.'i> and niice- 


-Hi. 




^^^H Gerbillus indicus 


Bilnili 


. The Indiaai gerfaille» or ante- 
lope rat 


^^^B Mus ratlus 


Ui 


. The common Indian rat 


^^^1 Mus dccumuius 


Kemp it i 


. The brown rat 


^^^H Mus nutsculus 


Chi|5 ill 


. The common house-mouse 


^^^1 Miis luuluga 


Bail ill 


The Indian field-mouse 


^^^P Mus platythrix 


KaJiH 


The brown spiny mouse 


^^^H Mus ineltada 


TAcU 


. Tlte <toft-fnrrcd field-rat 


^^^1 Nesociu bengalensis ... 


Bail ill 


The Indian mole-rat 


^^^H NeMicin bandicou ... 


lieggana... 


The bandicoot rat 


^^^H Golunda clliotti 


Golandi 


The Indian bush • rat (the 
coffee- rat) 


^^H ^jiywii/*r— Porcupines— 


Muhfiattdt. 




^^^B Hystrix leucura 


Muj-handi, edu, cyya ... 


The porcupine 


^^^1 Leporidu: — 1 lares — Mela, 






^^^H Lepus nigrocoUis 


Mola 

UngulaU. 


The bl&ck-naped hare 


^^^B Ekphantvli — Elcpluintb - 


~A'm. 




^^^H Elephu nmximu.<> 


A'ue 


The Indian elephant 


^^H Bovida—Ox lrit»e— Yettu 


y hasava. 




^^^P Bosgaurus 


KAd ko^a, kate 


The bison, or gaur 


^^^B HemitnLgus hylocrius' 


ICid ddu 


The Nilgiri wild goat (ibex) 


^^^B liiKcUphus traifucamc- 


Kd{.] kudure 


The nilgai, or blue bull 


^^^B Antelopidte — Antelopes — 


':hi^xri. 




^^^B Tetraccros quadricomi:^ 


Konda-guri 


The four-homed antelope 


^^H Antilope cerrieupra ... 


Chigari, huUe 


The Indian antelope, or black 
buck 


^^H Guclla bennetli 


S'ankhulle 


The Indian gazelle, or ravine 

dt'cr 


^^^B Cervitia—Xytcx tribe— y*/i^. 


^^^B Cervulus inuntjac 


Kid-kuri 


The barking deer, or jungle 
sheep 


^^^B Cervus unicolor 


Kadave, katia 


The sambar deer 


^^^^1 Cc^^'ufi axis 


Saraga, dtippi 


The .spotted deer 


^^^fl Tragulus memtnim ... 


Kur-))andi 


The Indian mouse-deer 


^^H Su$da—\\ogf,—Hand$. 






^^^B Sus cris(atiis 


Kid hondi 

Edentata. 


The Indian wild hrwr 


^^^B jl/dH/lr^r— Ant-eaters. 






^^^B Manis pcntadaciyla ... 


Chiphandi 


The Indian pangolin. 


^^^^ * There is some doubt 


whether ibex and nilgai are actually found in Myiore, but 1 


H^^ they arc met w ilh on ihc borders. 


1 



GAAfE LAir 



tl7 



The most destructive to life are tigers, and panthers or cheetas. 
The following figures for the yean> 1890 to 1892 show the extent of 
loss, and what has been done to counteract the ravages of the larger 
animals, so far as the matter has come under official notice. 

In 1SS9-90, there were four persons killed by tigers, two by panthers, 
and six by other animals ; while of cattle, 1,150 were killed by tigers, 
2,246 by panthers, 7 by bears, 2,695 ^Y wolves, 362 by hyjenas, and 
235 by other animals. 

In 1890-1, there were one person killed by an elephant, two by 
tigers, one by a bear, and four by other animals ; of cattle, tigers killed 
1,263, panthers 2,554, bears 49, wolves 1,823, hysnas 109, and other 
animals 289. 

In rS9i-2, there were one person killed by an elephant, one by a 

mther, three by hy.'cnas, and nine by other animals ; of cattle, 2,055 
Jdlled by tigers, 3,621 by panthers, 2,439 by wolves, 243 !)y 
IS, and 375 by other animals. 

The regular rewards offered for the destruction of wild beasts are 
Rs. 40 for a tiger or panther, and up to Rs. 10 for a hyxna. Elephants 
are too valuable to be destroyed, but a special reward is sometimes 
oflered for the destruction of a rogue elephant that has become 
dangerous to life. 

The amounts paid in rewards in the above years were as follows : — 

Rs. 3,728 in 1889-90, namely, Rs. 1,416 for 40 tigers, Rs. 2,164 for 
134 panthers, Rs. 12 for 4 hyenas, and Rs. 136 for 587 other animals. 

Rs- 3.575 i" 1890-1, namely, Rs. i,4S3 for 39 tigers, Rs. 1,946 for 
115 panthers, Rs. 18 for 4 hysnas, and Rs. 156 for 700 other animals. 

Rs. 4,194 in 1891-2, namely, Rs, loo for i elephant, Rs. 1,528 for 
48 tigers, Rs. 2,303 for 148 panthers, Rs. 15 for 3 hya;nas, and Rs. 248 
for 1,389 other animals, including wild pig, rabid dogs, etc. 

A comparison of these statistics with those for 1874 and 1875, given 
tn the first edition, indicates a decrtase on the whole in tlie deaths of 
human beings from wild beasts, but an increase in those of cattle. The 
former may be due either to an actual diminution in the number of 
wild beasts or to better means being now available for the treatment of 
wounded persons: the latter may be due to more complete returns. 
ITie figures relating to animals for whose destruction rewards were 
gi\-en, point to a decrease in the number of larger animals destroyed 
and an increase in that of sraalicr and commoner ones. 

The necessity for a (lame I^w lias been pressed upon the (iovcrn- 
ment by both planters and sportsmen, princi|>a!ly lo prevent the 
indiscriminate destruction of useful species. A draft Regulation has 
accordingly been framed and is under consideration, but it is not 

N 



J 



171 



FAUNA 



intended to create a monopoly in animals in a state of nature fur the 
benefit whether of Government or of sportsmen. In the term "Game " 
it includes antelope, ibex, juny;le-sheep, sambhar and all other descrip- 
tions of deer, bison, hares, jungle-fowl, spur-fowl, pea-fowl, partridge, 
quail, snipe, woodcock, bustard, florican, duck and teal, with such 
other animals or birds as may be added. The pursuit or killing may 
be prohibited of any other animals or birds whose destruction may be 
considered unsportsmanlike. The killing, capture, and pursuit in large 
numbers of any particular kinds of wild animals or birds for the sake 
of their skins or plumage for commercial purposes will be restricted by 
a system of licenses, or prohibited aUogclher either for a certain time 
or within a certain area. Fishing in any stream or lake will in like 
manner be controlled, together with the poisoning of the water, the 
use of explosive or deleterious substances therein, and the capture of 
fish by fixed engines and nets of a mesh below a certain size- A 
season in the year may be fixed in any local area for the killing or 
capture of game or fish ; or it may be prohibited altogether in any local 
area for five years; or absolutely as regards mature females or young of 
cither sex of any descriptions of game. An exception is made in the 
case of an owner or occupier of land, who may kill, capture or pursue, 
within the limits of his land, game doing damage to any growing 
crop. 

Elephants are too valuable to be destroyed, and a special license is 
required to kill one, which is only permitted when an animal endangers 
human life or proves destructive to the crops. At the same time the 
Keddah department was (1873) formed for the capture of elephants. 
Previous to this the animals were sometimes caught in pits. The pits were 
about twenty feet deep, and covered with a light network of bamboos, 
over which was spread a covering of leaves and earth. The earth dug 
out was carried to some distance. These pits never succeeded during the 
first year, but in the second year, when they had become overgrow*n 
with grass, the elephants were often deceived by them. When an 
elephant was caught, rubbish was thrown into the pit, which he trod 
down and gradually formed a path to the top. He was then seized by 
the tame elephants, without whose aid it would be impossible to secure 
a full-grown wild elephant, and at the same lime ropes were thrown 
over him by the Kurul>as. An elepliant who was less than eight 
months old, when thus snared, could seldom be reared in captivity, and 
a tusker of any size had never been entrapped. In a graphic descrip- 
tion of the rude manner in which the pitfall system was managed, Mr. 
G. P. Sanderson says : — " The atrocious cruelties to which elephants 
were subjected by it are too horrible to think of." 



179 



The Kcddflh department, established by him, was highly successful 
in its first operations, which resulted in the capture of fifty-five elephants 
in June 1874. Only nine died, and a profit of Rs. 32,000 was made 
on the affair. The site of the keddahs was near the Miligirirangan hills 
in Chamrajnagar taluq, and Mr. Sanderson's account of what was at 
that time a novel adventure was given in the first edition.' Shortly 
afterwards he was transferred to Dacca in Bengal for elephant-catching 
in the Chittagong and Garo hills, where he was equally successful. On 
his return to Mpore, in June 1876, the great famine was setting in, 
and instead of catching elephants he was engaged in forming grazing 
blocks in the border forests for the starving cattle that flocked thither 
for pasture. Meanwhile the keddahs in Mysore remained in abeyance, 
and Mr. Sanderson, after a furlough, was again employed in Bengal. 
But capture by pitfalls was resorted to in 1886, under proper direction, 
in the KakanktJte and Begur forests, and the District Forest Officer got 
fifly-two elephants there in this manner in the next five years, when the 
system was absolutely stopped on the extension of keddahs to that 
port. Of those caught thirty-five survived, and a profit of Rs. 15,000 
was made on the whole. Still, during the periods that the keddahs had 
been unused, elephants multiplied and became so daring as to ravage 
crops even close to towns. Mr. Sanderson's services were therefore 
again applied for, and in 1889 he was placed at the disposal of Mysore 
for five and a half years. To facilitate operations, twelve trained 
Kumki elephants were purchased from the I'heelkhana at Dacca, and 
seventeen more were imported from Burma in i8go. These twenty- 
nine cost over a lakh. With the exception of a few that died, they 
have become acclimatized to Mysore, and are in a healtliy and service- 
able condition. 

In a fortnight from Mr. Sanderson's arrival, in July i88y, he 
captured a herd of fifty-one in the old keddahs constructed by him in 
1877. Intimation was then received of the proposed visit of H.R.H. 
Prince Albert Victor, and it was desired to make a second catch, if 
po&sibic, for his entertainment in November. The interesting account 
of how the capture of thirty-seven elephants was effected on that occa- 
sion has been contributed by Mr. Sanderson to Mr. Rees' book.'* 
Keddahs were next formed near Kdkank6te in 1890, and an extensive 
use of the telephone was introduced by Mr. Sanderson, for rapid com- 
munication from his base camp with the watch-houses at the keddah 
gates and various points in the jungles, the whole being connected with 

* A (oil ilewrription of ihW ami uthcr opeiBtianH will he found in his Ixiok rallcfl 
" Thirtcrn Years rnnntig the Wil.I Beasts of India." 

" The Ihjke uf Clarence ami Avondalc in Snutherri India," chap, iv, 

N a 




TOO 

the telegraph station nt Hunsur, whence messages rnuld be sent all 
over India. Altogether, in two drives in 1889-90, aiid three drives in 
1890-1, there were 159 elephants caught, and the greater number were 
sold at Nanjangud. Palghat, and Tellicherr)'. Excluding the large 
initial outlay for Kuniki elephants and trained iiands from the north, 
with special charges connected with the Royal visit, the expenditure 
was fairly covered by the receipts, while the stockades, with live and 
dead stock, remained for future use at a moderate cost for up-keep. In 
t89!-3 there were two drives, resulting in the capture of seventy-five 
elephants. Sales were effected at Paschimavdhini and at Haldarabad in 
addition to the places before mentioned. That the expenditure was 
much in excess of the receipts was greatly owing to cost of additionaJ 
telephone materials and instruments. In May, 1892, Mr. Sanderson 
died. Since then Mr, K. Shamiengar, for a short time his assistant, 
has been in charge of the keddahs. In rwo drives in 1892-3' and two 
drives in 1893-4 he was successful in capturing 120 elephants, of which 
twenty-one died. The disposal of the remainder still left a deficit on 
the department of about Rs. 22.000. But the network of telephones 
has been so skilfully laid, both in the Kakank6te and Chamrajnagar 
forests, as practically to ensure the ultimate capUure of every elephant 
that passes within certain limits, and the expenses will be recouped. 

Elephants have of late years become troublesome in the Shimoga 
and Kadur Districts, destroying sugar-cane and paddy crops, and 
injuring the areca-nut gardens. Attempts to stop them by shooting 
some were made, but proved ineffectual. The Keddah department are 
therefore endeavouring to capture some of the herds, which are small 
and scattered, in temporary stockades.' The effect of the inroads of 
elephants has been to drive the field-watchers to the trees, and this has 
left an opening for wild pig to do more mischief to the crops than 
before, when the watchers were on the spot to scare them away. 

Crops are also liable to considerable damage at times from rats. In 
the latter months of 1878 something like a plague of rats appeared, 
especblly in the Chitaldroog District, and committed great havoc in 
the cotton and rice crops of individual villages. Certain kinds of field 
rat regularly store up a good deal of grain in their burrows near the 
embankments of fields, which Wodtlars and various wandering tribes 
dig up when the ground is out of cultivation and help themselves to 
the grain. 

* At the end of 1892 the Viceroy, the Mnrtiiies* nf I-ansdowne, witnM.<(e<l the 
drive. 

• .\ capture of sixty elephants near Sakrclwil has now (NovTmber. 1S94) been 
announced. 




^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^H 


No one who has travelled much over the Province, especially in the ^^M 


wilder and more secluded tracts of country, but must have noted the ^^M 


immense variety and beauty of the feathered tribes. The naturalist ^^H 


and the sportsman alike will, it is hoped, find every familiar acquaint- ^^M 


ance included in the following list' It may perhaps be noted that the ^^M 


ostrich has laid eggs aiid hatched young in the Maharaja's menagerie ^^M 


at Mysore, but they did not live long. ^^H 


^^ kTiea^/faAAi\ ^V 


^^H ^^1 


^^" C»mi»?— Cmws— A'.l*/, A'/(;'/. 


Irennpuelta ... Fair}* blue-bird ^^H 


■ Ccir\'ti5 macrnrhyn- Jungle cmw 


Myittipctes gan- South- Indian black ^^H 


I chos 


eesa hulbul ^H 


^ Cor\Tis splcndctu Indian house-crow 


Mo1pa.ste« hannor- Madras red-vented ^^H 


^^^pendrocctia ruiii Indian trcepic 


ihous bulbul ^^H 


^^^^irus alrice|tt ... I ndiaii grey tit 


Otocompsa fusci- Southern red-whu- ^^H 


W V*na nuchalis ... Whiie-winged black 


caudata kered bulbul ^^H 


I 


Pycnonotusgiilaris Ruby - throated ^^| 


1 Hichlolophushap- Southern yellow tit 


Iwlbul 


^^^^ liinolus 


Pycnonotus luleo* White - browed 


^^|k Ctateropopidu. 


1i]<t bulbul 


^^■Argya caudata .,, Common babbler 


Micropiis phicoce- Grey-headed bulbul 


■ Arg}a miUcolmi... Lai^e grey babbler 


phalus 


■ Afg>a irubrufa ... Large rufous bab- 


Sittida^^wx hat ches. 


■ bicr 


Situ msmneiven- Chestnut - bellied 


1 Cialeiopus cano- Jungle lubl>lci 


Lris nuthatch 


■ nis 


Sitta frontalis ... Violel-fronted blue 


1 Cntetupus griseus White-headed bab- 


nuthatch 


1 bier 




^^^Kfttmatarhiaushors- Soutbcnt »ciiiitinr 


DUrurida — Drongos. 


^^F field! babbler 


Dicrurus aler . . . Black droiigo (king- 


^^^fahunetia albtgula- Small white-throated 


^^H 


^^^K rtt labbler 


Dicrurus longicau- IiicUan ashy drongo ^^H 


^^^Byctorhis sinensis Vellnw-eyedbabhler 


ilalus ^^ 


^^Hvtdknncain ruficeps Spotted lKibt)leT 


Dicrurus cxrulcs- \V'hile - bellied D 


^^1«hopocichIa atrt- BUck-hcadcd lab- 


cens drongo X 


■ oepa bier 


Chaptia;enea ... Bronzed drongo \ 


■ Myophfneus Hon- Malaljar whistling 


Chibia hotlentotia Hair-crcslcd drongo 


1 fieUli thrush 


Disseniurus para- I-arger rocket-Uiled 


1 Lartivora brunnca Indian blue chat 


discus drongo 


^^^B«»chyi«cryK ru Rufous - bellied 




^^^K fiventris short- wing 


^'/pjV(/rf— Warbl ers. 


^^HZostrrops paljx:- Imlian white-eye 


Acrocephatus ilen- Indian great reed- 


W bio» 


loreus warbler 


V j^githina tiphia . . . Camniun i'>ra 


Acri>ccphalus du- Blyth's recd-warblcr 


I Otlnmptis jenloni Jerdon'* chlorojwis 


metorum 


I • Taken from the volumes on Birds I7 E. W. Otttes, in the Fauna of Britisk 


^^AiiAk. 



^^L ^H 


W^P FAUNA ^^^^^^^^^^ 


^^^H Acr(*ccpha1u.s agri- 


l-addy ■ field r«d 


Onff/tdt-Onolcn. ^^U 


^^H oc.U 


H-acblcr 


Oriulus kundoo ... Indian uriule 1 


^^^H Cisticnia erythrcH 


Re<l-headed faniail- 


Oriotus melano- Indianbtack-hcaded H 


^^^H cephala 


warbler 


ceph&lus oriole H 


^^^^H CisticalE cursiUms 


Rufous lantail-war- 


.^M 




Mer 


£u/a&t:/id^—iir&c\iics or talking-aiyruu, ^^^1 


^^^V Fmnklinta gracilis 


Franklin's wrcn- 


Eulabus religiusa Southern grackle ^H 


^^^H Franklinia 1]uch&- 


warbler 
Rufous • fronted 


Sfurnulit — Starlings and mynas. 


^^^1 


wren warbler 


Pastor roscus . . . Rose-coloured star- 


^^^H Schoenicolm platy- 


Broad-tailed grass- 


ling 


^^^^P 


warbler 


Sturnia hlylhii ... Blyth's myna 


^^^^ Chictomis locus- 


Bristled gnun • 

warbler 


Temenuchus pugo- Blaek-headed niyna 
darum 


^^^^L Animiinax acdon 


Thick-liilled warbler 


Acridothereslristis Common myna 


^^^B Hypolnis rama ... 


Sykes's trcc-warbler 


/Ethioijsar fuscus Jungle rayiia 


■^^ Sylvia jerdoni . . . 


Easiem orphear; 


MttsiuapiiLe — I*ly cat chent. 




warbU-r 


Siphia pftTVa ... European red- 


^^K Sylvia affinis 


Indian leswr white- 


breasted fly- 




throated wariiler 


catcher 


^^^H PhyUoscopusafiinis 


Tickell's willow- 


Cyornls palUdipes \Vhile-1wUii:d blue 




warbler 


fly catcher 


^^^H Acanthopncu.HLc 


Green willow-war- 


Cyornis rubecu- Blue - throated fly- 


^^^^B 


bler 


loides catcher 


^^^H Acanlhopneusic 


Greenish willow - 


CyornU tickelli ... Tickell's blue fly- 


^^^^^ 


war liter 


catcher 


^^^H Acniuhopncustc 


Lai^e-billcd willow- 


Sloparola mela- Vcrditer Hycatcher 


^^^H niagnirostris 


warbler 


nops 


^^^H Prinia soeialis ... 


Ashy wren-warbler 


Alsconax btirostris Brown flycatcher 


^^^H Frinta inomata ... 


Indian wren-warbler 


Alseonax ruficau- Rufous-tailed fly- 


^^^H Prinia jerdoni ... 


Southern wren- 


dus catcher 




warbler 


Ochromela nigri- Black - and ■ orange 


^^^H Laniida — Shrikes — A'nHaJi. 


nifa flycatcher 
Culidcopa cej'lon- Gre)' - headed fly- 


^^^^H Laniu.s vitlatiu 


Hay-backed shnke 


en.si» catcher 


^^^H Laniu^crythranotU3 Rufnu^-lnckeilshrtke 


Terpsiphone para- Indian jiaradise fly- 


^^^H Lanius ciiataliu ... 


Brown shrike 


disi catcher 


^^^H Hemipus picadts 


Black-lKvcked |we«J 


Hypolhyinisazitrca Indian black-naped 




shrike 


flycatcher 


^^^H Tephrodornis xyl- 


Malabar wood - 


Khipidura aibi- White-browed &n- 


^^^H 


shrike 


frontata tail flycatcher 


^^^H Tephrodormspon- 


Common wood- 




^^^^H dictrianus 


shrike 


Twrrfidlf— Chats, Robins, Thrushes &c. 


^^^H PericrDcniuK flam- 


Orange minivet 


I'rarincola caprata Common pied bush- 


^^^H metLS 




chat 


^^^H Pcricrocolus pcrc- 


Small minivet 


Pralincoia maura Indian bush -chat 


^^^^H grinus 




Ruticillarufivcntris Indian redstart 


^^^H Fericrocotus er)- 


While-bellied mini- 


Thamnobiafulicala Black-lacked In- 


^^^B thropygius 


vet 


dian robin 


^^^H Campophagasykcsi 


Black . headed 


Cu|M)-chus xaularis Magpie robin 




cuckoo-shrike 


Merula nigripilcus Black-capped black- 


^^^^H (.'• miicalus uiacii . . . 


Large cuckoo-shrike 


l>ird 


^^^H ArUmtisfuscus ... 


Ashy swallow-shrike 


Geoctchla wardi... Pted ground-thnuh 



^^^^^^^^^^p ^^^^^f t$s ^H 


H Gcocichla cyanotiu While - throated 


vlA-^'U-rV/ui^— Wagtails and Pipits. ^^H 


W ground -thrush 


Motacillamaderas- I ^rge pied wagtail ^^^f 


H Petrvphila ciiiclo- Bluc-hciileil rock- 


patcii»i% ^^^1 


■ thyncha thrush 


Motacillamclanope (Jrey wagtaJI ^^^| 


■ Pctruphfla cynniu Wcntcm blue rock- 


Motttcilla lKireaIii> Grey-headed wagtail ^^^| 


^^^L Utnish 


Limonidroinus in- Forest wagtail ^^^| 


^"- Pi9c*iiUt — Wcavcr-birda. 


^^^1 




Anthus maculatus Indian irec-pipit ^^^H 


rioceus htya . . . Baya 


Anthus •^uiolaliis Blyih's ptpi) ^^H 


rUiceus m&nyar . . . StriBi«<l weaver-bird 


Anthus rufuluii ... Indian pipit ^^H 


Muiiutmakcca. ... Black-headed munia 


^^^^^_ 


Uruloncha Uriala Whilc-ljackcdmunia 


Alau4u{<t—\j^\h. ^^H 


Uroluncha mak- WTiitc - thnjalcd 


Alauib gulgula .. Indian sky-lark ^^H 


barica nmnU 


Mintfra cantillans Singing tkush-Iark ^^H 


Uroloncha punctu- Spotted munia 


Mirafia aOirus ... Madras bush-lark ^^H 


Uu 


Galerita dc\*a ... Sykes's cresle<l lark ^^H 


Spur x£ni thus Indian red munia 


Ammonmncs phre- Kufous-taJleii finch- ^^H 


omandava 


lark ^^H 


Fringiiii^ — Finches. 


Fyrrhulauda griwa Ashy - crowned ^^H 
finch -huk ^^H 


CarpoclaoM crj- Common foee-finch 


^^^H 


thrioub 


A^A/dr>>iiY(i^— Sun-birds. ^^H 


Gjrrnnorhui flan- Yellow - throated 


Arachncchihra \q- lien's sun- bini ^^H 


coltis !i|iarrow 


^^H 


nuter domcsticus House -sinrKiw 


Arachnechlhraasi- Purple sun-btrd ^^H 


Embcrizaluteuk... Rcd-hcaded Imntinc 


^^^H 




Arachncchthrn Small sun-bird ^^H 


ffintmiinidiC — S wallows. 


minima. ^^^| 


Oiclidon urbica . . Martin 


Arachiiechthra Purple-rumpcdsui\- ^^H 


PlyuiiupTuKne ni- Crag-nuulin 


xcylonica ^^^| 


pmiis 


Arachnothera Little spider-htinter ^^^| 


J'tyonoprogne con- Dusky cnig-tnartin 


longirostris ^^H 


coKir 


/)»V(wiAf— Flower-peckers. ^^H 


Hiiundo natica . . . Swallow 

Hirundu smithii ... Wire taileil iwullow 


Dicxuui crythro- Tickell's flower- ^^H 
rhynchu^ I>ecker ^^H 

I'iprisoma squali- Thick-billed flower- ^^H 
dum pecker ^^H 


Hirundo fluvicok Indian cliff-xwallow 
Hirundu nepalen- Hodgson's striated 
iis swallow 


UiniFMlu crythro- Sykcsi !>triatcd 


/Vr/AjS«— PitlAS. ^^^k 


pj'gia swallow 


Pitta brttchyura ... Indian pitta ^^H 


As Mr. OaLcs' work &tops ht-Te, the remainder u taken imm J. A. Murray's hidtan ^^^| 


Strtii or the Avi/autta of Hn'tish InMa. But, from ihe two workis not licing ^^^| 


mnmnged on the &ame sy^eoi, I have endeavoured to give the information from the ^^^| 


Ia<trr in the order in which it is presumed it will appear in the former when ^^H 


completed. ^^H 


MaoFoohlrea. ^^| 


Cypselid^—%^\{\.s. 


Hirundinapus syl- W^hite - rumpcd ^^H 


CypseluiinelU ... Alpine swift | 


valica spine-tail ^^H 


Cypselns affinis -. Commonlndianswift 


Collocalia unicolor Indian edible-ncst ^^H 


C)|Melusl>ata&siensi& Palm swift 


^^Hi 


Hirundina^nu* in- Indian giant spine- ' 


Dendrochelidon Indian crested tree* ^^Hl 


dicu* tail 


coronatus swift ^^H 



■ 


^^^^^f ^^^^^^^^^^H 


^H 


Ca/n'ww/^i/tf— Goat-suckers. 


Caprimulgus atri- Ghaut night-jar H 


^^H 


Capnmult*us mah- Sykes's nighl-jar 


pcnnis 1 


^^H 


rattciiiiis 


Caprimulgus indicus Jungle night-jar H 


^^H 


Ciiprimulgus inon- Franklin's night-jar 


Capriniulgus keta- Nilgiri night-jar ■ 


^^P 


iiculus 


arU ^J 


^H 


Wet ^W 


^^B 


Pieidir— Woodpecker— A/ara-^ufaia. i 


GecinuK nlriolatus Blyih's kiriated 


^^H 


Yunx torquilla ... Common wryneck 


green wood- 


^^H 


Tiga jaranenaU ... Common large thrcc- 


pecker 


^^H 


tued woodpecker 


Thriponax hodg- Great black wood- 


^^^H 


Brachyplemus au- Colden - backefl 


soni pecker 


^^^B 


ranlias wrxitlpecker 


Chrysocolapies fes- Black -tiackedwood- 


^^^H 


Urachyptemuschry- Lesser golden- 


tivus iTccker 


^^^1 


Nonotus tiacked wocjtl- 


Picu* mahrattensis \ellow-fronlcd pied 


^^^1 


pecker 


woodixrcker 


^^^1 


Microplcmusgula- Sojlh-lnrlian nifmis 


lyngificus hard- Southern pigmy 


^H 


^^ rt» pecker 


wickii wooilpcckcr 


^H 


V C«ccygei. 'f 


^^V 


Cuailidir— Cuckoos— A^iVa. 


UpHpida — Hwjpocs, 


^^H 


Cuculus striatum ... Asiatic cuckoo 


Upupftcpops ... Hoopoe 


^^H 


CucnUts sionneTutii Banded cuckoo 


^feropida — Bcc-eatcrs. 


^^H 


Hierococcjxvarius Common hawk 


Merops viridis ... Common Indian 


^^H 


curlc(K> 


green bee-eater 


^^H 


Cocomantis nigra Indian plaintive 


Merops phillipinus Blue-tailed l>ee-eater 


^^^1 


cuckoo 


Merops leschcn- Chestnut - headed 


^^H 


Coccj'stesjaccbinus IHed-crcsted cuckoo 


aulti Ijcecalet 


^^1 


Coccystcs coro- Red-winged crested 


Nyctiomis ather- Blue - necked bee- 


^^^^ 


niaiidus cuckoo 


ton i eater 




Hudynantyshonorata Indian koel 


Coraciadtf — K oiler s. 




Khopodytcs viridi- Small green-billed 


Coracias indica ... [ndian roller 




rostrls malkoha 






Crnlrococcyx ni5- Common crow phea- 


AUedimda— Kingfishers. 




pennis sant 


Alcedobcngaten.^% Little Indian king- 




Cenirococcyx l>en- Lesser coucal 


ftsher 




galcnsis 


Ccrylc rudis ... Pied kingfisher 




Taccocua lenchcn- Southern sirkeei 


Halcyon smyrnen- White - breasted 




auKi 


ns IcingB^her 




Capitanidif — Barbctx 


Ccyx tridflctyla ... Three-toed kinjjfisher 




Megaldema coni- Common green 


FVlargojisis gurial Imlian xtnrk-lnlled 




ceps bar [jet 


kingfisher 




McgaL-cma viridis Small green har1)et 


Httferetida — Hombills. 




Xanlhola:mahx*mK- Crimson - brensled 


Dichocerosljicornis Great pied hombill 




cephala baibet 


An t hracocero.* Malabar pied horn- 




Xnnihol.-i:mamaIn- Crimson - throated 


coronatus bill 




Tjorica harbet 

Ptit 


Oc)'ceros tnrostris Common grey hombill 
taol. 




/'r///*-iV4f— Parrots— t;/?! i. 


Palxomi* rosai ... Western rose- 




I^riculus vcmab's Indian toriqiicl 


headed paroquet | 




Palxomistfrt-quatus Rose-ringetl paroqucl 


1 


^ 




^^J 





^^B ^1 


^V ,85 ^1 




^^V Biriges. 


^H 


Buicmda—Ea^l 


c and Scops Owls. 


Glaucidium mala- 


Malabar uwlel ^^^k 


Butx) beiigHlcDsls 


Rock hornwl owl 


baricum 


^^H 


Bubo iiipMlcnMS . . . 


Forest tajjlc owl 


Asioaccipitrinus... 


Stout-eared owl ^^H 




Indian sc*»ps owl 


Symiiimocel latum 


Mnllled wood'OWl ^^H 




Malabar scops owl 


Syrnjuni indrancc 


Southern woud-owl ^^H 


Cuinc braniA 


Spoiled owlet 




^^H 


Ninctk scutuUu ... 


Brown hawk owl 


AVrj^u^— Owls— (rtJAr, gtigt. ^^ 


tilaaddiiun ndia- 


Jungle owlet 


Slrix ftammea ... 


Indian »creech-nwl ^^H 


turn 




Strix Candida 


Grass-owl ^^H 




Acetpitres. 


^1 


I'tt^ttrriie—X 


uhures — ffaddu. 


SpizaHus cirrhaius 


Crested hawk -eagle ^^H 


Gypt indicus 


Long-biUcd vulture 


— jullu bhttiri 


^^^k 


fVudogyps ben- 


Common brown 


CircetUR gatliats 


Common nerpent- ^^^| 


gnlensis — rana 


vulture 




coglc ^^1 


hiuldu 




Spilomisraelanoiis 


S(}Uiherii harrier- ^^H 


Ou^p& colvus ... 


Black VDlture 




eagle ^^H 


^^^^L 




Butastur tecsa ... 


VVhite-eycd buzxard ^^H 


^^H Fa/c«H$i/a—VA\cons—t//^. 


Haliastur Jndus— 


Maroon -Ixicked kite ^^H 


Circus ['ygargus... 


Montague's harrier 


garu<la 


(Brahmini kite) ^^H 


Circus macruru.s... 


l*ale harrier 


Milvus govinda ... 


Commun Indian ^^^| 


Grcus xTuginosux 


Marsh barrier 




^^H 


Astuitrivii^lus... 


Crested goshawk 


Milvus ruelaiiotis 


Large Indian kite ^^H 


AsXnt ttodius 


}lrown hawk 


Pemisplilonorhyn- 


Honey buzzard ^^^| 


Accipiter ni.sus — 


European sparrow- 


chus 


^^1 


Ixiniuida degc 


hawk 


Baza, lophotes 


Black-crested kite ^^H 


.\a:ipiicT virgatus 


Bcsra .-iinrrow-hawk 


-Micpihicrax ca-Tii- 


Wbite-na(>ed pigmy ^^H 


— ur-chitlu 




lescens 


^^^1 


Buteo fcroK 


I-ong - legged buz- 


Kaico communis — 


rcregrinc falcon ^^H 




xard 


bliaira 


^^H 


Aquila hcruca ... 


Imperial eagle 


Faico peregrinator 


Shaheen lalcon ^^H 


AqutU vindhiuui 


Tawny eagle 


-dege 


^^1 


Aquila cUnga ... 


b[}otted eagle 


Fftlco juggur — 


Kiigger &dcon ^^H 


NiselDS fuciatus 


Crest less hawk-eagle 


gidaga 


^^1 


Niactus pcnnatus 


I>«arf or booted 


FaIco chiquera ... 


Red-hcatled merlin ^^H 




eagle 


Hierofalcosaker .. 


Cheriug felcon ^^H 


Ncopus malayetiMS 


Black eagle 


Polioiietui ichlhy- 


Eastern whiic-lailed ^^H 


Spinetuv n i jsIcTutH 


Spotted hawk-ei^le 


aetus 


eagle ^^H 




Steganopodes. 


^1 


I^kcanida — Pelicans. Phalacrucoraxpyg- 


Little cormoiwit ^Tj 


Pdeoinwroseus... 


Eastern while i>e]i- 


mccus- 


fl 




can 


IMutus inelanogaster 


Indian snake-bird 




Herodlones. 




^^B CfVvnM^— Storks— /f&(<t. 


Ardeida— Herons— A'ixt>-wff. 






.-Vrdtrfl cinerea. ... 


Common heron 


W Leptopihii javaniaiB Les*er adjuuni 


Ardea purpurea... 
IleriKlias allja ... 


Blue heron 


\ Xcnurhynchus a&i- 


Black-necked stork 


Large white heron 


H mlicus 

1 Ciconia Icucoce- 


White-necked stork 


Hiurixlias garr,etta 


Little black-billed 

while hertin ^^^H 


1 phaU 




Uubulciiscoromand 


js Cattle egret ^^H 



^k FAUiVA ^^^^^^^^V 


^^^B Ardctila grayi ... Pond heron, paddy 


Nyctoraxgriseus... Night heron 


^^H 




^^^H Bulorides JAvanira Utile green bittern 


Tatttaliiitt. 


^^^H Ardctta flavicollis Hluc bittern 


Tatitala'i Icucocc- Pelican ibli 


^^^H Ard«uacinnaniumca Chestnut bittern 


phalus 


^^^B Ardetta sinensis.,. Lillle yellow bittern 


Platftlea leucorodia Si»oonbiU 


^^^H Botaurus fitellarts Giimmon European 


Threskiomis me- White iWit 


^^^^^ bittern 


lanoccphalus 


^^^^^L Anierei. 


^^^^^F ,^mi/MiEr~-Ducks —Bdtu. 


C-a.<iarca nitila ... Hrahmini duck 


^^^V Sarkidiomis tncla- Cumb duck 


Sjatula clyijcata... Shoveller 


^^^B 


Dafila acuta ... Pintail 


^^^H NcttapUHcoronmn- Cotton teal 


QucrquedulacTccca Common teal 


^^^H delbnus 


Kuligula cristata... Tufted jiochard 


^^^H Dendrocygna ja- Lester whisitling- 


/W/V j/xiif — < J ichcs. 


^^H teal 


Pudlceps minor ... Dab-chick 


^^^1 Columba. 


^^^H Trtronukf — Kruit Pigeons. 


Co/umbidtt — Piget-ins anfl Doves — 


^^^H Crocopus chlorj- Southern green 


P,inxfdla, 


^^^H gaalcr pigeon 


Columba intcnne- Ii^dian blue rock- 


^^^H Osmotrcron main- Malabar green 


dia pigeon 


^^^B borica pigeon 


Turtur meena ... Rufous (urile-dovc 


^^^H Carpophnga icnci Imperial green 


Turtur sene^en- Liiile brown dove 


^^^^K pigeon 


su 


^^H Cupophaga insig- Broiue - Uck im- 


Turtur rLsurius ... Indian ring-dove 


^^^^ nis i^rial pigeon 




^^H GaJtlnae. 


^^^^1 Pleroilidie — Sand grouse. 


Tetr<UfmJ<r. 


^^H Pterocles fe^ciatus Painted sand grouse 


Krancolinus pictiis Painted inrtridgc 


V PhasiaHida—Vts/So^X—Naviiu. 


Ortygornis ponti- Common grey par- 
ceriana tridge 


■ Pavo cristatu-s ... Common peacock 


Pcrdicula a»iatica Jungle bush quail 


Mtgapodida. 


Pcrdicula argoon- RtKk bush quail 
(Uh 


Gallus ferrugtnetis Common )ung!c- 


Microperdix cry- Red-billed bush 


fowl 


ihrorhyncha quail 


Gallus sonnerati .., Circy junglcfowl 


Cotumix com munis Large gncy quail 


Gallopcrdix spn- Ked spur<fowl 




diceus 


Tituxmuia. 


Gallopcrdix lunu- Painted s|)ur-fow1 


Tumix plumbipes !nd.»-Malayan bus- 


lalus 


tard quail 


Oeranomorpha. | 


C^Tu^— Bustards and flnrican^. 


U>1 pivanellus indicus Red-wattlcd lapw-ing 


Sypheoddcsauritus Lesser fiorikin 


Sarciophonis bilo- YcUow-waltled lap- 




bus wng 


CttriorMe — Courier plovers. 


CKdicnemua rrepi- Stone plover 


Cursorius coro- Indian courier 


tans 


mandelicus plover 


Gruult—CnneA—JCakva, 


Cbaradrius ful\*uK Eastern golden 


Gnw cincrea ... Common crane 


plover 


Anthropoideavirgo Demoiselle crane 



REPTILES 



T87 



Limicols. 

llimanloptts Candidas 



^a/Z/lif— Rails. 

IVirphjTiopoliocephalus I'lirpic oxii 

Kuliai atra . ... Buld ctxjl 

Potzana bailloni ... Pigiiiy rail 

Pnr/Jtiui imiruetta ... Sfiotlnl craLe 

(iallinula chloroptLs ... Moorhen 

Gallinula phccmcum ... While- breasted 
waier-heii 

E3.1hi- Indian skimmer 



Siohpatidft, 
ticola... Woodcock 
iwmoricola Wood snipe 
GaUinagt) scolopacina Common snipe 
Gallin^ogalUnulx... Jack sni|x 
Machetes pugnas. ... Ruff 
Actilis ochrupus ... Green samt-piper 
Tottnu glareola ... Wood sandpijicr 
Totuus calidm ... Red &haiik 
Recurvirmira avocetia Avocct 

0«vl». 
Ijirida. I Khyncht.i>s 

Sterna melanoguitra Black-bcIlicd titni I cani.H 

The remaining nrdcrs— Tuhinarcs and I'ygn^odes — I have not succeeded in 
ideatifyiojf. Perhapii some uf the entiies under Coccyges should come hen*. 

Reptiles. 

*' TTic few crocodiles that are found in the Mysore rivers very rarely 
attack, people (says Mr. Sanderson*) ; and fishermen, who pay no heed 
10 them, have told me that if they come upon a crocodile whilst 
following their employment, it will skulk at the bottom and not move 
though handled, apparently believing it escapes observation." 

The loss of life from snake-bite may be gathered from the following 
particulars: — In 1889-90 there were 97 human beings and 32 cattle 
killed by snakes ; in 1890-1 the numbers were 77 and 8 ; in 1891-2 they 
were 109 and 31. The amounts paid in these three years as rewards 
for the destruction of venomous snakes were Rs. 67S for 2,579, ^^^ *^90 
for 2,589, and Rs. 664 for 2,873 respectively. So far as the figures go, 
the loss of life, as compared with what was reported in the first edition 
fifkccn years ago, is certainly diminished, and this may possibly be the 
result of the improved sanitary arrangements in towns and villages, 
whereby much of the rubbish around dwelling-houses which formerly 
give cover to snakes is now regularly cleared away. 

Reptilia.* 

Eniydoiauria — Crocotlites. 
C»iN-«i^Vfd!ir— Crocodiles — MesaU. 
Garialus gangetiau ... Crucudilus patustris 

Chel on t a— Tortoises ard TurTles. 
Trianych itUt — Tortoises — A ' me. 

Trionyx Icithii 
TtitHdinidft, 

Testndo clegoiu ... Hil dme Nicoria Irijuga ... Muriki irae 

' "Thirteen Years among the Wild Beasts of India," p. 14. 

* Compiled from the volume by G. A. Bouleiiger in the Fauna e>/ Brilish Irnft'a. 




^H I88 ^^^^^ FAUNA ^^^^^^^^^^H 




^^^1 6^c4tftfM>— Geckos— CVi, StikiUa, 


■^H 


^^^H Oymnortactylus nclmliTs-iis ... 


Hemidactylus freoalus 


^^^H Gymno(lactylu.sdcccancii&is 


.. HcuudaclyluK (jleadovil Malli 


^^^H Conatodcs niysiorieiuiis 


.. Heinidactyhifi maculatus 


^^^^K GonaliKles gracilis ... 


[lemidaclylas Iriedrus 


^^^B llemulflctylu^ reticuUius 


.. Hemidactylus cosla.-! Halli 


^^H Euhhpharida. 




^^^H EnMepharis hardwicVii 




^^^H AgtUHidfc, 




^^^H Sitana ponticeriana 


.. Calotes ellioti 


^^^H Calotes verKicolor ... O'ti 


Charasia dorsal is 


^^^H Varan'tlce — Ltamh—Ifrtf/i, 




^^^H Vanuius 1)ei]galensis.. U'saravalli 




^^H Lacertida. 


^ 


^^^1 Cabrita leschcnauUii 


.. Ophiops jerdonii ^^H 


^^^H Sdmid<c~%\a.vi}^^—Hmfa rAifi. 


^\ 


^^^H Mabina carinnta 


... Lygosonia albopunctatum ■ 


^^^H Mat>ina macularia ... 


Lygrwonia punctattnn 1 


^^^H CAa/NaJtroiUidr—ChAmelt^m — G6sunt6i. 


1 


^^^H Cham.-eleon calcaroius 


1 


^H (Ophidla) 1 


^^^1 7>/A/.?/iV<<r~Wunn-lik« snakeu. 


■ 


^^^^H Typhlops braniiuus ... 


... Typhlops acutus ■ 


^^^H Boidie — P>-thons or boas. 


1 


^^^H Python molunts ... Disara hivu 


I 


^^^^B Gongylophis mnicuK... 


... Kryx johnii' ^^^^| 


^^^H UrcptUidte — Earth snakes. 


M 


^^^^H RhinophiK .sanguineus 


.. Silybura phipsonii ^M 


^^^1 Sil>bunicIlioti 


Pscudoplcctruruii canaricus H 


^^^^H CoIuhridiT — Snnkes — Hivu. 


1 


^^^^B Xyluphis perruteli ... 


Tropidonouia piscalor . N(r havu ■ 


^^^H Lycodon slrialiis 


Tropidonotusplumbicolor Hasurhiva ■ 


^^^H Lycoiion aulicus 


Helicops schistosus M 


^^^H Hydiopholnisn^-mpha 


Dipsas irigonaia ■ 


^^^^H Ablaljcii calamaria ... 


Drj'ophis i«rTO(cti " 


^^^H Siniotcs amensis 


.. DryuphU myctcrUans f lasur nulige 


^^^^1 Oligodun venu.Httis 




^^^H OUgodon auhgriseua 


.. llypsirhina enhydris ... N{r h£vu 


^^^H Zanwnis mucwus^ ... K6rc 


... Caltophis nigrescens 


^^^H >^menis fasciulalus 


.. Bungarus fasciatus 


^^^H Coluber helcna 


... Bungoius ca:ruleus> ... G6di nigora 


^^^H DendrnphU pictua 


... Naia tripudians* ... Nilgarahiru 


^^^^B Tro(»donotii<t Uotalu« 


... Naiabungarus J 


^^^V K/^^er^/o'— Vipers. 


1 


^r Vipera ruueUii Kolaku-mandala 


Echiscarinata Kallu hivu 1 


^^^^L * The Ro-called two-headed snnkc. * Ka 


snake or whip snake {lihdmin in Hindi). 


^^H * Known as the krait. * Th 


e cubre or cobra de capeUo. 



FISHES 



189 



Rami^ — Yxog^ — Aa/tfie. 

Raoci liexo/lactyU ... 

KAna. ryanophlyrlisi... 

Rjuia tigrita 

Eii^stimiatidir. 

MicTohyb. omala 

Callnla jnikhra 
Bufonida — Toad.s. 

BufD meUnostictus 



Batraohia. 



Kana limnnchnris 
Rana hrevircps 
Rana heddomii 

Callula vanegata 

Cacopiis syslcmu. 



Fishes. 



" The rivers and artificial lakes in Mysore abound with excellent fish, 
but I have ne\"er succeeded in getting much sport with the fly (writes 
^tr. Sanderson).* They may be taken by spinning or ground fishing — 
the btter chiefly at night. There is now in the Museum at Bangalore 
the head and skin of a fish — ^a species of carp or mahseer^ and called 
WA' or silver-fish in Canarese — caught by me in tSyi in the I.,akshman- 
tirtha, which measured sixty inches in length and thirty-eight in girth. 
The drcu inference inside the mouth when caught was twenty-four 
inches. I was unfortunately unable to weigh this fish, but I 
estimated it by rough tests at not less than 100 lbs. I have seen much 
larger fish, without doubt upwards of 150 lbs., caught by nritives, chiefly 
by netting during the months whun the rivers are low. At such times 
two or three villages of professional fishermen will combine to net a 
single targe fish known to be a prisoner xn a pool during the hot 
weather. The pool may be a hundred yards long and broad, and the 
water fifteen feet deep, with cavernous rocks capable of sheltering fish ; 
but by joining; their nets, and diving and working for two or three days, 
they seldom fail to secure the prize." 

The following list lias been compiled from Dr. Day's hook.' A 
number of native names of fish, not identified, will be found under 
each District in Vol. 11. 



Qanas magtii ... Marave— Hlackcat- 



Pisoes — ^finu, 
TeleoBtel. 

I Callichrous 
culalusf' 



l)imn- (l{)(lnl( 



:hu!»fo&- 



aOift 



fuh 
Chilli minii —Yel- 
low catfish, scor- 
pitm fi&h 
V3.IC. ole 



p5curlcnlro|>ius 

atherinoi(lc«< 
Macrones vittalus* 
Macrones kelctiu? 
Rita haslatii 



Bait 



()eni!u 



LjidyfUli 



Wallago attu 

• (?» The chunam or flyinj; frog. • Op. fit. ' In the *' Kauna of Hriiish India.'" 

' Jhijffia in Himlustani : calletl the '* Iniller-fish" Ijj- Eurofjcaii* in Bengal. 

' Dr. r>ay has the followinj; note : — '*Thii fish is termed *lhc fiddler' in Mysore; 



T90 



FAUNA 



Cypn'n idtt — Carjw. 
IvCpuUiccphalichlhys ihcrmalia 
Ncmachihis giientheri 
Nemachihis scmiamiatus 
Ncmochilus dcnisonii 
Nemachilus Ixuii-ani 
Discognathu^lamta 



lAlwn finibrialu.s 
LaiKO calliassu ... 
Labeo kontius 
Cirrhintt cirrhosa 
Cirrhina rel» 
Malfiya argcnlea 
Barbtiit chat;iinio 
Barbiis wrana 
Barbui* rhrysopcjiiia 
Rnrlms microjvigon 
Barbuii carnaticiu 



I'anrlipakke (kora5 
kaoli, Himl. ) 

Kari minu 



Gid pakkc 



(lid pakke (Giddi 
kaoli, Hind.) 



Barlnis tor> 

Barbus carmuca 

Barlius mclanamjjj-x 

Barlrns parrah ... (Kacha kor 

Hind.) 
Barbus dorsalis ... Mar pakke 
Barbns knlus 
Harbus inc'lan<»tiKina 
Itarbus ijuckelli 
Barbus arulius ... anili 
Barhus licLo ... {Kaoli, Mind.) 



Barbu<; virtalns 

Chela argcntta White carp 

Chela hoopis 
Chela cltijieoides 

PircitLr — Perches. 
Amlmssis natna 
Araliossis ranga 

NdMdifLr, 
nadt.<i hiichanani 
Bad is darin 
Nandus maniiitraius 
Prisiulepis mai^naia 
Hrislolepis malahanca. 

Golnm giurufc . . . Abbrnni 

Rkytu'hohdeUidit. 
Masucenibalus ai- Thorny -liacked 
mat us 

Oph ioitphaiidtr, 

Oph inrrphaluK Harrina maral 

iimrultus 
Ophiocephaliisleii Kili korava 

copunctalus 
Ophiocephalus Kuchina nural 

Mriatu)) 
Oph iucephalus Mar kora^'a 

giichi\a 
O phioce|)haUi!« Balu, l>^i knrava 

punctatus 



Insects. 

Of the countless hosts and varieties of the insect world, no pre- 
tension can be made to give anything like a detailed list. The leading 
families alone are indicated. Of spiders, beetles, and the singular 
mantis tribe, there is a great profusion ; as also of the gayest butter- 
flies and richest moths. The bee (except in parts of the Maln^dl is 
never domesticated, but large quantities of honey are obtained by 
jungle tribes from the woods and caves of various parts. White ants 
swarm in every soil, and their ravages are relentless. On one or two 
evenings following on the first heavy showers of the monsoon, which 

I touched one whidi was on the wet ^ound, ai which it appeared lo become very 
irale, creeling its donml fin and making a noise resemliliog the tnizj-ing of a I)ce, 
evidently a siijii of anger. Wlien I put semie small carp into an aquarium containing 
nnc ofthesr fohtrs it nishcd at a wnall example, seizeil it by ihe middle of its back, 
and sliook it like a dug killing a rat ; at this time the liarbeU of the Mturonfs were 
stiffened out laterally like a cat's wliiskers." 
* The inolwccr of $[>ortsmen. 




TATSECTS 



i9t 



have softened the parched and dried-up ground, llit^ir winged nymphs 
isaue in gauzy clouds to enjoy a brief flight ; and then, losing their 
wings, which strew the whole surface of the ground, crawl about in the 
form of maggots, a prey to every bird of the air and every creeping 
lizard. They are also gathered and cooked for food by the lower 
orders. The tiny mango-flies or eye-flies, which swarm during the 
hours of sunlight, especially tn the mango season, are a well-known 
source of annoyance. To them is attributed a kind of ophthalmia, 
termed "sore eyes," to which children especially are subject; but 
whether the flies originate the affection or merely convey the contagious 
matter from eye to eye is doubtful. Among insect pests the coffee- 
borer has already been mentioned (p. i68). At the beginning of 1878 
a new danger appeared in vast flights of locusts, which threatened to 
destroy the first early crops that succeeded the great famine. But, 
fortunately, the damage they did was far less than the most sanguine 
could have expected.^ 

A na.tAiA%—Sitetoria . 
Hirudmidx . . JL^;i --- Leeches ... Al>ouni1 al the Getsnppa Fnlls and in 

all r<}resis during the wel sciL&>n. 



Axmneidie 1 

Lycodtlar V.. jida ... Spiden* 

MjUalide J 

Scorjiion t<i.x chelu . . . Scorpions 



Arachnida. 



AexHdE 

Sorcoples 
scabiei 

iLodULe 



kajjt hula 



Mites 
Itch acanis 



Ticks 



Very numeruus and of great variety. 

There are I hree species ; the large black 
rock • scorpion {mattiir<i!i,ahhc), the 
Urge red field scorpion, and the little 
red house scoipinn. The sting is 
very rarely fatal, but often causes 
great pun for a time. 

This loalhsfimc affeclion is ver}- com* 
mtm, even amnng the up[)cr classes 

of natives. 



* A flight of locusts which passed over Nfandya on the evening of the i6lh of 
May, iSoo, is thus dc*cTilK:tl by Buchanan :— " It extended in length prolmhly alxtut 
three tniln : its width was alw-ut a hundred yards, and its height fifty feci. The 
nuccts jasscd from west in cast in the direction of the wind, at the rate of six or 
•c^-en miles an hour. The whole ground, and ever>' tree and btikh, wha covered with 
ihrm, but ciLch individual haltetl for a very short time on any one sixtt. In an hour 
after the flock l»ad \axsxA few were to be cii»coverc<i in the neighbuurhtx»d t»f ihe 
town. The noise of this immense number of insects somewhat resembled the 
Kwnd of a cataract. At a distance they appeared like a long, narrow, rwi cloud 
near the horiron, which wx-* continually \-arying its sha|ic. The locusts were as large 
as a man's linger, and of a reddish colour." A flight the previous year had eaten up 
all the young Jola : the present flight settled at a village to the ca.slVran) of Mandya, 
aitd did the same. 



J 



192 



FAUNA 



lulidse. 

lulus indus 
Scolopendridx 



HyrUpodA. 



bandi 1)asa\*a 
jari 



Centipedes 



Polydesmidic 



Atwplura. 
Pediculus 



h^nu 



InieeU. 



Louse 



Verj- common. 

There are several species, differ- 
ing in size and colour ; the 
largest is of a greyish colour 
with crimson 1^ ; of the 
smaller kinds, one is black 
and another of a sandy or 
ashy colour. 



Every- one must be &miliar with 
the sight of native women re- 
moving this unpleasant occu- 
pant from one another's hair. 
The same operation may be 
constantly witnessed among 
the common monkeys. 



Hemiptera. 










Scutellera 


. 








PhUea 










Cimex 

Neides 


. tigaoi ... 


Bug 






Cicada 










Fulgora 

Aphis 


. mtnchu huja 


Firefly 


These are 
beauty 
trees. 


of great \-ariety and 
on different kinds of 


Coccus 


. 


Cochineal insect 




C. lacca 


aruga 


Lac insect 






Kermcs ... 





Gall insect 






Orthoptera. 
Mantis religiosa .. 




Praying 


There are 


numerous si>ecies, of 



Phasma 

Phy Ilium 



(Irylhis 



jille 



mantis various sizes and colours ; 

some appear to have the 
ix>wer of changing colour 
like a chameleon. 

Animated straw 

I..eaf-likc Several of these are of great 
beauty and curiosity. One 
is an exact counterpart of the 
mango leaf. 
Verj' numerous and various. The 
stridulation of the tree cricket 
and the mole cricket are at 
times, in certain localities, 
almost deafening. 



insects 



Crickets 



l^jcusta ... patanga, midite 
Acridium ... midite, loppu 

Blaita ... jirle 



C»ra.sshup|iers 
Locusts ... 

Cc»ck roaches 



These insects are here comjiara- 
tively harmless. 





^r 


INSECTS 


^^^^^^i^^^H 


^^^^KyWrrw. 






^^^ ^H 


1 UhellulA ... 


tuni hula 


Dragon ily 


^^1 


■ Ephemem 






^^H 


^m Myrmdcim 


... 


Ant lion ... 


\'er)* common. ^^^| 


H Tenna ... 


gctldalu 


White ants 


Universal : their nest nr ant - ^^^| 
hill t.<; called hutta : (he ^^H 
winged nymphs, which ^^^| 
issue in swoims in the ^^^| 
rains, are called khaln ^^^| 


^r Af^ani^fra, 






^^H 


B l\ilc«. tmtiLn.s 


chikaja 


Common flea 


^H 


B Dipttnx. 






^^^ 


H Culex ... 


Kungaf" 


<.'inat 


^^^^H 


H Tipiila 








Daddy longleG;s. ^^^H 


■ Culcx ... 


sdic 


Mosquito 


A well-known pest. ^^^| 


H Muaca 


niina 


Fly 


All varieties. ^^^H 






Mango fly or eye fly 


' Very numcrnux at Bai^* ^^^H 
lore in the mango season. ^^^| 
It is no bigger than a flea. ^^^| 


^T«/Mb//rtTI. 






^^H 


Khopalocexa 


chitte, kajttte.lpil- 


Butterflies 


A very great variety:— ^^H 




tmsiite,- sUidc- 




N'ymphalid:e, 34 species; ^^^| 




s\ huU 




Lyc:enida>, 28 species; ' ^^^| 
I^piltonidce, 16 species.* ^^^| 


Hcteroceni 


nu>i 


Moths 


^^^1 


B«>mb)'x 


r^hmi hula 


The caterpillar is 


^^H 


mviri 




the silkworm. 


^H 


£(yjw*«^//*rrfl. 






^^k 


Ichneumon 






^^H 


Formica ... 


inivu 


Ants 


.Mn-iund in every part in ^^^| 
great \'aneiy. ^^^| 


V«p. ... 


IuM?a)a(Ia hula ... 


Wasp and hornet 


^^H 


Apis ... 


j^nu huJA 


Money Ijce 


^^H 


XyTocarpa 


jirangi 


Corpcnter Ijee 


^^H 


Bomhus 


"- **• •.. 


Bumble bcc 


^H 


C^koptfnu 






^1 


Scmnlveus 


dumtie 


Beetles .. 


Beetles a1x>und In great pro- ^^H 
fusiiin , and of much benuiy ^^^H 
of form and coloiiring. ^^^| 


Baprcsti^ ... 


liasar dumbc 


Green beetles 


The wings arc used for the ^^^B 
decoration of slippers, Ac. J 


Gualjus 






" 


Copru ... 





Dung beetle 


Very cnmninn on cii-ery 
road. 


' The [4ain or M>ber*coUiured ones. ' Those wilh 


cay and vari^ated colours. 


* Finm ManJiall and de Ki(rfvill 


le's work The Butttrflut of India (no more pub* ^^H 


Ushetlt. 




* Krom Donovan. ^^^ 




^^ 


^ 


i 



FAUNA 

Of t'tfsfcis useful to murr the most important are the silk-producing 
worms, the lac and cochineal insects, and bees. 

Silkworm. — The faLility which attended the rearing of silkworms 
for some years, and ch<^ckcd an industry that was a source of livelihood 
to large numbers of Muhammadans, is noticed in Vol. II, ; together 
with the efforts that were made at the time, though ineffectually, to 
re-establish a healthy race of insects, more especially by Signor de 
Vecchj, in connection with a Silk Filature Company at Kengeri, Ban- 
galore District. The industrj' has now revived and is again flourishing, 
owing to the comparative immunity of the worms from disease. Silk 
is produced in all the taluqs of the Bangalore District, as well as in 
Chik Ballapur and Tirumakudal Narsipur taluqs. 

TasaP Silkworm. — The domestication of the tasar silkworm was 
advocated some years ago, as the cocoons have been found in the 
jungles around Nandidroog and Devariydroog. The following notes 
on the subject are taken from Captain Coussmaker's reports at the 
time : 

There arc four ways in which the tasar silk cocoons may be procured, 
all of which I myself have successfully tried. Firstly : — During the hot 
weather, when the leaf is off; then the cocoons are easily discernible 
hanging like berries from the twigs ; men might then go into the Jungles 
and collect them. Secondly :— From June to October the caterpillars are 
large and commit much ravage on the trees. Their presence then is easily 
detected by the denuded appearance of the twigs, and by their drippings 
under the tree (the lar^'c caterpillars do not wander al all, but eat steadily 
along one twig, devourinfj leaf after leaf ) ; men might then i^o and collect 
them all on to one tree, beneath which they themselves might build a hut 
and live, scaring away birds, squirrels, &c. Both of these methods are 
practised in the Bengal Presidency. Thirdly : — The moths can be paired 
when they issue from the cocoons, and the caterpillars reared from :he eggs. 
Fourthly :— When the moths issue from the cocoons, the females can be 
tied up to certain trees and the males liberated there, when, if any of these 
latter be not in full vigour, wild males may come and pair with the females, 
which can then be removed. 

In hatching out and rearing the caterpillars there is no difficulty ; twigs 
of whatever tree is most convenient to use should be put into earthen pots 
full of earth and water, the mouths of which should, as recommended by 
Captain Hutton, be closed with cotton rammed in, to keep the twig*, steady 
and to prevent the caterpillars crawling down into the water and drowning 
themselves. For the first fifteen days, during which the caterpillars wander 
about much, the pots should be kept each in a small wooden frame, the 
opposite sides of which should be covered with mosquito net or tine bamb<to 
chicks, so that the light and air may penetrate freely and the worms not 
escape. After thai time the pots should be jjuI upon shelves or ubles with 




S/LKiVOnMS 



'95 



ihe twigs interlacing so as to form a long hedge, and left uncovered. The 
caterpillars shmild be kept there until they change their skins for the last 
time, when they may be put on to twigs suspended over bamboos hung from 
the ceiling ; and here ihey will spin their cocoons, which may be gathered 
every day when the twigs nre renewed. In all cases the twigs should be 
changed every day— those thai are old and stripped, thrown away ; those 
ibat the caterpillars arc on, should be put near the fresh twigs, and they will 
crawl off of their own accord. It is advisable to water them two or three 
limes a day from a \varering-pot with a vcr>' tine rose ; give them a gentle 
shower as it were : this is refreshing both to caterpillars and twigs. I have 
noticed that in changing their skins, it sometimes happens that the old skin 
does not come off freely. I think that a moderate amount of moisuire is 
e4«ntial to their well-doing. In this way, with the least possible trouble 
and expense, any amount of these caterpillars can be reared ; ordinary 
precautions being taken to protect them from their numerous enemies, by 
Slopping rat*hoIes, sweeping away cobwebs, nailing wire netting or bamboo 
chicles over the windows, which should be kept open by night and day. 

] am glad to see that Mr. Massa reports so favourably upon the specimens 
of tasar silk cloth. I myself am greatly indebted to Mr. R. S. De Souza, 
the jailor at Dharwar, at whose suggestion the twilled variety was wove, 
and it was through his ready assistance and careful supervision that the 
specimens were obtained. 

Experiments have also been made with ihc Eri silkworm from Assam, 
which feeds on the leaves of the castor-oil plant ; and with a variety of 
gold lace cocoons found in the jungles of Hassan. 

Coohineal. — The introduction of the cochineal insect was proposed 
as a partial remedy for the failure of the silk industry. Regarding it the 
following extract is taken from a memorandum by Colonel Boddani : — 

One hundred years ago the Hon*blc Court of Directors attempted to intro- 
duce corhineal culture into India, and otTcrcd a reward of ;^2,ooo to any one 
successfully importing it. In 1795 a naval officer secretly imported some 
cochineal insects from Brazil, which were distributed over India, and 
cultivation fostered by the Court of Directors, After expending two lakhs 
of rupees it was discovered that the wrong insect had been got. There are 
two sorts of cochineal insect — the silvestre or wild one, and the grana-Jina 
or domesticated one ; the latter only producing the cochineal of commerce. 
It unfortunately was the sUvestrc that had been imported, and was not worth 
the trouble of cultivating. The jp-twa-Jina has never been successfully 
imported. Besides getting the tnie insect, the proper cactus for its support 
is necessary ; the common opuntta fieus t'ndud, or prickly-pear, will not suit 
the domesticated kind. It must be of>imlia cochineilifera or opuntia tu>m. 
Referring to Kcw as to the correct cactus, authorities differed. After much 
correspondence this point was settled, and I got \hcirviC cactus oichiruHi/era^ 
compared the plants so named growingai the Botanical Gardens in Calcutta, 

O 2 




1 

d 



X9<5 



FAUNA 



Madras and Bangalore, and found them identical, corresponding with the 
description of cactus at Tcncriffc. 

After reviewing all that has been done, the writer in Watt's Dictionary 
says; — "The first and most natural step towards the introduction into 
India of a commercial industry in cochineal should be the thorough 
investigation of the races of cocoons already existing in the countr}' and 
the plants on which they feed." j 

Lao Ineect. — Tiic lac insect is found in several parts, as near the 
Nandi hills. The tree on which it feeds is the jdhiri {shorea itthtra^ 
Roxb,) All the trees, says Buchanan, are small, not exceeding eight 
or ten feet m height ; and their growth is kept down by the insect and 
its managers ; for this si/c answers besL The tree, left to itself, grows 
to a large size and is good timber. For feeding the insect, it thrives 
very well in a dr)' barren soil ; and is not plnntud, but allowed to sjjring 
up spontaneously as nature directs. In Karlika, or from atwut the 
middle of Octol>er to the middle of November, the iac is ripe. At that 
time it surrounds almost every small branch of the tree, and deslro)'s 
almost every leaf. The branches intended for sale are then cut oR", 
spread out on mats, and dried in the shade. A tree or two that arc 
fullest of the insects are presen-ed to propagate the breed ; and of 
those a small branch is lied to every tree in the month Chaitra, or 
from about the middle of March to the middle of v\pril ; at which time 
the trees again shoot out young branches and leaves. The lac dried 
on the sticks is sold to the merchants. This is what is called 
stick-lac^ which, after the dye has been extracted, is formed into setd 
and shell'lac. 

B66S. — The bees are described by Duchanan as of four kinds. That 
from which most of the honey and wax is procured is called hejjhtu- 
huia. This is a large bee, which builds under projections of the rocks 
or in caverns. A large nest gives eight seers of honey - 485 lb., and 
three seers of wax ~ i '82 lb. A small hive gives about one-third of this 
quantity. The honey is gathered twice a year, in A'shdtlhaand Miigha, 
or in the month following the summer solstice and the second after that 
of winter. Some people of the Bedar caste make the collecting of 
^^^ honey and wax a profession, and it is one attended with much danger. 
^^H Having discovered a hive, some of them kindle a fire under the rock, 
^^^ and throw on it the leaves of the cassia fistula and of the puhseri^ 

I which emit a smoke so acrid that nothing living can endure it. The 

■ bees are forced to retire ; and some others of the Bedar, so soon as the 

I smoke subsides, lower down by a rope one of their comixmions, who 

t with a pole knocks off the nest and is intmediately drawn up again ; 



B££S 



197 



for if he made any delay the bees would return, and their stinging is so 
violent thai it endangers life In order to fortify him against the sharp 
points of rocks, and against injury from the rope which passes round 
his chest, the adventurous Btda is secured before and behind by 
several folds of leather. 

The bee that produces the next greatest quantity of honey is called 
the kai/M or chi{tuj€nuhu{n ; that is, slick or small honey. This bee 
is very small, and builds around the branch of a tree a comb of an 
oblong shape and sharpened at both ends. It is found at all seasons, 
but is in the greatest perfection at the same time with the other. The 
honey is of the finest quality j but the whole comb seldom weighs 
more than two seers, or i*2lb. This bee does not sting, and is readily 
driven away by a twig switched round the comb. 

The tu,/uv<* is a bee of which the honey is of an excellent quality, 
but rarely procured ; for it generally builds deep in the crevices of 
rocks, where it is totally inaccessible. Sometimes, however, it is found 
in hollow trees, and one hive will give from twenty to iwenty-five seers 
of honey, or about twelve or fifteen pounds ; but the quantity of 
wajt is in proportion small. 'J'his is a large bee ; but it very seldom 
stings those who plunder its hive. 

The tonga is a ver>' small Iiee, that seldom stings. It lakes 
possession of the deserted nests of the white ants, which in this coun- 
try arc very numerous in the wastes of red soil such as is usually 
cultivated for nlgi. Of this stiff earth the white ants raise hills re- 
sembling the stump of a tree, which are from four to six feet high, very 
hard, and able long to resist the heaviest rain. These, when deserted, 
most commonly become the lurking-places of snakes ; but sometimes 
give shelter to the ivriga bee. Its nest is therefore easily accessible ; 
but it is very small, and contains only about a seer of honey and half a 
seer of wax. 





DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 



Horses. — The only native breed of horses is, as in most parts of 
India, an ill shaped, vicious /iif(u ; as a rule not exceeding twelve 
hands in height* In spite of the pains which Haidarand Tipu took 
to improve the Mysore breed by importation, even their far-famed 
cavalry were as a rule badly mounted. The former Silahddr horses, 
sprung generally from Arab sires and Mahratta dams, were probably 
fair specimens of the class of animal which supplied the Muhammadan 
armies. These were extremely weedy and deficient in barrel, but 
would stand a great deal of work. A few stallions have always been 
maintained by Government ; but the Silahddrs generally used to pur- 
chase their horses from private breeders, and their demand was the 
sole incentive to breeding. Of late years a hardy race of ponies has 
come into use for drawing the small two-wheeled conveyance called a 
jutka^ which does duty for a native cab. The ponies are doubtless of 
Mahratta l>rcod, and caj>ablc of great endurance. To improve the 
general breed of horses six superior stallions were obtained in 1889 
from the Military Department and stationed at headquarters of Dis- 
tricts. The following year four fresh stallions and a pcMiy mare were 
procured and the remaining Districts supplied. But so far the demand 
for their services has been rather limited. 

A horse-breeding establishment is kept up by Government at 
Kunigal (removed there many years ago from Closepet) for suppl)'ing 
the Silahdxirs with suiUible moimts. In 1886 there were seven Arab 
stallions and one Australian; in 1891 the Arab stallions had risen to 
eight in number, and the Australian to three. During the intor\*ening 
five years 271 foals were bred at the Stud, and, including stock of 
previous years, 246 were passed into the ranks. In addition to these, 
seventy were cast and sold as unfit or undersized, sixty-two died, and 
three were destroyed. The number remaining on hand in the Stud 
Farm in 1891 was 154. 

Mules.— It is said that Tipu Sultan introduced some fine asses from 
Arabia for the purpose of breeding mules ; but the prejudices of his 
subjects were so strong that nothing could be done. A private scheme 

* Writing in 1803, Colonel Welsh says: — "Colaj is »a fiiinaus for n, breed of 
vicioiu hones that 9.11 over the i>enin5ula, whenever a horse turns out ill, he is called 
Colarie." 



irOJi.VED CATTLE 



199 



for a regular system of breeding these useful animals, so invaluable for 
transport, has hecn btely put before the Mynort' Government for assist- 
ance, but nothing definite has so far been decided on. 

Asms.— Every washerman keeps three or four females and a 
male. The superfluous males are sold to various kinds of petty traders, 
and f>eoplc who transport salt and grain. The breed is very small, no 
pains being taken to improve it ; nor indeed to keep it from growing 
verse. Some are of the usual nsh-colour, whilst others are almost black, 
in which case the cross on their shoulder disappears. These are not 
varieties as to species ; for black individuals have sometimes ash- 
coloured colts, and, on the contrary, black colts are sometimes pro- 
duced by ash-coloured dams. The asses get nothing to eat except 
what in the intervals of labour they can pick up about the village. 
When the crop is on the ground they are tied up at night ; but at 
other seasons they are allowed to roam about, and in order to prevent 
them from wandering too far their fore-feet are tied together. The 
males are never castrated, and the best are always sold ofl* by the 
washermen, which are the principal causes of the degeneracy of the 
breed. At three years of age the females begin to breed, and some 
have every year a colt, while others breed once only in three years. An 
ass's burthen is reckoned about 76 lbs ; with which they will daily 
travel about suven miles. 

Horned Cattle. — The principal breeds of horned cattle in Mysore 
arc the Amrit Mahal, Mdd^svaran Be^ta, the Kdnkanhalli, and the 
village cattle. Almost all other cattle seen in the country are im- 
portations or crosses between the above-mentioned breeds. 

The Amrit AfaAtU,^ literally Milk Department, is an establishment for 
the breeding of a race of cattle peculiar to the country of Mysore and 
famous for its utility for military purposes. The cstahlishmenl was founded 
at some time during the Hindu goverruncnt, with special privileges as 
r^ards grazing ; but its maintenance for the special purpose of supplying 
draught cattle for artillery is due to Haidar Ali. He is reported to have in 
Iroduccd a breed of cattle from the Trichinopoly countrj-, by a cross 
between which and the indigenous breed of Mysore was produced the 
Hallikar breed, which is considered the best in the whole establishment. 
Great doubt exists as to what the breed imported was, but general tradition 
po'mls to the small iJrahmani bulls, which to this day are noted for their 
endurance and fast trotting powers. 

"It was this establishment," wrote Sir Mark Cubbon, " which enabled 

' The particulars are taken from a pamphlet contnining the history of the Amrit 
Uahil, compiled from the RecurtU uf the Deportment liy Captain M. A. Rowlandson, 
and (AC on Hiuumr, by Dr. Gilchrist ; with corrections by ^lajor Mcliiioy, the pfficcr 
formerly In charge, to whom I wm indebted for Ihuni. 




Haitlar Ali to march loo miles in two days and a half to the relief of 
Chidambram, and after every defeat to draw off his guns in the face of his 
enen-.ies ; which enabled Tipu Sultan lo cross the peninsula in one month 
for the recovery of Bednur, and to march sixty-three miles in two days 
before General Medows ; which, in later limes, enabled General Pritilcr 
to march 346 miles in 25 days in pursuit of the Peshwa : and which enabled 
General Campbell, after the failure of his Bengal equipments, to advance 
upon Ava and bring the war to a favourable termination. U was also this 
esublishment which enabled the Duke of Wellington to execute those 
movements of unexampled rapidity which are the admiration of every mili- 
tary man, and in consideration of whose ser\'ices he recommended it to pro- 
tection in a letter addressed al the close of the war to the Commander-in- 
Chief Allusions in the Wellington Despatches show that the Great Duke 
often, during the I'eninsular War in Spain, regretted that he had not the 
assistance of the Ampl Mah:(l cattle. 

After the capture of Seringapatam, the Breeding establishment was 
intrusted to the native government, and the Tublic Cattle department to an 
agent ; but the inducements which had led Haidar and Tipu to keep up 
its efficiency were wanting, and by the end of 1S13 the cattle had degener- 
ated to such a degree that the management was taken over by the British, 
and 10,914 head of breeding cattle, the exact number made over to the 
Raja's government in 1800, received back. A Commissariat officer (Captain 
Harvey) was placed in charge, with a suitable establishment, and up to the 
31st JiJy, 1816, tljc number of cattle had increased to 14,399, exclusive of 900 
calves transferred as fit for service. By 1823 the original number had nearly 
doubled itself, besides supplying for the public service young bullocks equal 
to one-fourth part of the increased establishment. In i860, from motives of 
economy. Sir Charles Trcvclyan ordered the establishment to be broken up, 
and the herds to be sold ; but the results were to the detriment of the public 
service. The Amrii Mahdl was therefore, with the cordial approval and 
assistance of the then Maharaja, re-establirihed in December 1867, with 
5,935 head of cattle. In i87r there were 9,800 head of all sizes, exclusive 
of 1,000 young male cattle in the Training Depot. It was arranged that a 
certain number of bulls should be handed over to the Mysore Government 
annually, lo be siatiunc<l at various points in the country for the purpose of 
improving the breed of cattle used by the ryots. 

The cutle were divided into 30 herds, containing from 200 to 700 head of 
cattle each ; for the gnizing of which, 3o8 jfiix-^/r or pasture grounds were 
allotted in various parts of the country.' They are divided into hot weather, 
wet weather and cold weather kdvals, according to the seasons of the year 
during which they are of most use. The hot weather k,lvals are generally 
the beds of tanks in which grass springs up during the hot months, and near 
which there are trees for the purpose of affording shade to the cattle during 

' Though A, herd consists of both males and females uf various ages, they are not 
allowc'l lo grare in immediate comjany, cnch Iicing divided into seven lots, called 
pdlst l» prevent their injuring one another. The average number of attendants or 
graziers is one to every fifty head of cattle. 





AMRIT MAHAL 201 

the heat of the day. These are ver>' valuable kAvals, and are reserved as 
far as possible for the sole use of the Government cattle. The cold and wet 
weather kdvals arc those which during those seasons have plenty of grass 
and w:iicr. but which during the hot weather dry up and arc of little use to 
Ihe department ; in both the latter descriptions of kdvals the ryots' cattle 
are permitted to graze certain fixed portions, and after the Government 
cattle liavc left for their annual visit to the jungles, the sh^rt'^t^dts are 
pemiiitcd to sell some part of the grazing, and from the funds thus obtained 
the kM'oJx'ifs or guards are paid and other expenses met. This privilege 
ceases at the end of July each year. 

The Amrit Alahai cattle comprise three varieties, called the Hallikar,^ 
Hagalva<ji and Chitaldroog, from the districts which originally produced 
them, and may be readily distinguished from every other breed in India 
by the peculiar shape and Ijcauty of their heads and the symmetry of 
their form. They seldom attain an extraordinary height, but in pro- 
{Kittion to their size are remarkably deep and wide in the chest, long 
and broad in the back, round in the barrel, well ribbed up and strong 
m the shoulder and limh,* They are active, fiery, and walk faster than 
troops ; in a word, they seem to constitute a distinct species, and 
possess the same superiority over other bullocks, in every valuable 
quality, that thoroughbreds do over other horses. The cows of this 
breed are white, but the males have generally an admixture of blue over 
the fore and hind quarters. There is a fourth variety of coloured 
onle, which are considered inferior to the white in energy and per- 
Kverance, though they rather surpass them in size. As the former 
breed is the most perfect that is known, it would only tend to its 
deterioration to cross it with any other, and tiie bulls are accordingly 
bred in the liest herds, and indi\iduals, selected from the best specimens, 
Uistriljuted to improve the breeds in the other herds. 

A cow of this breed is supposed to give about one pucka seer of 
milk a day, and the calf could not be deprived of any i>art of it without 

* An iiisurd li^entl is cuncnt among the herdsmen of the Lle[>artmcnl regarding 
the origin of the Uatlikdr. They state ihat I laidar Ali, after one of his uips to ihe 
loolh, Imnighl luck to ihc Mysore country a numlwr of cows of ihe small Hrahmani 
CBUe. These oiws were turned loose into a kival (in the Tiinikur Disuict) in which 
there were great niitnU:r& uf untclope, and a cross between the liig black bucks aiul 
the fouill brahmani cows gave the present llallikdr breed, tn sup^xjrt uf the sIot}' 
ibej' puini Id the small spot below ihc eye, common to antelope and tu HaDikdr cAttle. 

* The general characters of a gnotl bullock arc a round l>arrcl, stout strong I«rg*, 
aod hr<iad forehead. The average height \s 48 inches, and 50 inches was aliout the 
haghc«l Mandard. iJut the average height has very much incrcajied since ihc re- 
cUablikhnient of the department in 1S66. Some of the bullocks now run up to 
53I inches. Of course weight is also a material cunsidcratiun. Ttie average ih 
alxiut 12 mau»«k or 43 itioiie, but nu dh^oos have been adopted to determine this 
cuctiy. 



S02 



FAUNA 



being materially injured in its growth. The calves remain with their 
mothers during the day, but are separated from them at night, and are 
kept in a foUi under charge of the herdsmen until they arc three months 
old, when ihey begin to gnue and get strength. In tlie cold season, 
when the herbage is abundant, they are generally weaned at the age of 
five months ; but such as are brought forth later in the year cannot be 
separated from their mothers till after the hot weather. After 
separation, care is taken to conduct them to the richest pastures in 
the neighbourhood, and they are never supplied with any other food. 

Heifers begin to breed between lliree and a half and four years old, 
and bring forth six or seven times. Twenty cows are allowed to one 
bull The bulls begin to propagate at five years of age and retain their 
vigour till iL-ri, wlien they are discarded from the herds. The average 
annual amount of births is fifty per cent on the number of cows, and 
the proixjrtion of male and female calves is nearly equal. 

The whole of the cattle, bulls, cows and calves subsist entirely on 
what the pastures aflbrd, and on the stalks of the castor, bailer^ ku/ft\ 
and other nourishing plants, which are left on the ground for their use 
after the harvest in the months of January, February and March. This 
brings them into excellent condition at the most favourable season for 
the cows taking the bull. In the dry weather, when a want of forage 
and water prevails in the open country, the herds are conducted to the 
south-western jungles, where the natural moisture of tin; soil, the early 
showers, and the shelter afforded by the trees are favourable to vegeta- 
tion. They arrive there in May and return to their pastures in 
September, when the grass is in great abundance all over Mysore. 

The calves are castrated in November, the cold weather being found 
peculiarly favourable to the success of the operation, and invariably 
between the age of five and twelve months, as their growth is supposed 
to be promoted by early castration ; and it is attended with this impor- 
tant advantage, that it prevents the cows being impregnated by inferior 
bulls and consequently prevents the breed from degenerating. They 
are separated from the herds after four years of age and transferred to 
the Public Cattle Department when turned of five, perfectly trained and 
fit for work. They arrive at their full strength at seven and are past 
their vigour at twelve ; they work till fourteen or fifteen, after which 
they decline rapidly and generally die at eighteen years of age. The 
cattle of these herds are kept in their wild state, without shelter of any 
description ; they are verj' fiery and cannot be approached by 
strangers without the protection of the herdsmen. It requires several 
months to break theiii in, and the employment is extremely difficult 
and dangerous. 



AMRIT AfANAL 



ao3 



Ai the age of three years the catching of bullocks takes place, previous 
to which they are nearly as wild as the inhabitants of the jungle. The 
bullocks are first driven into a large oval enclosure, which they are mafic 
lo enter with much difficulty. This tonmiunicatcs with a square jard, 
surrounding an inner enclosure about twenty feet square, which Is 
surrounded with a strong fence made of wooden posts placed close to^'ether 
and about twelve feet high. When they arc collected in this, the opening 
is closed. The trainers then ascend on the top of the fence, and throw a 
noose round each of the bullock's horns. This done, the end of the rnpe is 
passed between posts near the ground, and the animal is drawn close up 
and secured by people on the outside. The passage is then opened and old 
trained bullocks admitted. One of the latter is bound by the neck to one 
of the wild animals, which being done, the rope is loosened, when he 
immediately endeavours to escape. His trained comrade, however, to 
whom he is coupled, restrains him, though hut partially ; accordingly the 
two leave the enclosure at tolerable speed. The rope by which the 
untrained bullock was originally noosed is allowed lo remain attached to 
his horns, and when they approach one of the strong posts placed in the 
immediate vicinity of the enclosure the rope is quickly turned round it, by 
which the animals are again brought up. The untrained bullock is then 
well secured by the neck, with as little latitude of motion as possible. 
There he is kept :done for about two days, until he becomes considerably 
tamed and worn out with unceasing efforts to escape, 'i'he next operation 
consists in attaching tu the animal a couple of blocks of wood so heavy as 
to be moved with some difficulty, and giving him as much liberty as this 
admits oC He is then admitted to the company of old trained cattle, and 
irom the twofold ejects of example and partial restraint he gradually 
becomes submissive. The bullocks are now grazed in the vicinity nf Hunsur 
for a further period of three years, being lied up regularly each evening in 
Imcs. They are then transferred to the Public Cattle Department to undergo 
&xu»l breaking for the public scr\icc. 

Since the Rendition the following changes have taken place:— On the 
ist January, 1S82, the Mysore Government purchased the Amrit Malial 
cattJe from the Madras Government, there being at that time 30 herds, 
with 12,502 head, of which 4,618 were cowsand 177 breeding bulls. It 
was stipulated that the Department should supply the Madras Govern- 
ment for ten years with three-year old bullocks at Rs. 50 per head, to a 
number not exceeding 400 annually. In 1886 this limit was reduced 
10 200 of four years old at the same price. The herds were therefore 
broken up in 1887 and their number reduced to sixteen. In 1889 
sttfps were taken to form special herds of big and fine cattle. There 
arc thus 2^ herds now (1S94) under six darogas. The steers are not 
caught near Hunsur, but in different kdvals, and are accustomed to 
being tied up before being handed over to Madras. Others are sold at 
reduced rates or distributed to raiyats at suitable places. Each of the 




304 



FAUNA 



darogas has also a sheep farm, where the country ewes are crossed by 
cross-bred Kashmir rams. 

At the Hisbar Cattle Farm in the Punjab, artillery cattle are bred 
from the Mysore cross to serve as " leaders." At the Bhadgaon Fanii 
of the Bombay Government cattle-breeding has been established for 
over eleven years, the lierd having taken its origin from the Mysore 
Amrit Mahal. 'Ihe main object has been to breed Mysore bulls for 
crossing and improving the cattle of the countrj- around. "As I 
passed through the district, I saw evidence," writes Dr. Voelclcer, "of 
the impress which the Mysore cattle reared at the Farm had made 
uix>n some of the other cattle, antl how superior to the ordinary cattle 
were those which had the Mysore ' touch ' in them." ' 

Mddfsvanin Bttta — ^This breed comes from the jungles and hills 
near Biligirirangan Betta, on the south-eastern frontier of Mysore. 
They are larger than the Amrit Mahdl cattle, Ijut are loosely made and 
not well ribbed up. They have heavy loose-hanging dewlaps, sloping 
broad foreheads, and large muzzles. They are very heavy slow 
animals, but crossed with a Hallilcar bull they form excellent cattle 
for draught and ploughing. Of this cross-breed are the cattle mostly 
used by the large cart owners who carry on trade from towns in the 
Mysore territory to the Western Coast, Bellary and other places. 

Kdnkdnhatli. — This breed comes from KdnkanhalH, in the south- 
east of Mysore ; they arc very like the Mddesvaran Bet^a breed, but are 
generally smaller, though larger than the Amrit Mahal breed. They 
have thick horns, broad sloping foreheads, and whitCj, very thick skins. 
In all other respects the remarks regarding the Madesvaran Be|ta breed 
are applicable to the Kankinhalli. 

The village cattle vary very much in size, colour and characteristics ; 
in some parts very fair cattle may be seen, but as a general rule the 
village cattle are a stunted inferior race. The cows generally give 
from half to one seer of milk per diem, though occasionally some may 
be met which give three seers, but it will be generally found that 
these have been fed on nutritious food, such as oilcake, cotton-seed 
and such like. The bullocks arc small, but for ihcir size do a sur- 
prising amount of work. 

Buffalo.- — Of the buffalo there are three varieties, the //>///«, the 
Caujri or Gujarat, and the ClwkatUy which comes from the country 
bordering on the river Krishna. 

The Huliu is by far the most common, and is the native breed of the 
country. The female has a calf every year, and gives milk lor seven 

* R<Port 011 the Imprwement of Indian Agricuttttrt^ 304. 

- Much of the itJbrmatiun in the foUuwing iiaragraphs is Druni Buchanan. 




SHEEP 



»o5 



months. Bet-ides what the calf draws from her, she gives twice a day 
about a quart of milk. She generally bears from ten to twelve calves, 
and is very unruly when the keeper attempts to milk her without the 
calf being present. They will convey a greater weight, either in a cart 
or on their back, than a common ox ; but walk very slowly, do not 
endure heat, and cannot easily travel more than seven miles a day. 

The two stranger breeds are greatly superior in size to the HttHu ; 
bat in this countr)' they very soon degenerate. The females breed 
ooce in two or three years only, and produce in all about six calves. 
For two years after each parturition they continue to give a large 
quantity of milk ; but in the third year their milk begins to diminish j 
and it entirely ceases about two months before the time of calving. In 
this country, besides what the calf is allowed, they give daily from six 
to eight quarts of milk and require no more food than the common 
br^d, neither do they refuse their milk should the calf be removed or 
die. The males are entirely reserved for breeding or for carrying 
toads ; one of them will cair)' as much as six oxen, and wilt walk 
lasier. 

Sheep. — These are of three varieties, the Kurubar or ordinary breed, 
so called from the caste which rears it; the Goilar^ which is less 
common and which owes its name to the same cause ; and the Yfiaga^ 
which is the rarest of the three. White, brown and black colours are 
ft)und in all three breeds. The Kurubar is a small sheep, with horns 
ctxriing backwards. Both its flesh and wool are superior to those of the 
other two varieties. The Collar is distinguished from the Kurubar by 
its large size, coarser wool, longer neck and different formation as to 
the bead and jaws. The Velaga, which is rare, is longer in the leg, and 
stands higher than the other breeds, but is less bulky and more 
resembles a goat in structure of the body and limbs. The sheep of this 
variety are never shorn of their wool, being too coarse for manufacture, 
and they shed their coals once a year. This is the l>reed which 
b used for draught and carriage of children. The Clollar sheep are 
left out at night at all seasons and in alt weathers, and do not appear 
to suffer from the exposure, while the Kurubars and Yejagas are 
ini-ariably housed at night. The different breeds are never mixed, 
chiefly owing to antagonism between the Kurubar and Collar castes ; 
bat even in the absence of enmity between the shepherds it is doubtful 
whether the two varieties could over be brought to mix. and it is pretty 
well established that the Yelaga will not amalgamate with the other 
WPa They are solely dependent on ]jasturage, being ne\-er fed on grain. 
Sheep, with the exception of the Ye]aga>*. arc shorn twice n year, and 
fifty fleeces amount to about a maund weight. The wool is all coarse. 




206 



K4UX,4 



and is made into rough kamblis. The shepherds usually hand over 
loo fleeces to the weaver, who gives them in return a kanibli. There 
was formerly a Government manufactory at HiSnsiSr, which turned out 
good blankets made from the wool of the white sheep in the Govern- 
ment farm. This has been abolished. 

" The woolly breed of sheep, which exists throughout Mysore, is 
fairly esteemed," says Or. Shortt, "both for its mutton-forming and 
wool -producing qualities. The rams have large heavy horns, wrinkled 
and encircled outwards, and their points inwards and forwards. The 
head is large and heavy-looking, with a jirominent Roman nose. The 
ears are of moderate size and pointed, and the tail short, never exceed- 
ing 3 to 4 inches. The ewes are mostly hornless. They are occasion- 
ally met with small light horns, seldom exceeding 3 to 4 inches in 
length. The prevailing colour is from a light lo a very dark grey or 
black. The ram stands 25 inches, and the ewe 23 inches in height. 
The ordinary live weight is from 40 to 60 lbs., but gram-fed wethers 
attain from 60 to 80 lbs. They have fairly compact carcases, with 
good width, prominence and depth of chest ; the body is well woolcd 
and rectangularly formed ; in picked specimens the counter is full and 
the shoulder is fairly filled when in condition. The fleece never 
exceeds 3 to 4 lbs., and the staple averages 3 to 4 inches in length. 
An ordinary sheep fetches from 2 to 3 rupees in the market, fat wethers 
7 to 10 rupees each. 

"This breed furnishes the chief fighting rams of Southern India, for 
which purjiose good picked male rams are sought after by native Rajas, 
2^mindars and others. They are much petted and pampered, till they 
grow quite savage ; they will butt and also strike with their fore-feet ; 
and I have also seen in one or two instances a propensity to bite. They 
are pitted against each other, and large sums of money staked on 
the result. In fighting, they run a tilt by first moving backwards some 
short distance lo add force to the impulse of their weight ; and fre- 
quently in the fight they have their heads or horns broken. These 
rams, from special selection and good feed, often attain 30 inches in 
height and over 80 lbs. in weight. Size does not necessarily ensure 
success in the Ixittle, as I have seen the largest ram of the kind I 
remember ever having met with, run away after a few tilts from one 
that was very much smaller. All the breeds of sheep in Southern 
India are pugnacious and rt-nrt-rl to fight, the preference always being 
given to the black woolly breeds of Mysore or to those of Coimbalore. 
This breed extends from Mysore to Bellary, where after a time the 
wool frequently changes into long lank hair." 

Vol many years Sir Mark Cubbon had an experimental sheep farm at 



Icraganhalli, Xagamangala taluq, under the charge of a European 
Commissariat sulxirdinate officer. Merino rams were* imported yearly 
from Australia and the cross-breeds distributed all over the country. 
The breed of sheep throughout the Province was thus immensely 
improved both as to size, quality of mutton, and wool. The wool was 
sent in bales by the Mysore Go\'emment to England for sale, as well 
as for the purpose of being manufactured into blankets and serge. 
The farm was given up in iS6j;, as it did not pay expenses. This was 
owing apijarenlly to sheep-breeding alone receiving attention ; if other 
branches of farming had been combined, the results would probably 
have been more favourable. 

In 1888 a flock of fifteen rams and ewes was imijorted from Australia 
irith the \'ie\v of improving the fleece of the country breed. A flock 
of white sheep and their Iambs by an acclimatized merino ram had also 
been collected for breeding purposes. The lambs thus bred are larger 
and the fleece of the sheep much better than those of the ordinary 
sheep of the countr)*. Some have been sent to Haidarabad and others 
sold or distributed to raiyats for breeding. 

Goats. — There are two kinds of goals, the long-legged or m?ke, and 
tbe short-legged or hancht tntke^ but the two can propagate together. 
In every flock of sheep there is commonly a proportion of 10 or 
30 mike to 100 sheep. This does not interfere with the pasture 
of the sheep, for the goats live entirely on the leaves of bushes and 
trees. One male is kept for twenty females. Of those not wanted for 
breeding, the shepherd sacrifices some for his own use while they are 
)XKing; the remainder he castrates and sells to the butcher. The 
female breeds at two years of age. They breed once a year, about 
four times, after which they are generally killed by the shepherds for 
their own use. For three months the kid is allowed the whole milk ; 
after>i*ards the mother is milked once a day for two months ; and eight 
goats will give a quart of milk. The excrement of both sheep and 
gMts is much used for manure. 



A 



!08 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



The aborigiiial inhabitants of Mysore cannot proKibly be now traced 
with any degree of certainly, though remains of prehistoric races 
alwund in stone monuments of different kinds elsewhere described. 
On various scientific grounds India appears to have been originally 
part of a continent fto which the name Leinurra is sometimes given) 
stretching west to Africa and east to Cochin China and Australia, of 
which Madagascar on the one side, and the islands included in 
Melanesia in the Indian Archipelago on the other, are some of the 
principal existing remains.^ Of the primeval human races whose home 
it may have been, there survived (according to a theory of Professor 
Huxley's, developed by Professor Haeckel of Jena) two, namely, a 
woolly-haired and a smooth -haired. From the former sprang the 
Hottentots and negroes in Africa westwards and the Papuans of New 
Guinea eastwards ; from the latter, represented perhaps by the natives 
of Australia, were derived the straight-haired and the curly-haired 
races. The first were the progenitors of the Malays of the islands in 
the Pacific Ocean, and of the Mongols of Eastern and Northern Asia, 
who penetrated on one side to Europe (their sun'ivors being found in 
the Finns, 1-ipps, Magyars and Turks), on the othur side to America, 
producing the Red Indians : the second peopled India and spread to 
South-westeni Asia, North Africa and the South of Europe. The 
original inhabitants of South India and Ceylon, distinguished as 
Dravidians {homo Dravida), may perhaps represent the least changed 
examples of tlie second branch. This hypothesis discredits the views 
at one time adopted, that the Dravidians migrated into India from the 
north-west, of which there is little evidence, the indications being held 
to be equally in favour of the opposite course. 

Several of the Puranas' claim an Ar>an descent for the southern 
races by making their progenitors or eponyms, PAndya, Karnita, Chola 

* **Thniughrmi the Ulcr part of the palaia/jiic anH the whole of the mesozoic 
era, there was a canlinuons stretch of dry land over what U now the Indian Ocean.'* 
" At the close of the cretaceous or commcnccmcnl of the eocene jieriod, the grcal 
Indo-African conlincni was finally broken u]i, and all ImiI (he remnanLs in India and 
South Africa Mink finally beneath the sea/' — R. D. Oldham, Gtahgy oj India^ 
pp. an. 494- 

' The Vityu, Mauo'Si Agni ajnd Brahma Puranas. — Miur, S. 7"., II., 422. 



\ 



PHTAflTrVE TRIBES 



309 



and Kernh, to be descendants of Push\*anta, the adopted son of 
Tun-asu, who was the younger brother of Yadu, and a prince of the 
lunar line. Their father V'ayali, the son of Nahusha, gave the govern- 
ment of the south to Yadu, and that of the south-east to Turvasu, who 
is also said to have been the progenitor of the Vavanas.' Another 
account^ substitutes Kola for Karnata. The fomier is a name which 
occurs extensively throughout India as the designation of a wide-spread 
aboriginal race. If the two therefore are interchangeable, it would 
seem as if the people of Ramata were considered identical with the 
Kols of the Central Provinces."* The name appears in Kolar, after 
which the eastern District of Mysore is called, as well as in Kolala in 
the Tiimkiir District* 

Though the I>ra\ndians were certainly not Aryans, these statements 
may eralx)dy prehistorical myths. For analysis of such myths may be 
made to show that Turvasu was the name of a star-worshiping people, 
whose god (Akkadian vasu) was the meridian pole {fur), which stood 
for the I.inga or I'hallus, being evolved from the fire-drill and socket, 
its revolution amid the circumpolar stars of the Great Bear being 
considered the cause of the rains. They may be identified with the 
Zend Turanians {an signifying god in that language), and with the 
maritime traders called Tour-slia and Tur-sene or T>Trhenians 
mentioned in Egyptian and Greek records. Their first great trading 
port was Dvaraka in the peninsula of Kathiawar j other exporting 
harbours being Sitrpdraka (Surat) at the mouth of the Tapti, and 
Baragyza (Broach) at the mouth of the Narmada. They made settle- 
ments at the holy island of Dilmun (now Bahrein) in the Persian Gulf, 
and at Eridu, near the mouth of the Euphrates. 

In course of time migration set the other way, and we meet with a 
race, also non-Arj-an, who reverenced the moon (sin) and brought in 



I Tunrasu we* ako sentenced to rtilc over savages and baibniians — Mlcchchhas, or 
people not Hindus . . Manu, too, places the Dravida.'t anvongst Mtechehha.s ; and 
ibcK and similar passages indicate a period prior tu the introdiiclion of I-{induism into 
tbc south of India. — Wilson, Vishnu I*tirana, iv, 117. ' Hari%-ainsa, Muir, pp. fit. 

• The tribes driven out of the valley of the Clanges by the Aryans were almost 
oenainly KoU to the south, and semi-TilKtans to the north. —Caldwell, Gram. Drau. 
/jan^., InL, 63. 

' The generally received theory is that the Knlarian tribes are relics of Iwrlwrians 
who entered India from the north'east at some very remnlc pre-htstorJc periotl : ihey 
were subsequently, perhaps thousands of years ago, pushed aside by Turanian Immi- 
gTant» from Western Asia, who )>enetni(cd Imlta from the north-we&t and filled the 
wcktem ami southern districts ; at a later |M:riod the Aryans came into India, also 
from the north-west, settled in the Punjab, and eventually spread, first east and 
lastly south, into all ports of the Indian continent. 

P 




i 



3 TO 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



the year of thirteen lunar months. These were the Hus, Shus or Sus, 
the yellow race from the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates (and later 
of Shushan) who settled in the delta of the Indus — the Su-varna from 
whom Sindh was called Sindhu-Suvarna, part of Bengal Karna-Suvarna, 
and Gujarat and Kathiawar received the name of Sau rdshtra. They 
correspond also with the Sabanc of Ptolemy, the Suari of Pliny, and the 
Sauviras of Baudhiyana. They were the great Sumerian and Vais'ya 
traders of Western Asia and India (if not China), the progenitors of 
the modern Saukurs. Their capital was Pitila (Haidarabad in Sindh), 
then a seaport, though now 150 miles from the sea. They gave to the 
river its name Sindhu or Hindhu, which has come to designate the 
whole of India and its inhabitants. They are referred to as Yonas by 
Asoka and as Vavanas in the Mahabharata.^ 

Oushyanta (previously mentioned) or Dushmanta, as he is also 
called, who was of the line of Puru but adopted by Turvasu, became 
the father, by Sakuntala, the heroine of Kalidasa's exquisite drama, of 
Bharata, after whom India was called Bharata-varsha, or land of the 
Bharatas. These are represented by the Bars or Bhars, whose name is 
perhaps really derived from the Bar or banyan-tree ^ficus indUa\ which 
they held sacred. They are an aboriginal race, classed among the 
Dravidians, and once ruled over a large area from the Central 
Provinces to Oudh and Behar. They are mentioned by Ptolemy as 
Barrhai, and may be the Sanskrit barhara or barbarians.^ Besides Yadu 
and Turvasu, Vayati had three sons, Uruhyu, Anu and Puru. And the 
collective people of the five races who claimed to be descended from 
them were the Dravidian Bharatas under Vis'vamitra, who resisted the 
Aryan advance under Vasishtha, and whose defeat is celebrated in the 
seventh mandala of the Rig-veda.' 

As regards Mysore, which is included in the Dravidian region, it 
seems not unlikely that the Tudas or Todas of the Nilgiris may be 
representatives of primeval tribes there settled. Not only is their 



\ 



> Sec J. F. Hewitt's '* The Kuling Races of rrchliloric Times," from which these 
pariiailars have Ihicti extracted, out of a bewildering maze of detail. '* It was in 
ihLs region (the Western I'unjah) prolmhly ihat ihcy (the Aryans) found ihc fiist 
enemy of foreign race lo themselves, for ihey mention hostile scr^Knt-worshippera of 
a yellow complexion, and frum other sources we Icaxn that very early In histor)- there 
had Iwjen nio\*ements amongst the lighi-lintetl race of Wesl-Ccnlril Asia, thai weal 
by the generic name of Skyihinn." — ^J. A. Bftine^ Gtneral Hep^rt oh tht Ctitius 0/ 
India, 1S91, [>. 122. 

■ See " The Original Inhabiiants of Bharata -s-arsha,'' by Dr. K\. Oppcrt. 

" The story is told in Kig-vcda, vii., iS, 35 (1-6) and 83, ami in Ui., 33.— Hewitt, 
p. 112. 



I 



TVDAS 



«t 



language Old Ginarese (modified apparently hy the exigencies of iheir 
present location'), but it is suggestive that they hold sacred the buffalo, 
from which animal Mahishiir (Mysore) derives its name. It might even 
be supposed that the legend of the conquest of Maliishisura by 
Chimundi is based on an historical fact, — a victory gained over the 
minotaur ruler of the Mahisha manclala, or buffalo kingdom, by 
adherents of one of the Saktis of Siva, in consequence of which the 
Tudas and other tribes were driven to take refuge in the mountains, 
hut that its frequent occurrence as a subject of sculpture in other parts 
seems to indicate that the triumph was an event of nnder and more 
national importance. 

The Tudas have excited much interest as a race and as regards their 
origin. It was at one time held by some that they were Skythians, but 
it is now generally admitted that they are later arrivals than the race by 
whom the ancient monuments were constructed on which a Skythian 
descent was based 

In the next chapter, however, it will be seen that the ancient history 
of the country leads us back, as one of the earliest known events, to the 
conquest by the Haihayas, presumably a Skytiiian puople, of Mahish- 
mati or Mahes\ara-pura (in the Central Provinces;, and its subsequent 
recovery by the emperor Sagara, sprung from the ejected native race, 
who thencefortt-ard imposed on the vanquished the stigma of t»hnving 
their heads in peculiar modes as a mark of subjection. Now not only 
do the Tudas (in common with other supposed aborigines) wear their 
Jtair unshorn, but it is worthy of note that they are acknowledged as 
of the soil by the Kotas, Badagas-and other tribes on the hills, 
abo immigrants from Karnata," though of a later date, who pay them 
jf»/u, >«/// or tribute; and that in virtue of this position the Tudas 
s\'5tematically abstain from all bbour, unless milking their buffaloes can 
be described as such. 

Another early if not aboriginal race are probably to be found in the 

' The Tudas chiefly converse in the open air, calling lo each other from one breezy 
lop to another. Their speech sounds like Old Canaresc s]v)ljcn in the icclh of a 
of wimt . . . The language seems to have lieen originally GUI Canareiie 
uid not a distinct dialect. The Tutlas were probably immigrania from the Canarese 
cminlf}-, and have dwell <m the Nilagirts for alwut 800 {? at least 1,800} years. — 
— Dr. I'ope. Outlines of Tmia Gram. 
' The Ba<laga&, nurthemcrs, are so called from ba^^ga, the Kannada for north. 
* Kota niay l>e cuiisidcrwl as a virr)- old and very rude dialect of the Canarese, 
which was CRiricil Ihilher (ihc Nilgiri hill>) by a jxfrsccutcd low-caste lril>c ai some 
remote period. . . . The dialed s])okcn by the Burghers or Iladagas (the 
ihem people) is an ancient biit organized dialect of Canarese. — Dr. Caldwell, 
Cram. Drav. LaHg,y Intro., 37. 

P 3 



J 



tNOGRAPHY 




Hale Paika or Paiki, of tlie Nagar Malnad, and there are some curious 
coincidences hetween ihcni and the Tudas. Their name is said to be 
derived from ka(e and pdyika^ meaning Old Foot, as they furnished the 
foot-soldiers and body-guards of former rulers, to whom they were 
noted for iheir fidelity.* Considering the locality which they chiefly 
inhabit, we may conjecture that they formed some portion of the so- 
called monkey army which assisted Rama in his expedition against 
Ceylon. A nearly corresponding tribe on the coast north of Hona\"ar 
is called Kumdra Paika, the Junior Foot. There is a military tribe in 
Vizagapatam, called Paiks, who are said to be plainly aboriginal.' 
Also Paiks in Orissa, who call themselves sons of the squirrel, arc classed 
among the first Turanian immigrants.""* The principal occupation 
now of the Hale Paiki is the extraction of toddy from the bhagni palm 
{caryotii urens\ the cultivation of rice land, and of kans or woods 
containing pepper vines ; but they are described as still fond of fire- 
arms, brave, and great sportsmen. In Vastara and in Tuluva (S, 
Canara) they are called Bih-ar or bowmen.* In Manjarabad they are 
called Oevara makkalu, God's children, which seems to support an 
aboriginal claim, and are mande nnd^rdma paieh. 

Now it is not a little singular that Paiki is the name of the highest 
clan of the Todas, from which alone the pdldi or priests are taken, and 
that the latter style themselves Der mokh, i.e. Devara makkalu, or 
God's children. The mand of the Nilgiris corresponds with the mande 
of Manjarabad. The Todas, on account of their dark complexion. 
were supposed by Dr. Caldwell to have come from " the eastern or 
sun-burnt side of the range of Ghats." On the other hand "the simi- 
larity of some of their customs to those of the Malaydlams and the 
position of their mands, which are mostly in the western uplands of the 
plateau, whilst some are even in the Wainid, seem to lend colour to 
the view that their country lay to the west of the Nilagiris." Whatever 

* The derivalion kaU pdyika is queslianable. I have soen hale pAyaka, which would 
mean "old drinkers," also given as the origin of the word. Tlie I'iccujxitiLin of loddy- 
drawing may have suggestf<I the latter. And if the pcculi.irily which Colonel 
Marshall ban rciiurkcd in the Toda'i, that ihcy always keep stvp in walking — said to 
Iw very unusual even among trained sepoys when off duly — be common to the haU 
paika^ it may have suggested the other. 

' Maclcant*. p. 66. ' Hewitt, p. iga. 

* In connection with the view of Ethiopian affinities in these races, it is curious to 
note that Herodotvis in hisaccoiint of the presents sent bj- Camlijses to the Ethiopians 
(HI, 20-22) particularly mcntiuns z Jiask of date w/jw, and that their king, though 
distrustful of live uther things, wa-t delighted bc)-tmd measure with the l>everage when 
he was informed how it was obtained- AJso that he sent the Pcntian king a singular 
tow in return. The Ixiw figures in sonte remarkable rites among the Todas. 



I 



I 




kurubAS 



»'3 



may have been the land of their origin, it seems more likely that "a 
race of drovers of semi-aniphibious buffaloes gradually pushed forward 
iis herds through the rich moist flats of AVainid to the grassy downs of 
ihe Nilagiris, than through the dry plains of Coimbatore and Salem."' 

Colonel Marshal], in his interesting work on the Todas, says : — " In 
the process of writing of them I have grown to the very strong 
conviction that the people are a surviving sample of some portion of the 
Turanian race when in its very primitive stage. NVithout much exercise 
of the imagination I can picture them the contemporaries and 
neighbours, even perhaps the ancestors, of races of south-western Asia 
which have made a figure in early history. There is much of the 
' blimeless Ethiopian ' about them : something of the Jew and 
Chaldean in their appearance. " In a note he adds : — ** On the eve of 
sending this work to the press I would beg again to urge my belief in 
ibe connection between the iJravidian Toda and the Ethiop/'-* 

Still keeping to the hills, we may probably set down the Kurubas of 
the south-western forests, and the Soligns of the Biligirirangaii hills on 
the south-east, as aboriginal tribes. The Kurubas, or Kurumbas, as 
tfacy arc there called, extend to the Nilgiri hills, where the Badagas, 
who attribute to them great powers of sorcery, always at the time of 
ploughing employ a Kuruba to turn the first furrow, which may be 
emblematic of an ancient ownership in the soil, and a sort of acknow- 
ledgment that the Kuruba permits it to be cultivated. It is significant 
loo that the Kurubas do nut pay ^^v^u or tribute to the Todas as the 
other tribes da * 

The Kddu or wild Kurubas of Mysore are divided into Betta or 
Hill Kurubas,"* a small and active race capable of enduring great 
&tigue, who are expert woodmen: and the J^nu or Honey Kurubas, 
aid to be a darker and inferior race, who employ themselves in collect- 
ing honey and bees'-wa.x. Their villages or clusters of huts are called 
kd4lL Among their peculiar customs, a separate hut or ckavtuU is set 
apart in which the unmarried females of the hddi sleep at night, and 
another at the other extremity of the hidi for the unmarried males ; 
both being under the supervision of the headman of the tribe. They 
are their own barbers, bits of broken glass doing duty for razors. 
Strangers are not allowed to enter a hddi with shoes on. In cases of 
d^alh, adults only are crenwted ; children are buried. The Bejta 



* Gf^K^s '•' Minuat of the Nllapiri DUtrict," ch. ix. 

* •' A nircnolopst among the Tott-is," p. 4. 

* Brerl;i. " The rriiiulive Triljcs and Monuraenls of the Nihgiria." 

* There *rc also subdivuions called Ane (elephant), Bcvina (from *t^i/, ihe neem- 
ucc), uid Ko||i (firebnind) Kurabas. 




2T4 



RAPHY 



Kurubas worship forest deities called N6rdli and Mdsumnia, and ore 
said to be revengeful, but if treated kindly will do willing service. The 
J^nu Kurubas ne\'er own or cultivate land for themselves, nor keep 
livestock of their own. Both classes are expert in tracking wild 
animals, as well as skilful in eluding pursuit by wild animals acci- 
dentally encountered. Their children when over two years old move 
about freely in the jungle.' 

The Iru|iga of the forest tracts in the fustern DislricLs, seem to be 
another tribe closely resembling the J^nu Kurubas, and engaged in the 
same pursuits. Their name is said to be derived from irui^ night, 
indicating the blackness of their hue. Buchanan mentions that they 
called themselves Chensu, the name of well-known wild tribes in the 
Madras country. The Soligas are a verj- secluded race. They speak 
Old Canarcsc, and arc remarkable for their keenness of sight, and skill 
in tracking wild animals. The tribes of Hasulas and Maleyas, who 
somewhat resemble them, are met with along the Ghats on the western 
fronlier. But these appear to l>e immigrants from South Canara, and 
speak Tulu. They collect cardamoms and other wild products for their 
employers, whose agrestic slaves they have virtually become. They live 
in small isolated huts, which, in the case of the Hasulas, are provided 
not only with the usual principal entrance by wliich to crawl in, but 
also with a half-concealed hole in the rear, through which the shy 
inmates steal out into the jungle at the merest suspicion of danger or 
on the approach of a stranger. Their religion seems to be devil- 
worship. \Mien a person dies, his spirit is supposed to have been 
stolen by some one else's devil, who is pointed out by the astrologer 
after divination by throwing cowries or rice. The heir or relation of the 
deceased then redeems the spirit by offering a pig, fowl or other gift, and 
it is caused to take up its abode in a pot, which is periodically supphed 
with water and nourishment.'^ 

The Koraclias, Koramas, or Kora\*as, a numerous wandering tribe, 
who carry salt and grain from one market to another by means of large 
droves of cattle and aijscs, and also employ themselves in making 
bamboo mats and baskets, appear to have an affinity with aboriginal or 
early naturalized tribes. The mode in which the men wear their hair, 
gathered up into a large knot or bunch on one side of the top of the 
head, exactly resembles what we sec in the sculptured figures on various 
stone monuments. The women, again, may be known by numerous 
strings of small red and white glass beads and shells worn round the 
neck and falling over the bosom. In the depths of the forest they are 



* Keporl on the Mysore Census of 1891, pp. 226^ 



* lb. p. 23a 




HOLA YAS 

said to disjKrnsc with more substantial covering. This also accords 
with ihe ancient jiraclice illustrated in numerous bas-reliefs. For 
women, as there represented, are commonly arrayed in nothing more 
than rows of ornamental chains and jewellen,-, pendent from the throat 
and loins— an attire, if such it may be called, worthy of the Age of 
Innocence \ and becoming enough, it may be, on the golden-olive and 
nut-brown lints that scarce reveal a blush, of Nature's vesture for the 
fair of these climes. 

The Koravas in Chutia Nagpur are described as Kolarians,' and such 
those in M>-sore may be by origin. They are here credited with strong 
thieving propensities. One section is called Dabhc {split hamboo>, and 
consists no doubt specially of mat-makers. It would appear as if some 
reminiscence of a custom like comnde lingered among the Koravas for 
it is said that when a woman is confined, her husband takes medicine 
for her,* They live in small camps of movable wicker huts, which are 
sometimes stationary for a time near large towns, but are often rcnaoved 
from place to place daily. 

Descending to the interior, we find an oulcaste race, the Holayas, 
vhose name may l)e derived from hoiny a field, ' occupying a quarter 
of their own, called the Hola-gc5ri, outside every village boundary hedge. 
TTie}' are the Chanddia of Sanskrit writers ; and are the representatives 
of the Bala-gai or right-hand faction, of which an account will be found 
further on. " As a body they are the serx-ants of the ryots, and are 
mainly engaged in tending the plough and watching the herds. But 
Ooc of this despised order is generally the priest to the village goddess, 
and as such, on that annual day when all hasten to pay their offerings 
al her shrine, takes precedence of the twice-born Brahman."* 

The toti or kuiai'ddi (he who directs the ryots), always a Holaya, 
it fl recognized and indispensable member of every village corporation. 
In his official position he is the village policeman, the beadle of the 
village community, the headman's henchman ; but in the rights and 

* Hewitt, p. 47. ** The oUI iraditiims make no dtslinclion between the dark races, 
if indeed there were nny. I'hilologj- indicatet a fairly well-marked distinction between 
the langoagcs of Ihc \i\\Ks, tjf the central hell, and gruu|ii one section, mainly that to 
Ihc fcnithwanl, under the head uf Dravidian, and the oiher under a title which has 
KOMUitfd, for want of a Itclter, in its primitive nnd noi very oonrccl form of Kolarian. 
Phfvolcigy, however, hu l>cen busy amongst these trilKs, and discovers no trace of 
daiinctioa between ihe two groups." — BaiQC&, p. 123. 

* Myw Ceo. Rep., p. 226. 

" but the Brahman^ call them HoIe>-a.s, which they derive from hole, ini|>urc. 
' TTii» and following iiariiculars ore taken from a [lajxrT !>)' Ca^jtain Mackcnuc on 
tbr " Ko^Tadi of the Hassan Disuict."— //k/. .-/m/.. II., 65. 



i 



9i6 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



priWIeges which yet cling to him we get glimpses of his former estate, 
and find proofs that the Holayar were the first to estabhsh villages. All 
the castes unhesitatingly admit that the kujavadj is {dejurg) the owner 
of the village. If there is a dispute as to the village boundaries, the 
kuJavAdi is the only one competent to take the oath as to how the 
boundary ought to run, and to this day a village boundary dispute is 
often decided by this one fact — if the kulavidis agree, the other inhabi- 
tants of the village can say no more. Formerly, when a village was first 
established, a large stone, called /aint kaUit^ was set up withm it. To 
such stones the patel once a year makes an offering, but the kuja\'idi, 
after the ceremony is over, is entitled to carr)- off the rice, &a, offered, 
and in cases where there is no patel, the kujavatli performs the 
ceremony. 

But what seems to prove strongly thai the Holaya was the first to 
take possession of the soil is, that the kulavadi receives, and is entitled 
to receive, from the friends of any person who dies in the village a 
certain burial fee, or, as it is forcibly put, ** Ihey buy from him the ground 
for the dead." This fee is still called in Canarese nela hdga} In 
Manjarabad, the ancient Balam, the kujavadi does not receive this fee 
from those ryots who are related to the headman. Here the ku]avddi 
occupies a higher position ; he has in fact been adopted into the patel's 
family, for on a death occurring in such family the ku]avddi goes into 
mourning by shaving his head. He always receives from the friends 
the cloths the deceased wore, and a brass basin. 

The ku)avddi, however, has lo pay an annual tax, consisting of 
one fowl, one hana (4 annas 8 pic), and a handful of rice, to the agent 
of the Sudugicju Sidda or lord of the burning grounds, who resides 
somewhere in the Baba Budan hills and is of the Gangadikara Wok- 
kaliga caste. 

Traditions, whose authenticity there seems no reason to doubt, are 
preserved, as elsewhere related, of an early Jain immigration, perhaps 
in the 4th century B.C., from Ujjayini and the north; also of the 
introduction in the 3rd or 4th century a.d, of Brahmans, the pro- 
genitors of the Haiga or Havika Brahmans of the Nagar countr>', from 
Ahichchhatra in Pdnchdla or Rohilkhand, by one of the Kadamba 
kings ;* of the attempt of the king of the Chandalas above the Cihats to 



' From mla^ the grotind, and h^ga^ a small cuin (worth one nnna two pie). 

* The Haiga Brahmans seem to Iw of pure race and of no bastard or douhtful 
caste. They aie dMcrilied as very fair, with large eyes and acjuilinc noses, a descrip- 
tion which would imply for them a tlcriv-aiion from an uncoirupted and little inter- 
mixed northern source.— CampljeU, EthtwL India^ 74. 




POPULATION 



mi 



form a matrimonial alliance with a Kadamba princess, his consequent 
death by treachery and the loss of his kingdom, into which the 
Brahmans under the new rulers gained admission. In the south we have 
evidence that in the 3rd and 4th centuries the Clanga kings were 
extending their sway over Mysore, and this seems to liave been accom- 
panied by a gradual setting aside of the predominant Jain influence by 
that of Brahmans. The Chola invasions of the i ith century introduced 
a Urge Tamil influence. In tlie east and north, we may suppose that 
under the Mauryas and the I'allavas, up to the 6th century, Buddhistic 
influences would be chiefly at work, and settlers from the Telugu 
countries attracted into Mysore. The progress of events as related in 
the next chapter will suggest the circumstances under which the 
population was probably recruited by Kongas, Reddis, Woddas and 
other tribes. 

As (ar back as the 10th century we hnd two great territorial divisions, 
namely, Gangavddi, occupying the southern and central parts of the 
country, and Nonambavadi the northern. The correspondence of 
names shows that in the Gangadikdra and Nonaba Wokkaligas, who 
form, especially the first, so large a proportion of the agricultural class, 
we have the descendants of the subjects of those provinces. The advent 
of Muhammadan and Mahratla immigrants caji without much difficulty 
be assigned to the right time, and that of Europeans is well known. 
The vicissitudes through which the country has passed will prepare us 
to find a great admixture of castes and people. Accordingly, no fewer 
than 113 diflerent names of castes and 382 recognized subdivisions 
occur in the last Census Report for 1891. The number of sub- 
divisions actually returned, however, is stated to have been no less 
than 864. 



POPULATION 

The first census was taken in 1 840-1 and the next in 1851-2, since 
which period annual returns were made up until 1871, when a census 
more minute and exact was carried out. The latter indeed may 
probably be considered the only real census obtained by actual enumer- 
of the people ; the older kkdneshumdri estimates having been 

lerally formed, it is believed, by multiplying the ascertained number 
of families by a figure assumed to be the average number of members 
composing each. Nevertheless the figures, so far as any are available, 
are not without interest 




2l8 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



Ycif. 


Hindtu. 


MubammaiUiti. 


Othen. 


Tocal. 


iSol 








1.969.493 


1804 


a»094.359 


77.395 


... 


2.171.754' 


1833 


... 


... 


... 


3,500.000' 


1841 


... 




"' 


3.050.713 


1851 


... 


... 


>.* 


3.426.45S 


11^53 


... 


,.. 


... 


3,460.696 


1854 




,,. 


... 


3.SOI.2S3 


1855 




... 


... 


3.535.441 


1856 


3.476.966 


152,611 


..< 


3.629.577 


1857 


3.447.944 


161. 160 


... 


3,609, 104' 


1858 


3.557tiio 


1S1.S17 


.... 


3,738.927 


1859 


3.621,723* 


200,500' 


■ < . 


3,822,223 


i860 






... 


3,821,000 


1863 






.... 


3,872.209 


1864 


... 


..• 


... 


3,895.687 


1865 


... 


■ •• 


... 


4.013,601 


1866 








3.915.721 \ Famine 


'^2. 


3.724.17S 


172.25s 


14.30* 


3,9'o.735) "i^^^ 


tS6S 


... 


... 




3,909.121 


1K69 


3.793.973 


182,654 


29.713 


4,006,340 


1S70 


3.839.679 


189.27a 


27.815 


4,108,607 



The results of the regular census of 1871 showed that the population 
must have been under-estimated in the previous valuations.* But so 
far as these afford any data for calculation, the rate of Increase in the 
decade 1841-1851 was 12*3 per cent; in the 9 years 1851-1860 
the rate was 11*5 per cent ; and in the decade 1860-1870 it was 7-5 
per cent 

' Kxclutling Balam and the recently inlerchftngcd dlMrlds. thcnumber was 202,261. 
A considerable migraiion lociU place from the districts alloitcti lu (he Ni^mm into 
Dudballapur and thai neigh Ixjurhood, but nearly the whole of ihestf persons gradually 
returned after the cession of thti-sc ])rovinces to ihe Coni^jany. Many families which 
had emigrated to Karamahal in 1 792, when it was cedctl to the Comi»ny, now returned 
to Mysore. Alx)Ui 200,000 ^icrsons also emigrated temporarily from the Mahraitfl 
coimiry into Mysore, lu csca|>c from the famine which prevailed there. 

* Thin is printed in the rejHirt as 4,500,000, a total which seems ao manifestly 
wrung thai I have taken the lilierty of altering the first figure. 

" The decrease i* explained as due to the omission of the inland of Seringa|i«tam. 

* Approximate. 

* Writing in 1804, Col. Wflks has the following rcmark-s on the estimate of 
population at that jieriod :— " I am induced to 5U5[w:t some error in one of the 
ct imputations, nolwithslanding the frequenc)* in Mysore of that most fatal source of 
depo|xi1at)un, the presence of a Mahratta army. The usurpation of Haidar Ali may 
Iw considere^I as complete in 1760 ; at that time many of the districts were permanently 
(xxupied b>- Mahratta troops. (Jopal )tao Hari invaded Mysore in the same year. 
It was again invaded by Hani Visaji l*andit in 1761 ; by Madhu Kao in 1765. ^767 
and 1770 ; by Tr>-amlak Rao in 1771 ; b>' Raghunatha Rao in 1 774 ; by llari Pant 
Purkia in 1776 and 1786; and lately I have investigated on the spot and caimincd 




CENSUS TOTALS 



3t$ 



The following tabic shows the total male and female population, and 
the lotal in each District, as found by the census of 1871, compared 
with the numbers of the previous estimate : — 





KKimated Population of 


Actual Number Bs per General 1 

Centufiof ife?'. Jncwaw 




jR6(^i870. 




CKarlcL* 








I>erc««it. 


1 


Main. 


Fcmaln. 

1 


Total. 


Make 


Femaki. 


TotaU 




te- - 


356.241 


303.162 


€59,403 


414.543 


413.811 


828,354 


2S-6 


HSBir ••• 


274.S59 25'.6oi 


525.460 


309.685 309.269 6iS,954 17-6 


marfr 


25 1, 029, 245>034 


496.063 315.440 316,799 632,239 27-5 


Ur^ 


400.5J7 


362,922 


763,459 467.562 475*625 943, 'S? 307 


llunn 


330.373 


27i.42« 


592,801 


328.324 340,093 668,417 12-8 


Shimqga 


234.167 


196,053 


430,220 


258,446 240,530 498,976 l6-o 


Kadnr 


'37.593 


124,229, 


261,822 170.337 163,588 333.925 27-6 


Chitaldroog ... 


203.069 


i75.3iO| 


378.379 


a7l.5»7 
2,535.934 


259,773 53«.36o, 40*4 


Toial ... 


2.177.868 


1.930.7394.108,607 


2,519.4885.055.412 


zi-o 



Since the general census of November 1871 a general census has 
been taken on two occasions, one on the night of the 17th February 
1881, and the other on the night of the 26th February 1891, syn- 
chronous with the general census of all India on those dales. The 
results of the three may be exhibited as follows : — 



Yw. 



Mala. 



2.535.924 

2.085,842 

2,483.45 » 



Fenialo. 



2.519.488 

2,100,346 
2,460,153 



Total. 



UilTcrcnoe 
pcrceni. 



5.055.412 

4,iS6.i8.S — T7'19 
4,943,604 + 18-09 



Kc per 
square mile. 



ihc tnco. nf ihc merciless ravages conunitteil in 1791 and 1792 by Tarasurani Bhao. 
In cooicqucnce of these incessant calamities, niany dwtricts formerly well-peopled do 
no* evhitiii the vestige of a human Iwing ; ami Chitaltlrcxig District in particular may 
br orwuddcrctl as dqwiverl of the great moss of its inhabitants. 

The word vaJs^ \s applied lo ihc inhaliilants of a district who, deserting their hnmes 
oa the approach of a husUlc predatory force xuch as that of the Mahrntia^, migrate 
M mauc to aniHhcr part of the oountr)' or to inacccssililc woods and hills until the 
rfrputurc of the enemy. And no testimony could he more emphatic in a slate of 
faafaitaal misery than the existence, In all the languages of the south, of Xhxv, Mngle 
tenn to describe what cannot be expressed in any European language btit \yy a long 
circum l(>cu tiun. ** 

* The limits of the several Dtstricls have been subject to alterations since, and do 
not therefore exactly coincide with the existing limits, though the names arc the 



fl 



azo 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



The decrease which took place in die decennial period 1871 to 1881 
was due to the great famime of 1877 and 1878. (The present popula- 
tion is somewhat greater than that of Ireland — 4,704,750 in 1891.) 

The distribution of the population by districts is as follows : — 



Ditirict. 


Appmilnuw 
Aim. 


MrIci. 

399,486 


403,508 


TottL 


Nfl.pir 
kqiurc 
mil*. 


ParaiticaKe 
tOIOuL 


Bangalore ... 


3,081 


802,994 


260 


16*34 


Kolar 


3,433 


397,655 


293.375 


591,030 


175 


11-96 


Ti'imkur 


4,367 


291. "33 


289.653 


580,786 


m 


1175 


.Mysore 


5.07S 


580,737 


601,077 


I,iSi,8i4 


232 


2390 


Hastsan 


2,603 


255,044 


259.90S 


5'4,9S2 


197 


10*42 


Shinioga 


4,048 


275.884 


253,097 


527,981 


130 


IO-68 


Kadur 


2,6«5 


173.922 


156,141 


330,063 


123 


667 


Chiulclroog... 


4,010 


209.590 


204.394 


413,984 


103 


8-38 



The classification of the people according to the main heads of 
religious belief gives the following results :— 



Hindus 

Jains 

Muhammaclans 

Chmtians ... 

Others (Parsi, Sikh, Bnihmo) 


Ma]«». 




TotaL 


FcrotntaB*- 


3*324,499 

7.116 

131,473 

20,306 

57 


2,314,605 
6.162 

17.829 
57 


4,639,104 

13.278 

252.973 

38.135 

114 


93*84 

■27 

511 

77 


TotiU 


a»483.4Si 


2.460,153 


4.943.604 





I 



Compared with the similar table for 1871 it appears that Hindus have 
diminished by 125 per cent., while Muhanimadans have increased by 
■98, and Christian.s by '27, which together exactly make up the 
difference. It should however be taken into account that the total 
population in the same period fell by 2*5 per cent. 

Hindus. — Under the term Hindu have been included all natives of 

this part of India who do not properly come under one of tlie other 
headings. The Hindus arc nominally divided into four castes, which 
arc entirely separate from each other, and between whom no connection 
by marriage or otherwise is permitted. The distinction is complete in 
every sense, hereditar)* and personal, and it is impossible for any 
member of these castes to be other than what his birth made him, 
unless indeed he should transgress some law bintling on his particular 
caste beyond the possibility of pardon or expiation. In such a case the 




CASTE 



221 



punishment is expulsion from the community or loss of caste, when the 
unfortunate individual becomes contemptible in the eyes of all, and his 
place henceforth is amongst the lowest Pariahs, the dregs of Hindu 
society. Even the most despised caste would decline to admit him on 
terms of social equality, even though he had been originally one of the 
heaven-tx)m Brahmans. The first or highest caste is the Brahman or 
priestly class ; the second the Kshatriya or military class ; the third is 
the Vaisya class, composed of husbandmen and merchants ; and the 
fourth is that of the SiSdras, and comprehends artisans, labourers and 
agriculturists.^ Besides these there are many castes unrecognized by 
the four grand divisions, whose manners and customs are governed by 
bws of their own, and who are as exclusive in their way as any of the 
four above mentioned. 

Caste,' originally called iwr^a, colour, but now more usually Jdfi^ 
binh, was doubtless at first a distinction of race based on difference of 
complexion, and intended to prevent degeneration from intermixture 
of the fair-skinned Ar)an conquerors with the dark-skinned earlier 
settlers, or the black aboriginal tribes. The tradition of the common 
origin of the four pure castes or tribes from the head, arms, thighs, and 
feet uf Brahma, points to them collectively as forming eventually one 
nation^ each class distinguished frotn the others by reason of its 
occupation, which \ras probably hereditary. But numerous other 
mixed castes were always found among the great body of the popula- 
tion. The statements in Manu suffice to show that endless ramifica- 
tions had taken place in his time through intermarriages of difl^erent 
castes, and he assigns separate names to an enormous number of new 
cutes that sprang from these connections. " Indeed, it is evident that 
some of the lowest castes, perhaps many, were in part derived from the 
tughest." says Mr. Sherring, who also writes : — " Had the creation of 
new castes continued to be made in succeeding ages with the same 
ease and rapidity as they were in these earlier times, it is plain that the 
caste system would have destroyed itself, in two ways, — first, by the 
multiplication of new castes throughout the land, and, secondly, by the 
intermarriages of all the castes. The increased strictures imposed upon 
the castes, esi>ecially upon the primary ones, and the prohibition of 
irregular marriages — that is, of marriages of members of one caste with 



* Strang o^tpontion was manifested nn the pnrt of certain classes in the census of 

II (o lie graded among Sudras, accompanied wiih sUcnuous efforts lo tie included 

f>ng Brahmann. 

From rasfa^ Poriugiiwe for race or hrecd. According to a passage in the Miiha 

itA, the colour of Hrahmans is white, of Kshalrtya.% red, of X'aLsyas yellow, of 

56dns Mack. 





937 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



members of another, — gave in later years strength Vix\6. vitality fo a 
system which otherwise must soon have become extinguished. At 
what q}och this fundamental change in its constitution was made is not 
known." ^ 

In Mysore the various castes a.re probably as numerou.H as in any 
other part of India of equal extent The natives of the Province, by a 
fanciful arrangement, recognize loi as the limit to the total number, 
hut in the enumerators' forms of the recent census it was found that 864 
castes had been returned, more than double the number given in 1871. 
Some of these, though returned in different localities under different 
names, doubtless belonged originally to the same stock. A few famihes 
or individuals probably separated from the main body, and having 
removed to another part of the country, either adopted a new name or 
were given one by their neighbours. 'I'here is ever)' reason to believe 
that in some similar manner the number of castes is even now con- 
stantly increasing. Disputes arise, and the caste dindes into two 
factions, each headed by some influential man or family; they refuse 
to associate with uacb other or to intermarry, and unless in a short 
time some common interest com[>els the parties to re-unite, a separate 
caste or sub-division is permanently formed, which adopts some 
peculiarity uf its own to distinguish it from the original. 

The agricultural, artis;in and trading communities are termed pa^as 
or professions, which are eighteen in number. These pafjas are divided 
into two factions, called Bala-gai and Yeda-gai, or right and left hands. 
A large number of castes belong to one or other of these divisions. 
All Brahmans, Kshairiyas, and most of the Siidras are considered 
neutral. Although the right- and left-hand factions are said to include 
only eighteen trades, there are many castes which adhere to one side 
or the other, but their numbers do not seem to he taken into 
account. 

The following are the castes composing the two factions : — 



Kif^ht-Aand Faction. 



iJAOJ^jiga .. 
Wokkaliga 
Gaoigft .. 



LArta 
<iujnr^ii 



Traders. 
Cultivators. 
OiUucn who yoke 

only one bullock 

to the mill. 
Dyers. 

Mahratto. tnuleni. 
(jujarit merchant*. 



Ufi-hand Faition, 




Pinchdla, com 


wring :— 




Bactagi ... 


... Carpenters. 




Kanchugira 


... Copiwr or 

smiths. 


bnss 


Kamiii^ra 


... Iron smiths. 




Kal-kulit^ 


... Stone mason*, and 


Akasdie... 


... Goldsmilhs. 





< IfittJu Tribes and CoiUs^ Inlro. xWi. Giitamtpulra Salakarni, who reigned in 
the second eeniun-, » said, in an inscription at Nasik, to have prevented the mixing 
of the four casU*s (rwrwa). — Ank. Surt>. IV. /nd., iv., 109. 




PANAS 



833 



Kimiii 


I^lxiurcrs. 


Bhiri 


A clasfi of Nagana 


Jaina 


Jain tradtrs. 




traders. 


Kuniha 


Shepherds. 


Wvdnga 


Weavers. 


Kambira 


Potters. 


Heggdnigu 


Oilmen who yoke 


Agau 


Waxherracti. 




two bidkKks to 


BcsU 


FUhcrmen tir I'a- 




the mill. 




Innquin l>«ircrs. 


Golla or Dhanapak 


Cowherds who 


Padnusdile 


A class of weavers. 




transport money. 


Naytnda 


Barlwrs. 


B^da 


Munters. 


Uppim 


Salt -makers. 


Viikula 


Cultivators. 


Chilra^ira 


I*amters. 


Pa]Ji ur Tigala ... 


Market gardeners. 


Go«a 


Cowherds. 


MAdiga, the lowest left-hand caslc. 


Holcya, the lowoi 


right-hand casle. 







The Banajigas and Linga Banajigas are the foremen of the right- 
hand faction. They say that all the eighteen paKtas or professions 
enumerated above belong to them, and that the nine patjas of the left- 
hand are separate. The Pdnchdias and Nagartas, who are at the head 
of the left-hand faction, contend that the eighteen panas are equally 
divided between the two factions, and that the nine above enumerated 
belong to them. In the main it is evidently a struggle for precedence 
btrlween the artisans and the traders, or between followers of the old- 
established handicrafts and innovators who brought in the exchange of 
commodities with other parts, supported by producers and ministers to 
Inxury. It has been found impossible to obtain a uniform, authentic, 
and complete list of the castes composing each Faction, but the state- 
iDcni above is only doubtful in the case of one or two of the inter- 
mediate castes, and perhaps Komatis should take the place of Jains, 
and Torej-a that of Vakula, The works referred to as authorities are 
Sakyddri Khanda and EHh' a-vijaya^ both said to be of the time of the 
rise of Vijayanagur in the fourteenth century, but the information has 
not been found in the former, and the latter work is not forthcoming. 

The origin of the distinction between the two divisions is founded 
on fable,' and is said to have taken place at Conjeveram, where the 
goddess Kali placed certain castes on her right hand and others on 
her left. The two parties have ever since disputed as to the relative 
honour accorded to each side. The division appears to be of compara- 
tively modem origin, as no mention of it has been found in any ancient 
work.* It is, moreover, confined entirely to the south of India. Each 



' There is also a right- and lefi*hand divi»on of Sakti worshippers, the riles r^ the 
Jlonner being princijially magical, uf the latter bloody and Uccnlious. But there 
jrems to be no cooneciion lietween the cases. 

- There is indeeil a doubtful pavaigc in the A/ahawauso which naay l>c supposed to 
rrfer to it, and if .so, the institution would seem to \)c of great antiquity. When the 
findya princess was sent from Madura to Ce>-]un, in response to an embassy hoXn 




A 



324 



ETHN^OGRAPHY 



party insists on its exclusive rights to certain privileges on all public 
festi\*als and ceremonies, and it not unfrequently happens that one side 
usurps the supposed and jealously guarded rights of the other. On 
such occasions a faction fight is almost sure to ensue. Cases are 
recorded where the carrying of an umbrella, or wearing particular 
coloured flowers in the turban, has given rise to severe outbreaks 
accompanied by bloodshed. The opposition between the two divisions 
is still kept up, but apparently not with the same bitterness as in former 
times. In fact some of the castes seem in the late census to have been 
averse to own themselves as belonging to either hand, preferring to 
admit adhesion only to the eighteen pana or the nine pana, while over 
100,000 made nt) return at all in the matter. The figures actually 
obtained were, (,693,461 as belonging to the eighteen pana (the right- 
hand), and 503,439 as belonging to the nine pana (the left-hand). 

The right-hand claim the exclusive privilege of having twelve pillars 
in the pandal or shed under which their marriage ceremonies arc 
performed (allowing to the left only eleven) ; of riding on horse- 
back in processions, and of carrying a flag painted with the figure of 
Hanumdn.' 

The two factions are also styled D^ and P^te (in some places 
N4du). The reason given is that Linga Banajigas, who are at the head 
of the right-hand division, not being original natives of the place, were 
called Desavalas or outsiders, and the others P^^c or Ndduvalas. 

In the recent census of 1891 the old caste gradation has been set 
aside in favour of classifications according to occupation, and, as 
regards Hindus, according to the numerical importance of the castes. 
The results of the former are given under the following prescribed 
heads :— 

CUux of OccupuJsn 

A Agricultural 

B Professional 

C Commercial 

D Artisan and Village menial 

£ Vagrant minor Artimns and Per formers, &c. 

Races and natioDRliUes 

Others, not stated 



Kumben 


Ptrcentac* 


1,665.442 


33*69 


290,704 


5-88 


470,570 


9-52 


».«77.94I 


37-99 


344,055 


6-96 


291.168 


5-89 


3.724 . 


0-07 



The following is a different return of occupations based on sources of 
livelihood. Of the total number set down as thus supporting them- 
selves the actual workers or bread-winners form only 34*27 percent, 
the remainder being dependants, chiefly women and children : — 



king Vija>-a soliciting her hand in mamage, she is said (according to one version) to 
have been accompflnicd by n thousand mcmJxrrs of the eighteen castes and five dif- 
ferent classes nf workmen. ' For caste ins^ntn, sec Ind. Ant. iv, 345. 



^^^^^^^^^^^OCCOPA^OJ^^^^^^^^^ia^^^^^ 


B C1m» of OonipUioQ Mala Fcmalei ToUj Perceiitsfie ^^^| 


H (^.^vcmment 122,327 ... I (3,838 .. 236,165 ... 477 ^^^ 


■ I'luturc and Agricul- ^^H 


1 turc 1,685,445 - • ».630,558 •-• 3.3»6.oo3 ... 6707 ^H 


■ Penoral sorice .. 55>i82 ... 54.157 •■• 109,339 -■. 2*21 ^^1 


H PrepanuoD of ma- ^^H 


H lerial substances . 221,819 ... ai3,6io ... 434,429 ... 8*7$ ^^^ 


^^_^ Commerce, Transport ^^H 


^M and Storage - 90,094 ... 87,284 ... 177,378 ■■ 358 ^H 


^ ProfesMons 40,187 ... 39.825 ... 80,012 ... r6i ^^H 


Indefinite and Indc- ^^| 


pendent ... 268.397 ... 321,881 ... 590.278 ... 11-92 ^^H 


Analysis of the preceding table into the various prescribed orders ^^| 


supplies the Tollowing further information. The actual number of ^^H 


separate occupations is 634. To the percentage of each on the ^^B 


population of the State has been added, for comparison, the percentage ^^M 


of sinailar occupations in British India : — ^^H 


I'oial Percentage tn 
Uywre India 


ToiaI PcTCvntace in ^^^| 
Mywre India ^^H 


CoTerniiient — 


MctaU ^^H 


AdministTSi- 


Preciou!! ^^H 


^^ 213,751... 4-32... 1-95 


Stones ... 73.602... r49... 1-33 ^^m 


Defence .. 22,233... 0*45... 023 


C»Iass and ^^H 


Service of 


Earthen • ^^H 


oahcfSiaies t8i ... „ ... O'lS 


ware ... 37,42 [ ... 0-55.,. 0-82 ^^H 




Wood and ^H 


Hsture and 


Cane ... 33,«77- 067 ... 150 ^^M 


Agriculture— 


Gunu, Drugs ^^^| 


Livestock 23,106... 0*47... 1*27 


and Dyes 2,843.. O'o6... 0*14 ^^H 


Agnculiure 3.292.897 ... 66'6i ... 5979 


Leather ... 24,459... 0*49... 1-14 ^^M 


ttnoaml Set- 


Commerce, ^^^B 


tkc — 


Transport and ^^H 


Domestk & 


Storage- ^H 


Sanitary... lo9,339- 221 -. 3*91 


Commerce 160,967... 3*26... 1*63 ^^^| 

Transport ^^H 


hcpuaiiun of 


andStOTBgc 16,411... 033... 138 ^^M 


lUteriais- 


Professions— ^^H 


Food and 


I^eamed and ^^^| 


Drink 62,819... 1-27... 507 


Artistic ... 76,980,.. 1*56... 1*97 ^^H 


light and 


Sport and ■ 


Fael ... 23,188... 0-47... 1*23 \ Amuse- T 


Buildings... 30,508... 0*62 .. 0*50 


ments ... 3.032... 0*06. .. 005 


Vefaidcsand 


Indctintte and 


VesficU ... S62.. 003... 0-05 


Independent^ 


Supplemen - 


U nskilled 


laiy articles 10,057... 0*20. ,. 0-40 


Labour . . 493.678... 9*99 -. 8-87 


Textile Fa- 


Undefined 2,826... 0*06... 0*54 


brics and 


Independent 


Drrt* ... 145.493- 2-94... 4-39 


of work ... 93.774 ■• 1-90... 1-66 

Q 1 



ETHNOGRAPHY 

A supplementary table shows the numbers of those who combine with 
their hereditary occupations a certain amount of land cultivation 



Government 

l*arfure and Agri- 
culture 

IVrsonal service ... 

Preparation of ma- 
terials 



8,333 

3»7 
3.583 



13,100 



Pn-ccnt 



No 



24"7 Commerce 2,138 

Professions 1,706 

t *a , Intlefinitc and Indc- 

IO-6 1 pendent 4>6S7 



389 



Total ... 33,834 



Pkt cam 

,. 6-1 
. 4-8 



139 



The classification of the main Hindu castes according to numerical 
strength yields the following results, the percentage to the total popu- 
lation being also shown in the case of those above 100,000. The 
capital letters indicate the class of occupation a.s contained in the first 
table above : — 

Over 100,000. 



Wokkaliga A ,-. 
Holeya ... D ... 
Ling:fyila ABC. 
Kunilxi ... D ... 
Kfidiga U . . 


1.341.849 
520.493 
483.159 
349,037 
239.S7S 


■ 27-14 
.. 10-51 

.. 977 
.. 7-06 
.. 484 


lief la 

Hrihroana 
Golla ' .. 
Banajiga ... 
Wochlfl ... 


E 
B 
D 

C 
E 


... 217,128 . 
... 183.541 
... 128.995 . 
.- 114,735 
... 107,203. 


4 "39 

■ 371 
2^ 

2 32 

. a-i6 






50,000 to lOO.ODO. 








BesU 

AkkawHe 

UpiKtra 


D ... 
D ... 
D ... 


99,897 
98.181 
89.123 


Xcyigim ... 
.\Kajrfi ... 
Tigala ... 


... 


... D ... 
... D ... 

.. A ... 


86.986 
85.671 
56.710 






20,000 to 50,000. 








Mardta 

Kumiifiira 

I'^liKU 

lAmbdni 

N^yindft 


A .. 
]) ... 
D ... 
A ... 
D ... 


44,446 
40,809 

39.937 
39. J 37 
37.296 


Giiijiiga 
Kumati 
Koracha . . 
Xagnrta ... 
Kshatriya ... 


... 


... D ... 

... C ... 
... A 
... C ... 

... A ... 


35.80S 
29.054 
24.494 
22.964 
21.795 






10,000 10 30,ooa 








Sicini 


B ... 


19,987 1 Darji 

5,000 10 10,000. 


... 


... D ... 


10.664 


Richevar ... A B D E ... 

J6gi E ... 

Ba*lagi D ... 


9,554 Naiuva 
9,410 Kammira... 
8,646 Miidali ... 


E 


H ... 
.. D ... 
.. C ... 


7.476 
6,250 

5.437 






1,000 to 5.00a 








3CMa 

Domhii 

UcIa 

^A^iga 


. E ... 

. E .. 
. C .. 
. D . 


4.261 

2.500 
2.046 
1.426 


Bhat Rjiju .. 

Disari 

Irulign 
Budabudike.. 




... B ... 
... B ... 
... B ... 
... E ... 


1.388 
1,178 
1.156 
1,092 




KSHATn/YA 



227 



Garutli^ ... 

MAchi 

Sannyisi .., 

RlIc 

G<«i>i 
Kanchugiira 
Jaligani 
Rftirigi 

Xayar 

KanaJfkan .. 
Sillekyiu ,. 



,000. 
Gujar^li 

Baniya 

Ifimtialiga ,„ 
Marvidi ... 
I'antjiram ... 

UrijTi 

Karma 

Kiyast 

Sioiyar 

Multani 

Ja' 



The totals of these groups may be thus stated, showing the number 
of castes under each and the percentage to the total Hindu population: — 



10 cartes of over too.ooo 

6 „ 50.000 t(j 100,000 

10 „ 30,000 to 50,000 

3 „ 10,000 to 20.000 

6 „ 5,000 to 10,000 

8 M 1.000 10 5,000 ... 

24 ,, bcluw 1,000 



Total 

3>6«5.7i5 

516,568 

335.740 

J0.651 

46.773 

15.047 

4.922 



The classes contained in the first table of occupation arc subdivided 
into certain groups, and the different castes may be described in the 
order in which they fall under the-se heads. 

In the Agricultural class (A) the first group is called "military and 
dominant," and comprises Kshatriya, Mahratta and Rachevar. 

Kshatliya. — The total number is 21,824, composed principally of 
12,287 Kshatriyas, 7,895 Rajputs, and 1,629 Rijapinde. Under the 
first occur the following subdivisions, — Bais, Bintaktir, Bondili, Dhitri, 
Govar, Kanisi, Kotari, Rijakula, Riju (Kanda, Kannada and MopUr). 
The Rajput tribes are,— Cham, Chandrabansi, Chhattri, Chavan, 
Hindustani, Rajput Gauda, Rohila, Singh, SdlAr, Siirajbansi, Thdkilr 
(Chandra, Dekal, (layrl, f iahar^'ariya and Navi), Talukhandiya and 
Taml>«51i. Under Rajapinde are included Arasu, Barla .Arasu, and 
Komarapatta. There are also 1 2 Kodaga or Coorgs, The distribution 
in the Districts is as follows : — . 



Ostc. 


i 1 


a 

J 




l\l 


1 1 


KshatriyB 

Kajapinde 


3.455 7^3 
1.857 947 

30 68 


898 
9a 


3.740 
i.6n 

'.3*7 


1,347 1.205 
364 1.668 
— 34 


],450 { 4(0 
166 92 
98 1 - 


Tou! 


4.342 1 1,798 


1.980 6,668 


1.7" 3.897 1. 714 1 502 



ttS 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



The Kshatriyas and Rajputs arc principally in the army and poli 
The Rajapinde includes the Arasu, lo which belongs the Royal family 
of Mj'sore, and other castes connected with the ruling house. 

Marata, or Mahratta. — There are 44,446 of these, of whom over 
10,600 are in each of the Bangalore and Mysore Districts, 4,640 in 
Kolar, and about 3,000 in each of the other Districts. The sub- 
divisions are said to be, ^ Bhan iya, Baru va. K inc. Kshatrabhanu, 
Lankekara, Afanga, Ramla, Bhilsa and K-umari ; Kinu and Bhdsa 
being more numerous than the others. Their principal occupation is 
military senice, especiaUy as cavalrj' and rough riders. But the 
majority have for some time past taken to cultivation and menial ser- 
vice. The Mahrattas are commonly called Ax^ by the Mysore people. 

Raohev^r, — Those belonging to the Agricultural class number 3,696, 
including the subdivision of Telugu Rdchevar, and 66 Ranagara. More 
than a third are in Mysore District, 870 in Bangalore, half that number 
in Hassan, Kolar, and Tumkur, with 10 in Shimoga. There are no 
Rachevar in Chitaldroogj but it has 15 Ranagara. Both claim a royal 
connection. 

The second agricultural group is the most important one of Cul- 
tivators, and contains 128,168 IJng^yita, 1,342,882 Wokkaliga, and 
56,7:0 Tigala, distributed as shown below, with 117 Ndyar,^ nearly all 
in the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore, and 559 Pille,^ mostly in 
Mysore, Kolar, and Bangalore Districts. 



Cum. 


J 

U 

s 

> 




J* 

I 


2 


X 




j 


Ung;lyita 
Wokkaliga ... 
TigRla 


13.194 

225,511 

29,192 


1.4^1 

163,160 

10,156 


8,971 

179,206 
14.718 


5a.a64 

325.557 
1,222 


19,260 

»7i.323 

714 


13.9581 9.943 

'35.069 73.496 
'97 491 


9.157 
69.560 

30 


Total 


267.897 


174.737 202,895 379»043 


191.297 


149.224 83,930 


78.737 



I 



The principal divisions of the IJn^dyita in this class are Gaudamane 
58,487, Malava 795, and Panchdchira (iauda 68,886 ; which include 
the subdivisions Gauliga, Gurusthala, Nonaba and Sdda. 

Wokkaliga* — In addition to 163,502 returned simply by this name, 
the following are the most important tribes: — Gangadikdra 593,205, 
Morasu 131,950 (besides Beral-koduva 8,066), Sida 106,407, Reddi 
(Kodati, Peddakanti, Pikanati, Nerd^i, Kamme, Honne, and Hcma), 
84,653, Kunchatiga 84,504, Nonaba 63,803, Hajepaika 15,570, Hdlu 
14,778, Ha!]ikAra 13,492, Telugu 12,316, Velldla (Bellaia and Tuluva) 
* Inctuding .\chpine, Agamud[ and Pan&n. ■ Including Ka|{ar and Vellila. 




339 



,842, Uppina Kolaga 9,842, Dasa 9,433, Musaku 8,754, Filya 4,116, 
Loddugim 3,744, L^lagonda 1,959, Svalpa 899, Nadu 588, Aramudi 
242, Koiegdra 218, Yellamakipu 171, Konkariiga 159, Kanesilu 137, 
Toiagdra 1 1 7, VcInjSti 26 The following subdivisions are not separately 
returned : — A'di, Agni, Agramudi, Aladakdpu, Angalika, Bachanige, 
Badagar, BejagUde, Belakuvidi, Bhogdr, Chittala, Dasavaiitige, 
Gadakanti, Oausaoige or Gosangi, Ghaniya, Hosadevara, Kamawokkal, 
Kannada, Karale, Kariga, Kiiru, Karukal, Kolama, Koluva, Konda- 
katte, Konga, Koratakipu, Kottadevarakapu, Kumbi, Kudika-wokkal, 
Kdlibedoga, Kunte, Malavaru, Mudali, Musaku, Muttu, Fadayachin- 
a>'akan, Palayar, Pdlyakar, Halyag^r-gauda, Fdmir, Panasakipu, 
Panneri, Pelagunda, Peuigesdlina, Piida, Punamale, Rdyaroddugdra, 
Redf'i (Anche, Arava, Bellala, Kammadi, Kipu, Kondi, Neita, Raju, 
Tenugu, and Vadaga), Sime, Sirdevara, Silabhaira, Sole, S'oshya, 
Togaia, Tuluva, Valasalcapu, Valu, Vanta, Vasudeva^ Velama, 
Virabhadrakapu, Veildla (Jahala, Lingakani and P.-inc^ya), Yeda- 
yellama, Yalanati, Yalavolu, Y^Iumaneyavaru. 

The following statement, showing the location of the principal great 
dasses in the several Districts, is instructive : — 



WoUtalisa. 



Monsu ... 

Raid) ... 
kunrhaliga. 
Xooatu ... 

\Uh: ... 

JI.1 hlcilre 



105,284 

46,505 

3.367 

24,466 

11,840 

159 



3 
2,414 



510 64,478 

84,263^ 997 

4,556] 8,891 

40,2671 1 .640 



663 



360 



44.23 
30.654 



5.«48 



27 ». 9351 '26,443 

21 138 
3,0781 4,194 

8,503' 352 



3.488 
2,010 



3,409 



3,828 

7. 



6,Si8 
'»399 



9.081' 

32' 

39.669 
1. 014 

8,082, 
8.552' 
I3.576I 



238 

935 



U.386 

4 

14.664 

355 

1,614 

n,ri9 

3.994 

7.7»9 

&>2 



2,089 

37,988 
8.056 

10,758 
3,86s 



125 



The Gangadikdra are the most numerous of the Wokkaligas, being 
over 44 per cent, of the whole number, and purely Kannada. They are 
found principally in the centre and south of the country, and represent 
the subjects of the ancient province of Gangavadi, a Ninety-si.v Thou- 
sand country, which formed an important part of the Ganga empire. The 
name Gangatjikdra is a contraction of Gangavatlikara. At the present 
day the dangadikdras are followers some of Siva and some of Vishnu. 
Of the former some wear the iinga and others not These sects 
neither eat together nor intermarry. The guru of the Vishnu wor- 
shippers is the head of the Sri-\'aishnava Brahmans, who lives at 
Melukote. In addition to being ciilti\'ators, the Gangadikaras act as 
farm labourers and as porters. 



^ 



»30 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



The Morasu art' Wokkaligas chiefly of Kolar and Bangalore Districts. 
They appear to have been originally immigrants from a district called 
Morasa-ndd. to the east of this country, whose chiefs formed settlements 
in the neighbourhood of Nandidroog. The section called BeraI-koclu%'*i 
(or finger-giving) had a strange custom, which, on account of its 
cruelty, was put a stop to by Oovcmment Every woman of the seci, 
previous to piercing the ears of her eldest daughter preparator>* to her 
being betrothed in marriage, had to suffer amputation of the ring and 
little fingers of the right hand. This was performed, for a regulated 
fee, by the blacksmith of the village, who chopped off the last joint of 
each finger with a chisel. If the girl to be betrothed were motherless, 
the mother of the boy to whom she was to be betrothed was bound to 
submit to the mutilation unless she had already made the sacrifice. 
The story invented to account for this barbarous custom is given in the 
first edition. Since its prohibition the women content themselves with 
putting on a gold or silver finger-stall or thimble, which is pulled off 
instead of the end of the finger itself. *Jhe principal sanctuar)- of the 
Morasu \Vokkaligas is at Siti-betta in the Kolar taluq, where there is a 
temple of \'frabhadra. 

Of the other large tribes of Wokkaligas, the Sada abound mostly in 
the north and west They include Jains and iJngayics, Vai-shnavas, 
and Saivas. Not improbably they all belonged to the first originally. 
In the old days many of them acted in the Kanddchdr or native 
militia. They are not only cultivators but sometimes trade in 
grain. The Redtli are chiefly in the east and north, and have numerous 
subdivisions. To some extent they seem to be of Telugu origin, and 
have been supposed to represent the subjects of the ancient Rattavadi, 
or kingdom of the Raitas. 

The Nonaba, in like manner, are relics of the ancient province of 
Nolambavadi or Nonambavndi, a Thirty-two Thousand countr)', situated 
principally in the Tumkur and Chitaldroog Districts. It is in these 
parts and the west that they are now located. At the present day they 
are by faith Ijngdyits, the residence of their chief guru being at 
Gandikere, near Chiknayakanhalli. The acknowledged head of the 
Nonabas, though no more than an ordinary culti\-ator, is the present 
descendant of an original Honnappa Gauda, and named after him : he 
lives at Hosahalli, near Gubbi. 

The H:ilepaika, inhabiting the northwest, are of interest, and have 
already been dcsmbedalwvc (p. 212), The Halu Wokkaligas are most 
numerous in Kadur and Hassan Districts. As their name implies, 
they combine the keeping of cows or buffaloes and sale of milk ijidiu) 
with other agricultural pursuits. The Haljikara are also largely engaged 




TIGALA 



23* 



with cattle, and the breed of their n.imcis the best in the Amrit Mahal. 
The Ldlagonija, principally confined to Bangalore District, arc not only 
farmers, but hirers-out of bullocks, gardeners, builders of mud walls and 
traders in straw, etc. The Vellalas are the most numerous class of 
Wokkaligas in the Ci\'il and Military Station of Bangalore, 

There do not appear to be any peculiarities desen'ing of notice in 
regard to the numerous other classes of Wokkaligas, who are only 
distinguishable by name. And as in each successive census a good 
many designations returned in the previous one do not recur, it is 
evident that some classes are known by more than one name, and 
probably use diflerenl ones on difTurcnt occasions. 

Tigala. — These are skilful kitchen and market gardeners, mostly of 
Tamil origin, though they have long lost the use of that language. In 
addition to those called simply by the tribe-name, the following 
principal divisions are noted : — UHi, Vanne, PaUi, Re(l(Ji, Aravji, and 
Tola, as well as the subdivisions Agra Vannia, Agni, Brahmarishi, 
Uharmarajukapu, Enn^ri, Gauda, Hale Tigala, HaHi, Kandapalli, 
Kannada, Pandya, Raja, Samba, Vannikula, and Y;in:idi. Nearly a 
half are in the Bangalore District, most of the remainder being in 
Tumkur and Kolar. 

The next agricultural group is Forest and other Hill tribes, number- 
ing altogether 67,040. The following are the classes included under 
this head, with their distribution : — 



Cute. 



I i 



I 



Lunbdni 
Koracha "( 
Ktiroirm i 

Ki'l Kuruha 
IruligH ... 



5.246 

219 
1.042 





1 

j 

ai977 


t 
1 


1 


1 


i 


\ 
■1 


75» 


1.084 


2,846 


14.127 8.794 


5.243 


3.414 


2,470 


4tl69 


1.437 


4.398 2.059 


1,30' 


147 
22 


■■1? 


400 


4S 

I 


= 


8 





The LambaoJ, or Lambadi, also called Sukili and Brinjdri, have the 
following subdivisions :—Banjdri, Bhdtya, Dhdmavatpida, Khetavat, 
Kimavatpdda, and Sabdvat. They are a gipsy tribe that wander about 
in gangs, accompanied by large herds of bullocks, especially in the 
hilly and forest tracts where there are few good roads, engaged in the 
transport of grain and other produce. They first prominently came to 
notice towards the end of the last century, during the Mahratta and 
Mysore wars, when immense numbers of them were employed by the 
armies of both sides as foragers and transporters of supplies required 



33* ^^"^ ETHXOGRAPITY 

for the troops.1 Of late years many of them have been employed as 
labourers on cofTec-estates, and some have even partially abandoned 
their vagrant life, and settled, at least for a time, in villages of their 
own. These, called Thdncjas, are composed of clusters of their usual 
rude wicker huts, pitched on waste ground in wild places. The women 
bring in bundles of firewood from the jungles for sale in the towns. 

The Lambanis speak a mixed dialect, called Kutni, largely composed 
of Hindi and Mahratti corruptions. In a police report regarding these 
people, the late Dr. Shortt stated, ** that their social system is unique, 
and that they are guided exclusively by their own laws and customs ; 
that each community is governed by a priest, who exacts and receives 
implicit obedience, and who exercises, under the cloak of religion and 
supernatural agency, the undisputed power of life and death over them. 
They maintain the closest secrecy regarding their customs, and would 
sooner forfeit life than di\'iilge them. Infanticide, human sacrifice, 
witchcraft and sorcery prevail among the different communities, who 
can recognize one another by masonic signs." 

The women are distinguished by a curious and picturesque dress, 
completely different from that worn by any other cbss. It consists of 
a sort of tartan petticoat, with a stomacher over the bosom, and a 
mantle, often elaborately embroidered, which covers the head and 
upper part of the body. The hair is worn in ringlets or plaits, hanging 
down each side of the face, decorated with small shells, and terminating 
in tassels. The arms and ankles arc profusely covered with trinkets 
made of bone, brass, and other rude materials. 'Jlie men wear tight 
cotton breeches, reaching a little below the luiee, with a waist-band 
ending in red silk tassels, and on the head a small red or white 
turban. 

It appears" that the Lambanis here have twenty-six clans, and claim 
a descent from one Chdda, who left five sons, MUla, Mdta. Nathad, 
J6gda, and Bhimda. Chavan, one of the three sons of Milla, had six 
sons, each of whom originated a clan. At some remote period a 
Brahman from Ajmir married a girl of Chavan's family, and gave rise 
to the Vatftya clan, who still wear the sacred thread. AMahratufrom 
Jotpur, in northern India, also allied himself with Rathol, Chavdn's 
brother, and founded the Khamdat clan. There are no descendants 
of M6ta here, but those of Nathad are called Mirdsikat, Paradi or 
Vdgri, and live by catching wild birds. The Jdgdas are J6gis. The 

' A corrcsporwicni from the British camp at that lime icmis them " tlie worthy and 
inoffensive Hrinjaris."— Ca/. Gaz. II, 318. But they are often credited with inborn 
thieving and mnrniMling propensities. 

* Accwrdind to the Iiist Census Keport (1891). 




KORACHA 



m 



Bhimdas are itinerant blacksmiths, known as Bail Kammdr. There is 
even a class of Lambani outcastes, called Dhilya, who are drummers 
and live separately. They principally trade in bullocks. The 
I^mbAnis acknowledge the Gosayis as their gurus, and reverence 
Krishna ; also Basava, as representing the cattle that Krishna tended. 
But iheir principal object of worship is Banashankari, the goddess of 
forests. 

The Koracha and Korama have already been referred to above 
(p. a 14). Although virtually the same people, the following sub- 
divisions are separately noted. For Korachas : .Aggada, Dabbe, 
(k)ngadi, Kannatia, Telugu, Uppu, Uru. For Koramas : — Bettale, 
Gantu, Gizula, Kannada, Sett", Situbeda, Uppu, Vatjlda, Yddava, 
Yantumiile. For Koraras : — Maval, Palchank6ti, Uppu. They 
wander about with large droves of catlJe and asses, conveying salt and 
grain from one market to another. They carry with them the frame- 
work of a rude description of hut, and while one part of the tribe 
proceeds with the baggage animals, the others settle for a lime in some 
convenient spot, where they erect their huts and employ themselves in 
making mats and baskets, begging and stealing, until their proximity 
becomes a nuisance to the villagers and they are compelled to move 
on. They are described as thieves and robbers from childhood, and 
are frequently associated with Brinjaris and other vagrants in burglaries, 
dacoities, and acts of violence, often escaping detection owing to their 
complete arrangements for obtaining information. They speak Telugu 
and Tamil, and are said to have a peculiar gipsy language of their 
own, with a system of signals which enables them to converse with the 
initiated unobserved. They have no idols to which they pay particular 
homage, and only invoke Tirupati \'enkatramana when in distress, 
vowing small offerings of money to the temple should they escape. 

The men tie up their hair in a large bunch or chignon on one side 
of the top of the head, in precisely the same manner as we i^nd the 
men's hair arranged on most of the old sculptured stones of the 
country. The women wear an immense number of strings of small 
white and red beads and shells round the neck and falling over the 
bosom. 

The Kado Kuruba and Jenu Kuruba have already come under 
notice (above, p. 213), also the Irujiya, who are much like the latter; 
and certain other forest and hill tribes have likewise been referred to. 

We now pass to the Professional class (B), which, under the groups 
of Priests, Devotees, and Temple servants, includes 277,086 persons, 
distributed as follon-s, 183,451 being Br^hniana, 62,918 Lingdyita, 
19,987 Satani, 8,132 Jaina, and 2,508 various devotees. 




^34 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



Stct. 


1 


1 


H 


S 


X 


•1 


1^ 

3 


3 


Br^niana 


29,882 


33.930 


17,099 


43.o'3 


'7. '5' 


29.379 


17.072 


6.015 


Lingdyita 


6.S77 


3.347 


S.544 


11.990 


8,96s 


9.6» 


7,094 


7.885 


Sitini 


3.742 


'.937 


3,801 


4,480 


3,660 


683 


989 


696 


Jaina... 


359 


876 


i,5»6 


1,928 


1,246 


42a 


1.264 


416 


Disari. &c. ... 


381 


629 


4^3 


J02 


167 


23* 


2W 


163 



Brahmana. — The Brahmans throughout India, with a few excep- 
tions, belong, according to original location or language, either to the 
Pancha Gautja (the five tribes north of the Krishna), or to the Pancha 
Draviiia {the five tribes south of that river). The following are the 
subdivisions, together with the numbers in Mysore pertaining to each 
so far as can be gathered from the census returns of 1S91 : — 



Pamha Omnia, 




Vancha Driivida, 




Kinyakubja {N.VV.P.) ... . 


28 


Ki^iiUika or Kannada 


94,329 


Sdrasvata (Punjab) 


133 


A'mlhra or Tclugtt 


33.672 


Gauda (Delhi and Bengal) . 


.. 2,067 


Dri^-ida or Tamil 


32,853 


Maithila iBehar) 


•• ■ • 


Mahirlihlra or Mahraua 


ao.087 


Utkala (Orissa) 


11 • • 


Gurjnra or Gujarati 


2 



These seldom intermarry, and though the tribes living here have 
long been intermixed, they generally retain in their families the 

language of the country from whence they originally came. 

The Brahmans are farther subdivided into a number of gotras^ the 
original progenitors of which were seven principal rishis or sages, 
namely, Bhrigu, Angiras, Atri, Vis'vimitra, Kdsyapa, Vas'ishlha, and 
Agastya. In the unlimited ramifications of gtStras which have branched 
out from the parent stems, the line of descent is exhibited in the 
pravara or pedigree, and a man and woman of the same g(itra and 
pravara never marry together. The connection of the gotra is entirely 
in the male line, a woman on marriage being affiliated to the husband's 
gdtra. The following are the strongest gofras in Mysore, or those con- 
taining over 1,000 in each: — 



Uhiradvija . 


. 25.950 


Kaus'lka ... 


... 9,893 


Viidhula ... 2,78s 


Kisyapa 


24.151 


Kaundinytt 


- 9.074 


S'^dilya ... 2.495 


Vis'vimitra . 


. n,77i 


Harila 


... 8,471 


Maudgalya 2,252 


Vas'ishlha . 


. 11,592 


Gautama ... 


.. 5.897 


Maunabhdrga^-a 1,920 


S'rivatsa 


. 10,480 


Janiadagni... 


• -. 3.294 


Girgyayana 1,162 


A'Ueya 


. 10,307 


A'ngiroAa ... 


... 2,929 


S'aihamarshana 1,050 




BRAHMANS 



*35 



AltpKcther sixty- nine gitras are represented here, the remainder, in 
alphabetical order, being r^-Achjiita, Agastya, Ambarisha, As'valayana, 
Bidara)-ana, Karhaspatya, Ch6pagayana, Devarija» Dhanaiijaya, (iaiava, 
GauHa Sirasvaia, Chritasams'a, Havikarma, Kalakaus'ika, Kamakdyana, 
Kanva, Kapi, Kalyayana, Kosala, Kumjali, Kulsa. L6hita, Maitrtfya, 
Mdndavya, Maunjyayana, Milravasu, M6hana, Xistudhana, Par^-is'ara, 
Pirthi^-a, Paulastya^ Paurakutsa, rutamdnasa, Raj^ndra, Rathftara, 
S'alankayana, S'aliivalsa, Sankalika, Sankarshana, Sdnkhyiyana, 
Sankriti, Saniasa, S'aunaka^ Svatanlrakapi, Upanianyu, Vadhr\-as'va, 
Vaikhanasa, Vais'ampiyana, \'fimana, X'ishnuvardhana. \'ydsa. 

Kshatriyas, and others who are not Brahmans, may properly assume 
ihe g6tra of their /w/75///Ai, or family priest and domestic chaplain, who 
is of course a Brahman. But certain classes who are ambitious of 
being reckoned as Brahmans, have invented g6tras for themselves of 
apocryphal origin. 

In addition to the g<5tra, there is the s'dkha^ or particular branch or 
school of the Veda which each Brahman professes to follow in the per- 
formance of his sacrifices and rites. Classified on this basis 91,638 are 
R%-vedis, 77,972 Vajurvedis, and 12,776 Sama-vedis. Therearenone 
apparently who acknowledge adhesion to the Athar\*a veda. Some 
classes that are not Brahmans boldly i)roclaim themselves followers of 
1 fifth vedx ' 

All the Brahmans here, moreover, belong to one of three main 
iccts : — Smarta, Madhva, and S'rf^'aishnavo. The following is their 
distribution, the totals being 129,550, 32, 070, and 20,764 respectively: — 



Bret. 


^ 




1 


1 


i 

11.842 




a 
% 


1 


Smirta 


18.939 


14.803 


i3t43o 


29,9" 


23.267 


15.060 


3.299 


Uidhn 


7>309 


5.834 


3,310 


6,336 


1.057 


4.983 


1.104 


2.237 


S'rivushnava ... 


3.354 


a,689 


1.367 


6.75* 


4.161 


1.124 


863 


456 



All three sects are composed of either Vatdfkas or l^uki'kas, the 
former, those who have devoted themselves entirely to religion, and 
live on charity ; the latter, those who attend to worldly affairs. The 

1' Somcwlutt on ihe same principle lha( ihc I'rcss in l^ngland calls iiscU ihe Fourth 
*tc, supplctncnUir)' to the ihrtx- recogniTcii gm'eniiinj estates i>f king, nobles ami 




J 



w 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



distinction is merely an individual one, as different members of the 
same family may be either Vaidikas or l-aukikas according to inclina- 
tion. 

The Smdrta derive their name from smrifi, the code of revealed or 
traditional law. They worship the triad of Brahma, Siva, and Vishnu 
under the mystic syllable Om, and while admitting them to be equal, 
exalt S'iva as their chief deity. They hold the pantheistic Vedinta 
doctrine of Advaita or non-dualism, believing God and matter to be 
identical, and everything but an atom of the divinity, they themselves 
being parts of the Supreme Being. The founder of the Smarta sect 
was S'ankata or S'ankarachar)a, the Hindu reformer of the eighth 
century, and their guru is the S 'ringeri Swami, designated the Jagad 
Guru. The probably very ancient sect of the Bhagavata, or the 
Bhdgavata sampradhya, numbering 12,788, are reckoned as Smartas, 
but they incline more to Vishnu worship, and follow the Tengale in 
the time of observing the Ekadas'i fasts. The guru of the Bhdgavatas 
is at Talki(^. The distinctive marks of a Smdrta Brahman are three 
parallel horizontal lines of pounded sandalwood, or of the ashes of cow- 
dung, on the fort'liead, with a round red spot in the centre, but the 
Bhagavatas wear perpendicular Vaishnava marks. 

The Madhva are so called from Midhva or Madhvdchdrya, the 
founder of the sect, who arose in South Kanara in the thirteenth 
century. They worship both Vishnu and S'iva, but more particubrly 
the former. They profess the doctrine of I^vaita or dualism, consider- 
ing the Creator and the created to be distinct, and their final absorption 
to be in the future. It appears that they may be divided into the 
Vydsakitta and the Dasakilta. The former adhere strictly to the 
religious teachings of the founder, which are entirely in Sanskrit. The 
latter base their faith on hymns and writings in the vernacular, which 
they can understand, of persons of their sect distinguished as Odsas or 
ser\*ants of God, and they go about with musical instruments singing 
these in honour of the IJivine Being. A Madhva Brahman is known 
by a black perpendicular line from the junction of the eyebrows to the 
top of the forehead, with a dot in the centre. A Smarta may become 
a Madhva, and 2'h-e irrsA, but the former happens oftener than the 
latter. In such cases intermarriages between persons of the same 
circle are not prohibited, though they embrace different doctrines, but 
the wife always adopts the tenets of her husband. 

The S'rivaishnava, also called Aiyangar, are worshippers of Vishnu, 
as identified with his consort Lakshmi or S'ri, whence their name. 
The founder of their sect was Ram«-lnuja or Rdmdnujachdrya, who lived 
in the Chola and Mysore countries at the beginning of the twelfth 




BRAHMANS 



ni 



century, and after him they are also called Rdm^nujas in some parts of 
India. Their creed is the Vis'ish|advaita, which differs from the Dvaita 
in attributing both form and qualities to the Deity. In Mysore their 
guru is the Parakalaswami of Melukote. They arc the most exclusive 
of all the Brahmans in points of food and intermarriage, the 
orthodox among them requiring curtains to screen their food from the 
gaze of others, even their own relations and fellow sectarians. They 
form two principal divisions, the Tengale, or southern, numbering 7,161, 
and the Vadagale, or northern, numbering 12,914. The distinction 
between the two arises from dispute as to certain doctrinal points, said 
to be eighteen in number,' which were formulated some four centuries 
back, in Sanskrit and Tamil verses, by Manavd] Mahdmuni on the side 
of the Tengalc, and by Vedanta Desikar on the side of the Vaclagale, 
and the dispute has placed a gulf between the parties ever since. 
There are some differences also in social observances. The Tengale, 
for instance, do not subject widows to the tonsure, which is usual 
imong other Brahman sects. They also give more prominence 
10 the vernacular versions of their Sanskrit sacred writings. The 
S'rivaishnava are known by the tuima or trident on the forehead, 
the centre line being yellow or red, and the two outer ones white. 
The Tengale distinguish themselves from the Vadagale by continuing 
the central line of the trident in while for some distance down the 
nose. 

The three main sects above described contain nearly eighty recorded 
subdivisions, distinguished by names which are mainly territorial or 
numerical in origin. The derivation of many of the names appears to 
be unknown even to those who bear them. 

Those included under Smirta and Madhva, in alphabetical order, 
ire : — Adi S'aiva, Aruvattu-wokkalu, .A'ruvelu, A'ruvelu Niyi5gi, Ashta- 
nhasra, Badaganid, Bhdgavata-samprad<<ya, Bodhayana, Brihach- 
charana, Chit|>dvan, Des'astha, Devalaka or Sivdradhya, Dravida, Hale 
Karndtaka or Haja Kannadiga, Havika or Haiga, Hoysaniga, Kambdidr, 
Kamme (Babbar, Kannada, Ulcha and Vijayapura), Kandrfvara, 
Karade, Karnatak.^, Kasalndd, Kdtydyana, Kavarga, Ki'Inad, Konkaii- 
astho, K6ta (or Kaik<5ta and Ippatndlkaravaru), Kotfs'vara, Kus'asthala 
(or Senve), Madhva (Vaishnava and Pennattur), Mulikindd or Muri- 
kindd, NambiSri, Nandavaidfka, Niyogi, Panchagrama, Prdknat.^, 
Prathamas'ikhe (Kanva, Mddhydnjana or Ydjnavalkya), Sahavdsi, 
Sanketi, S'dr\-ar>a, S'irndrl, S'is'uvarga, S'ivalli (or Kurus'ivalli), S'likia 
YajusVdkhe, Telaghdnya, Totada Tigaja, Tulava, Uttrdji (or Ullradi), 
Vadama, Vddhyama, Vangfpuram, Vegindrl, Velndd. 

I The nuijonty arv detailed in the Census Report for 1897. 



238 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



The strongest of these divisions numerically are, — those returned 
simply as Smarta, 23,374; Badagandd, 23,019; Des'astha, 17,127; 
Kamme (Babbur, Kannada and Ulcha), 14,265; Mulikindd, 11,188; 
Hoysaniga, 8,328 ; Dravjda, 7,856; Hale Karni^aka, 7,526; Vaishnava 
(Mddhva), 7,280. 

The Baijagandd had their origin in the northern {badagd) districts 
(ftii^t and s]>eak Kannada : they r\re both Smartas and Mddhvas. 
The Des'astha arc imniii^rants from the Mahratta country, and mostly 
retain the use of Mahraiti : they are Sni^rtas and Mddh'vas, the latter 
preponderating ; but the difference of faith is no bar among them to 
intermarriage and free social intercourse. The Babbur Kamme arc 
all Smartas : the Kannada Kamme and Ulcha Kamme are both 
Smartas and Mddhvas : nearly all speak Kannada, a few Telugu also. 
The Kamme country seems to have l>een to the east of the Kolar 
District. The Mulikinad or Murikindd are Smartas from the Kadapa 
district, speaking Telugu. The present chief priest of S'ringeri is 
of this sect. The Hoysaniga, also called Vaishaniga, are chiefly 
Smartas and sj>eak Kannada. Their name may be derived from the 
old Hoysala or Hoy&una kingdom. The Draviija, Vatjama (1,454), 
and Brihachcharama or Pericharana (1,393), may be taken together: 
they are immigrants from the Tamil countr>-, and are Smartas, speak- 
ing Tamil, and a few Telugu. The Hale Karndtaka or Ha]a 
Kannadiga are mostly confined to the Mysore District, where they 
are generally village accountants. There are two branches — MdgiSr 
and S<5sile. They are nearly all Smartas, and their language is 
Kannada. Though their claim to be Brahmans was apparently not 
denied, they were for some reason, till recently, under a sort of ban, 
and often called by a nickname; but about twenty-five years ago 
they were publicly recognized by both the S'ringeri and Parakila 
mathas. Other Brahmans, however, have no intercourse with them, 
social or religious. 

Of the other sects, the A'ruvelu, or the Six Thousand (4,486), are 
both Smdrtas and Madhvas, and speak both Kannada and Telugu. 
The A'ruv^lu Niy6gi are a branch of them, who are laukikas, or 
devoted to secular callings. The Aruvat^u-wokkalu or Sixty families 
(4,997) originally formed a portion either of the A'ruvdlu or the 
Kamme, but were selected as his disciples by Vydsardya Swami, of the 
Mddhva faith, two or three centuries ago. The small sect of KambdlUr 
or T6^ada Tigala (113), mostly in Shimoga I>istricl, are al.so connected 
with the AVuvelu. Moreover, the Uttaraji or Uttaradi (425), appear 
to have branched off from the A'ruv^lu some three or four centuries 
ago, when they became the disciples of S'rfixida Raya of Venkatagiri. 




BRAHMANS 



*39 



le addition of these several offshoots would bring the number of 
the A'ruv^Iu up to 9^93 1. 

The Chitpavan (2,345) ^*'*2 Mahraitas and Smiitns. The Havika 
or Haiga (3,246) are imniigTants from Haiga, the ancient name of 
North Kanara, and they are almost entirely Lonfined to the west of the 
Shimoga District They are Sm^rtas, and arc now principally engaged 
in the cultivation of areca-nut gardens. According to trndition tlicy 
are of northern origin, and were introduced by one of the Kadamba 
kings, in the third or fourth century, from Ahiclichhatra. This would 
bring them from Rohilkand, but Ahichchhatra may be only a learned 
synonym for Haiga (see note above, p. 216). i'he name Havika is 
said to be a corruption of Hav>'aka, or conductor of sacrifices, and 
perhaps it was for such purposes that they were imported at a time 
when there were no Brahmans in those parts. The small communities 
of Kandavara (2i3)t Kavarga (7), K6ta and Kdtis'vara (25), Kus'as- 
ihala, S'is'uvarga, properly S'ishyavarga (139), with the S'ivalli (2,397), 
arc all Tulu Krahmans, immigrants from South Kanara, the ancient 
Tuluva, and mostly located in the western DistricLs. 'I'hey engage in 
agriculture and trade, and speak Tulu and Kanna<Ja. The Karidc or 
Karhade (253) are Mahrattas from Karhad. Some of them are 
employed in the Revenue Survey, The Konkanasiha (296) are also 
Ihlahrattas from the Konkan, and are Smdrtas. The above two sects do 
not intermarry, but mix freely in other respects. The Nandavaidika 
(1,257) are from the Teluga country: both Smartas and Madhvas: 
language Telugu and Rannada. The Prrithamas'dkhe (5,027) and 
SiSklayajusVakhe orMadyandina are both Smartas and Madhvas : they 
speak Telugu and Kannada. The Sahavasi are immigrants, like the 
Chilpdvan, from the Mahratta country. 

The Sank^ti (2,522) are Smartas from Madura, and speak a corrupt 
mLxture of Tamil and Kannada. There are two branches, the Kaus'ika 
and the Bettadpur, so named from the places in which they first settled, 
which are in the Hassan and Mysore Districts. They eat together, but 
do not intemiarryasa rule. The Kaus'ika, however, who were the first 
comers, are said occasionally to j^et wives from the Bettadpur, but in 
such cases the girl's connection with the latter altogether ceases. The 
Sank^ti reverence a prophetess named Niicharamnia or Nangiramma, 
who seems to have been instrumental in causing their migration from 
their original scats. The story about her is given in the first edition. 
The Sirandd (3,490) have two divisions, the Hale Sfranad, who are 
Smartas, and the Hosa Siranad, who are chiefly Madh\'as. Both speak 
Kannada and derive their name probably from Sira in the Tumkur 
Ihstrict. The \'engipuram (193) are all Smartas, speaking Telugu. 




The Velnd'T (3.181) are also Telugu Smirtas, and resemble the 
MurikiniiO. They are mostly in the south and east. The V^gindd are 
Smdrtas, and speak Kannada. There is only one member returned of 
this sect, a man in Kolar Dislricl. 

The subdivisions of the S'rivaishnavas, in alphabetical order, are : — 
Bhattardchdr)*a, Embdr, Hebbir (Melnatdr), Hemmigepr, Kaddmbi)'dr, 
Kanddde, Kflndtdr, Mandyaltar, Maraddrdr, Melukunteydr, Morasnrar', 
Munrhcili or Ch(5]i, Nalldnchakravarti, Prativddi-bhayankarattdr, 
Somes'dnHal or Attdn-kilpiitar, Tirumaleyar. No less than 16,817 have 
returned themselves simply as S'rivaishnavas. 

The Bhattaracharya are Tengales, and generally Vaidikas : they 
speak Telugu and Tamil. The Embdr are Tengales from S'rfrangam, 
and speak Tamil. The Hebbar (1,724) arc descendants of immigrants 
from the Tamil country, who settled in five different villages, and were 
hence also known as the Panchagrdma (358). These places were 
drama (Hassan District), Kadaba (Tumkur District), MoUtr (Bangalore 
District), Hangala (Mysore District), and Belur (Hassan District), 
Hebbar ivas the old Brahman designation of the headman of a village, 
as Heggade was of the Jains, and thuse names still linger in the west. 
It is .said to be a corruption of heb-fidrava, or the head Brahman. The 
settlers in Grama, it appears, had acquired this title, which owing to their 
connection was extended to all the Panchagrdma, They all eat 
together and intermarry : are both Tengale and Vadagale, and speak 
Tamil. The Hemmigeydr are all Vaidikas and Vadagale, settled at 
Hemniige near Talkdd, which is said to have been granted by the 
king of the day to one of their ancestors as a reward for distinguishing 
himself in a literary discussion. Their language is Tamil. The 
Mandyatldr (566) are immigrants from a village called Mandyam 
near Tirupati. They are located in Melukdte and Mandya, the 
latter being named after their native place. They are all Tengale and 
speak Tamil. The Maradiirdr are similar settlers at the neighbouring 
village of Maddiir, which is a corruption of Maraddr. The Mejukun- 
leydr are Vadagale and disciples of the Parakdlaswdmi. They sjieak 
Telugu and Tamil. The Munchili and Ch61i. so called l>ecause they 
retain the lock of hair in front of the head, are Tengale, and their 
language is Tamil. The Nalldnchakravarti are Vadagale from Con- 
jeveram, and are all Vaidikas, speaking Tamil The Prativddi- 
bhayankarattdr, meaning the terrifiers of opponent disputants, are 
Tengale and Vaidikas from S'riangam : language Tamil. There axe 
only two men of this sect put down, both in Kolar District. The 
Somes'dnddl are Vadagale, and chiefly Vaidikas, from the same part : 
language Tamil. The Tirumaleyar (262) are descendants of Kofi- 



* 



SATAiVl 



s4t 



kanyadina Tdticharya, whose name implies that he had given away a 
million virgins in marriage, a son of the guru to Raman ujachdrjx 
They are all Vadagales and Vaidikas, and seem to have come from 
Conjeveram. They speak Tamil. 

The Temple servants or Brahmans who act ty^piijiiris are all \'aid[kas, 
but are considered to have degraded themselves by undertaking such 
ser\'ice, and the otlier Brahmans will have no connection with them. 
The S'ivadvija or Si\'anambi (605) and TambalJa (2) are of the 
Smarta sect, and officiate in S'iva temples. Tlie Vaikhdnasa (407) 
and Pancharatral (142) belong to the S'rfvaishnavas, and officiate in 
Vishnu temples. The Tammadis who officiate in certain Siva temples 
are Lingayits. 

Lin^ayita. — The priestly orders among these are the A'rddhya 
(11,618), Gurusthala (12,129), Jangama (38,2 15) and Vira S'aiva (956). 
The A'radhya are a sect of Lingayit Brahmans. They assume the 
janiifdra or sacred thread, but call it s'ivtviiira. The Gurusthala are a 
class of Jangama who take the place of gurus in performing certain 
domestic ceremonies for which the gurus do not attend. The Jangama 
are priests chiefly of the Panchama Banajiga and Devdnga. They are 
divided into Charanti and Virakta, the formur being under a vow of 
celiliacy. The Jangama derive their name especially from the portable 
KK Jangama linga worn on the person (which indeed is characteristic of 
all lingayits) as distinguished from the sthdvira or fixed linga of the 
temples, and also perhaps from their l>eing itinerant. In addition to 
the linga they wear a necklace of beads called nedrdksha^ and smear 
their whole bodies with the ashes of cow-dung. A Jangam will not 
permit himself to be touched by any person who does not wear the 
linga. They wander about and subsist on charity, and their children 
generally adopt the same profession. 

Satani. — These are regarded as priests by the Holeya and other 
inferior castes, while they themselves have the chiefs of the S'Hvaishnava 
Brahmans and Sannyasis as their gurus. Their subdivisions are 
Kh;idri A'aishnava, Natacharasiirti, Prathama ^'aishnava, Sameriya or 
-Sdmagi, Sankara, Sdttadhava, Siiri, Telugu Satani, Venkatapurada ajid 
Vajshnava. Some are employed in agriculture, but as a rule they are 
engaged in the sen-ice of Vishnu temples, and are flower-gatherers, torch- 
bearers and strolling minstrels. Buchanan supposed them to be the 
remains of an extensive priesthood who formerly held the same relation 
to the Hole)"a that the Brahmans now do to the Sildras. Bui as a sect 
they appear to be of more modern origin. They call themselves 
Vaishnavas and correspond with the Baisnabs in Bengal. They are 
followers of Chaitanya, from whose name, or that of Sdtdnana, one of his 

R 




H* 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



disciples, ihoir designation may be derived. Properly speaking, ihey 
are not a casie, bul a religious sect of votaries of Vishnu, more 
especially in the form of Krishna, who have ceased to regard caste 
distinctions. In the north of India admission to the sect is obtained 
by payment to a Gosayi and partaking of food with other members of 
the sect. 

Jaina. — The priests of this religion have been returned as 
Tfrthankara (2,564) and Pitambara (5). The Jaina yatis or clergy 
here belong to the sect of Dtgambara, properly, clad with space, that 
is nude, but they cover themselves with a yellow robe, and hence 
the name Pftambara. An account of the Jaina will be found under 
Religion. 

The l>evotees and religious mendicants arc, — among Hindus, Dasari 
(1,178), Sannyasi (684), Gosayi (424), and Bairagi (222): among 
Lingdyits, Ayya, Ganadhisvara, Shatsthala and Vader (956) : among 
Jains, Digambara (5,477), Svetimbara (85), and Bavaji (i). 

Dasarl are mendicants belonging to different castes of SUdras. 
They become Dasas, or servants, dedicated to the god at Tirupati, by 
virtue of a particular vow, made either by themselves or relatives at 
some anxious or dangerous moment, and live by begging in his name. 
Ddsaris are strictly \"ishnuvites, as the vow is taken only by castes whn 
are worshippers of that deity. Dasaris are always invited by Siidras 
on ceremonial days and feasted. The subdivisions are Dharnia, GiiiUma, 
S'anku, and Tfrunama Dasaris. 

A Sannyasi is properly a man who has forsaken all. He has 
renounced the world, and leads a life of celibacy and abstemiousness, 
devoting himself to religious meditation and abstraction, and to study 
of the holy books. He is considered to have attained to a state of 
exalted piety that places him above most of the restrictions of caste 
and ceremony. It is the fourth ds'ranut or final stage of life for the 
three higher orders. The number of lirahman Sannyasis is verj* small, 
and chiefly confined to those who are gurus or bishops of the different 
sects. These are as a rule men of learning and the heads of 
monasteries, where they have a number of disciples under instruction 
who are trained for religious discussion. They are supported entirely 
by endowments and the contributions of their disciples. Periodical 
tours are undertaken for the purpose of receiving the offerings of 
their followers. They travel in great state, with elephants, horses, and 
a retinue of disciples. On the approach of a guru to any place all 
the inhabitants of pure birth go out to meet him : the lower classes are 
not admitted to his presence. On being conducted to the principal 
temple, he bestows upadcsa or chakrAntikam on such as have not 




GOSAYI 



^3 



\ 



received these ceremonies (which may be considered analogous to 
confimution by prelates in the English Church), and distributes holy 
water. He inquires into their matters of contention or transgressions 
agzunsc (he rules of caste, and having disposed of these, hears his 
disciples and other learned men dispute on theological subjects, 'I'his 
is the grand 6eld for acquiring reputation among the Brahmans.' The 
gurus are bound to spend all they get in what is reckoned as charitable 
distribution, that is in the supix)rt of men and buildings dedicated to 
the service of the gods. Rut the majority of the Sannydsis (of whom 
no less than 412 are in the Kohr District, and 175 in Tumkur) are a 
class of Sildra devotees who live by begging and pretend to powers of 
divination. They wear the clerical dress of red ochre and allow the 
hair to grow unshorn. They are married and often have settled 
abodes, but itinerate, and their descendants keep up the sect and follow 
the same calling. 

The Gosayi are followers of Chaiianya, the \*ishnuvite reformer 
of the sixteenth cenlur)*, whose originaJ disciples, six in number, were 
$0 called. They never marry, but the order is recruited from all the 
four principal castes, especially the two highest, and those who join are 
cut off for ever from tlieir own tribes. Such as lead a strictly ascetic 
life are called Avadhilta. while those who engage in commerce and 
Aade are called Dandi. Most of those in Mysore belong to the latter 
wlKlivi.sion, and are wealthy merchants from northern and western 
India, settled in Mysore, Bangalore and other chief towns, dealing 
largely in jewels and valuable embroidered cloths. The profits of their 
tfaHic go to their Mahant or teacher. The property of either Avadhiita 
or Dandi devolves on his chela or adopted disciple. 

The Bainigi are followers of Raminand, the Vishnuvitc reformer, 
«rho early forsook the cares of the world and gave himself up to 
VaJragya, or the renunciation of all worldly desires, becoming the first 
Vairigi or Bairigi. From his four disciples arose four sects, each of 
irhich is composed of Nihangs, those who arc purely ascetics and lead 
secluded lives, and Samaydgis, who marr>' and live with their families ; 
but both orders can eat together. Many profess to be physicians and 
herlulists, while others pretend to be alchemists. All are beggars, and 
as pilgrims resort to holy places, especially to Tirupati. Their usual 
raiHc in the south is from Rimes'vara to Totadri. which is in that 
neighbourhood, S'rirangam, (lopalswamibetia, Meluk6tc and Tirupati. 
Tliey are also called Sadhu and are all worshippers of Vishnu and 



' These dispiilatioiK arc «itl to lie very simiUr lo ihosc which were common 
amnng ihe doclors of the Uomt!(h Church seven or eight hundred years ago. — 
Jiufkan*u». 

R 2 



adherents of S'rlvaishnava Brahmans. They are mostly taken from 
the Sildra castes, but many of them wear the triple cord and 
profess themselves to be Cauda Brahnians from the north. Half 
the number at the census time were in Bangalore District and a 
considerable number in Kadur. There were none in Hassan and 
Shimoga, and only three in Chitaldroog. 

TheYader, a corruption of Odej-ar or Vadcyar, meaning lord or 
master, arc Lingdyits like the Jangama. They are held in great veneration 
in their seel and are feasted by laymen on all important occasions, 
especially at S'ivarrftri, when their attendance is said to be in such great 
demand that they have to hurry from house to house, just tasting a 
morsel in each. Mostly in Kadur, Myjiore and Shimoga Districts ; 
none in Kolar and Hassan. 

The Digambara and Svetambara are the t^^'o great sects of the 
Jains. The derivation of the former name has already been given 
above. The Sv^tAmbara are those who are clad in white. This 
section is found more in the north of India, and is represented by but 
a small number in Mysore. The Digambara are said to live absolutely 
separated from society and from all worldly ties. Most numerous in 
Mysore, Tumkur and Kadur Districts. 

Quitting the religious groups w^e come to that of the professional 
Writers, of whom there are ro8 Kanakkan and 6 K^iyastha, all in the 
Civil and Militar)' Station of Bangalore. The former may be allied to 
the Karnams and Kanakka-pilhi (commonly called Conocopoly) of the 
Madras countr>', who are village and otheraccountaiits. The Kanakkan 
include the subdivisions of Karnikar, Slrkanakkan, and Sfrkarnikar. 
The Kayastha are from northern India and have a subdivision called 
Madrtr. 

Next are Musicians and Ballad-reciters, the well-known BhAts or 
Bhatr^ju, numbering 1,388, and found chiefly in the eastern and 
southern Districts. They speak Telugu and are supposed to have 
come from the Northern Sarkars. They were originally attendants on 
Hindu princes as professional bards, singing their praises ajid reciting 
ballads on the wondrous deeds of their ancestors.^ Now, from want of 



* The name is a curious ajjproximalion to that of the weMcm hard, and their 
oflficcs are nearly .similar. No Htnilu R^ja i.s without his f>Ati/s. Haidar, although 
not a Hindu, delighted to he constantly preceded by lliem, and they are an appendage 
to the state of niany other .Mnsalman chieR They ha^-c a wonderful facility in 
itpeaking improvisatore, on any subject pm[K>!ted to them, a declamation in measures, 
which may lie considered as a .son of medium l>ctwccn blank verse and mwlulated 
prose ; but their proper profession is that of chaunlJng the exploits of former days in 
the front of the troops while marshalling for Ijattle, and inciting them lo emulate the 
glory of their ancestors. — U'ilks, in iSiou 




COMMERCIAL CLASS 



*45 



their ordinary eraplo>'ment, they have descended into the mendicant 
diss. They are principally worshippers of Vishnu. 

The Oanccrs and Singers follow, composed of Na^uva (1,804) and 
Kaikola (5,672). The subdivisions are Binkali Kaikola, Bogavdru, 
Uevaddsi, Gayaka, Ldkabdlike, Nayaksani. The women dance and 
sing ; the men are musicians and accompany them on various instru- 
ments. Nearly all the Kaikola are in Mysore District : those that 
speak Kannada are of I.ing.'iyit connection and called Basavi. The 
Natuva arc most numerous in Kolar and Mysore Districts : those who 
speak Telugu are of the Telugu Banajiga caste. The females are 
generally prostitutes and atUched xs dancing girls to Hindu temples. 
The class is recruited either from those born in it or those adopted 
from any of the Hindu castes. Sometimes the parents of a girl have 
dedicated her to a temple even before her birth ; in other cases good- 
looking girls are purchased from parents who are too poor to maintain 
ihera. 

'ITie last professional group is the Chitari, who are classed as 
Rachevar, and composed of Chitragara, also called Bannagilra (912), 
mostly in Mysore, Tumkur and Chitaldroog Districts, and JJnagdra 
(3,728), nearly all in Shimoga District. They are painters, decorators 
and gilders, and make trunks, palanquins, lacquer toys and wooden 
images for temples, cars, etc. 

The Commercial class (C) consists entirely of Merchants and Traders. 
The following are the principal divisions according to strength, with 
their distribution. There are also 161 Banij-a, 2 Mdltani, and 1 Jit, 
all in the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore; 83 Marvaiji, and 71 
Oujanifi. 



p ^- 


i 


i 


c 

s 


»• 

a 


X 


r 


i 


1 


Ui«Aya. 


19.700 


6.U9 


1 

21,289 9i»2S7 


39.006 


49.333 


21,052 


44,297 


Bw«j4a 


2».437 


36,296 


13.40S 17,811 


3.735 


6.709 5.115 


4,224 


yjmmi 


4.766 


8,890 


5»304 J.aio 


1.766 


i.»75 i^ii^ 


3,605 


Ntfuta 

Mod^ 


1,625 


3.004 
7M 


'^ 


439 
<»305 


77 
167 


7.966 
229 


5,223 
225 


651 

492 


IttinaandS'ntvakft 


loS 


18 


305 


230 


6s 


2.974 43 


200 


hi i« 


»34 


1,185 


9. 


i^ 33a 


316 



Of the 292,073 Lingayita, forming 6a per cent, of the trading com- 
munity, 332,389 are returned by that name alone and preponderate in 
Mysore District Other divisions are Linga Banajiga (37,322), most 
numerous in Chitaldroog and Hassan Districts; Sajjana (30,424), 



»46 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



more than half in Shimoga District; Sthaladava (1,243), nearly all in 
Bangalore District ; PanchaniasaJe (182), nearly the whole in the Ci>'il 
and Military Suilion of Bangalore: Hirehasube (loi), almost all in 
Mysore District ; and R6riseui (52), all in Tumkur District. Further 
subdivisions are Badagalava, Bannadava, Basale, Bdvane, Gida l>in- 
gdyita, Gaddigeyava, J<5ti Banajiga, Kannadiga, Kanthapavade, Raikola, 
MiJlpdvade, Nirume'Iinava, PtJtemane, T6gasetu\ and Turukane 
Banajiga. In the rural parts they are perhaps engaged more in agri- 
culture than in trade. 

The Banajiga number 114,735, ^"*^ ^oxva 24 per cent, of the 
traders. The strongest section is that of 'I'elugu Banajiga (59,495)1 the 
greater number iji Kolar and Bangalore I )istricts, as are also those put 
down simply as Banajiga {17,779). Th^^ ^etti (14,875) arc most 
numerous in Tunikur District and the Civil and Miiitar)' Station of 
Bangalore. The Dasa (7,925) arc chiefly in Mysore District. The 
Bale (5,378), makers and vendors of glass bangles, are chiefly in the 
Civil and MiliLiry Station of Bangalore. The Vejc (3,601), or betel-Ieaf 
sellers, are most numerous in Mysore and Tumkur Districts. Devidiga 
(2,315), bangle-sellers, nearly all in Shimoga District, and the rest in 
Kadur District; Nayadu (1,141), most numerous in Bangalore and 
Chitaldroog Districts; Huv\'adiga (905) or flower-sellers, nearly all in 
Kadur District ; Ara]c (340) or cotton-sellers, mostly in Mysore and 
Bangalore Districts ; Sukhamanji (313), nearly all in Bangalore 
District, and the rest in Kolar District; and Multarasu (7), all in the 
Civil and Militarj- Station of Bangalore, make up the remaining chief 
sections. The minor subdivisions arc A'di, Aggada, A'kul^p, Bh^rise|ti, 
Bania, Biddra, Des'iyi, Dharmaraju, (iajulabalji, GandhiidilKilji, 
(ierballi, Gaudu, C>anga, Kaldyi, Kammc, Kannada, Kapali, Kavare, 
Kempti, Kempu, KoUa, Kotta, I.ingabaiji, Marasi, Mudusdrebalji, 
Miirusfre, Mutta, Muttaraju, I'agadala, Basaluvd^e, S'ivachara, Sdliya- 
sefti, \'frasaggada, and Yellamma. The principal occui>ations of 
Banajigas are agriculture, labour and trade of all kinds. 

The A'Jwrf// (29.054) and Nagaria (22,964) are prindpally found in 
towns and large trade centres^ Both claim to be Vaisyas, and the 
former are specially considered to be such. The K(5mati subdivisions 
are Kannada, Mydda, Setti, Trikarma, Tuppada, and Yavamanta. The 
majority are worshippers of S'i^-a and a few of \*ishnu, but the chief 
object of reverence is the goddess Kanyaka Paramcs'vari. All eat 
together and intermarry. They deal in cloth and, except spirits, in all 
kinds of merchandise, especially money and jewels, but never cultivate 
the ground nor become mechanics. The Nagarta, besides 4,297 only 
so named, chiefly in Bangalore and Kolar Districts, are subdinded into 




AUTTSANS 

Ay^dhyinagant (39), a]l in Bangalore District ; Bh^ri (229), nearly all 
in Kolar OislHct ; Namadhriri (15,428), mostly in Shimoga and Kadur 
Districts J and Vais'ya {2,971), most numerous in Bangalore and Kolar 
1 )islricLs. There are also minor sections called S'ivichdr and \'aishnava. 
Of the Nagarta some are worshippers of Vishnu and others of S'iva : 
of the latter a part wear the linga and others not. The three sects do 
not interraarrj- or eat together. They are dealers in bullion, cloth, 
cotton, drugs and grain, but do not cultivate the ground or follow any 
handicraft trade, though some act as porters. 

The MudaH (5,437) or Mudaliyir, with the subdivision Agamudi, 
are of Tamil origin, from Arcot, Vellore and other places, the 
offspring of traders, senants and contractors who followed the 
progress of British arms. The majority are in the cities of Bangalore 
and Mysore, They arc a thriving and money-making class, and 
many of them arc employed under Government : they also engage 
in trade of all kinds, and as contractors for buildings and other public 
*works. 

Of the Jaina (1,981) and Srthmka (1,962) the great majority of the 
former and the whole of the latter are in Shimoga I^istrict, and probably 
represent a ver>' ancient trading community of chose parts. The Ladar 
(2,046) are traders from the Mahratta country, and are principally 
settled m the Mysore District 

The Baniya are wealthy money-lenders from other parts. Their 
divisions are Agarvdia, Bakkal, Jaman, Multdni, and Oswdl. The 
Mdrvddi (Dodaya and Kumbi), Gujardil and Afu/tdni tiXG traders from 
ihc countries after whose names they are called. The Mdn-adi deal in 
pesLrls and cloths. The (jujariti are small money-lenders, and also 
trade in jewels, cloths and other articles. 

The class Artisan and Village Menial (D) includes the following : — 



Smiths, Carpenters and 


Masons . . 


I'anchftia 


113.73' 


Barbers 


.. 


Ndyimlfl 


37.296 


Tailors 


... 


Ihuji 


10,664 


Weaver* aod Dyers 


• » ■ . • 


KcyiKitra, G6niga 


88.413 


Washermen 




Agasa 


85.671 


Cowherds, &c. 


..• 


OolU 


128.995 


ijhepherds 


... 


KunitM 


346.76S 


OilfirciScTs 


... 


Gantga 


35.S08 


rnncrs 


... 


KumMra, .. 


40,809 


Salters 





UM~ 


89ti23 


CkiM-lace makers ... 


(•• ■•• 


Sftrigc 


>S 


FithermcD 


... 


Besla 


99.897 


Tuddy drawers 


.1* .«■ 


I'.JilFi 


39.9J7 


VUUge Watchmen, &c. 


... 


Ilnlcya 


520.493 


Leather workent ... 


... 


Midiga, Mochi ... 


240,321 



The subjoined table shows iheir distribution over the several 
Districts : — 





1 




i 


1 


i 


1 


i 


r 

6 


PtfncMla 


M.ioS 


9.68£ 


9.68s 


37.448 


13.588 


12,107 


8.745 


'SA 


Niyinda 


7.971 


8.559 


3.807 


8,401 


2,979 


2.82S 


923 


Darji 


3,668 


574 „ 908 


i.457 


5" 


2,090 


734 


733 


Neyigara 


24,492 


8,696 8,109 


10.224 12,808 


6,674 


10,236 


7.174 


Agasa ... 


l»,447 


10,327 


10.323 


19.435 »o,456 


13.103 4.186 


6.394 


C.olla 


20,430 


20,022 


3«.237 


5.445 S.212 


3.995 4.149 


15,892 


Kunilm .,, 


41,407 


35.304 


38,186 


"5.805, 40,730 


23.683 36,255 


25.398 


Oaiii^ 

Kumbara 


5.909 


5.790 


3.305 


15.634, 2.259 


547 1.092 


1.27a 


4.306 


3.963 


3.183 


16.136' 3.313 
34.7171 S.566 


3.281 1 4.01S 


2,610 


Uppim 


i.5«6 


3. "7 


U.56K 


10,956 10,000 


8,673 


Sarige 


10 


5 


— 


— 1 — 


— 1 — 


— 


BesU 


8.357 


3,910 4.201 


59.550! 7.628 


7,290f 4.102 


4.S59 


raipa 

HoFeya 


a.S69 


1,708 5.348 


S.450; 2,757 


10,944, 3.882 


4.379 


«'>.369 


57,665 23.616^73,003^ 87,05s 


38,000 51,291 


8,491 


Midiga 


46.329 


39,661 48.J24i 24,179 n.190 

i 


23.043 10,453 


37.143 



The PdnchtUa^ as their name impHes, embrace five guilds of artisans, 
namely, Agasale, or goldsmiths ; Kanchugara, brass and copper smiths ; 
Kammara, blacksmiths ; Badagi, carpenters ; and Kalkutaka, stone- 
masons. They profess to be descended from the five sons of Vis'va- 
karma, the architect of the gods, who se\'erally adopted these pro- 
fessions. The various trades are not confined to particular families, 
but may be followed according to the individual inclination. I'he 
Panchala wear the triple cord and consider themselves equal to the 
Bralimans, who, however, deny their pretensions. The goldsmiths are 
the recognized heads of the clan and have a caste jurisdiction over the 
rest 

The Agasile, or Akkasdle proper (63,578), and goldsmith Pdnchdia 
(31,958) have also subdivisions called Bailu Akkasale or R6tv;id (337}, 
Pattar or Pattari (747), Oja or Vajar (737), and Jalagara (258), as weU^ 
as A'chari, Arava Panchala, Manu, Maya, PanchagrAma, Sajjana, Sondr. 
Sondjibaiid, Vaivaghni, Vis'va, \'is'vabrahma, and ^'is'vaghni. Some 
are followers of Siva and others of Vishnu, hut the difference in 
religion is no bar to intermarriage or social intercourse. The most 
influential members are among the S'aivas and wear the linga, but they 
do not associate with any other linga-wearers. The Jalagara are the 
people who wash the sand of streams for goW. 'Ihe majority arc 
returned from Mysore District. 

The Ivanchugdra (369) or brass and copper smiths are divided 
between the Bangalore and Mysore Districts. The section called 




ARTISANS 



Gejjegdra (17) are all in Mysore. These make the small round bells 
used for tying about the heads or necks of bullocks. Dancing girls 
also bind them to the ankles when dancing, and postal runners have a 
bunch at the end of the rod on which they carry the mail bags, the 
jingle giving notice of their approach. 

The Kammara (6,250) or blacksmiths, include Bailu Kammdra, 
KaJlar and Karman. The Kammdra is a member of the village cor- 
porationj and in addition to working in iron often acts as a carpenter as 
wdL In the repair of carts and agricultural implements his services 
axe constantly in demand. 

The Ba<jagi {8,643) or carpenters, and (Jaundar (j), the latter 
confined to the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore, have sections 
called Panchichara, (lut^Iigara, S'ilpi and Vis'vakamia, The Badagi is 
also a member of the village corporation, but the profession of 
carpentry is now taken up by other castes, such as Kunchi^iga and 
U'okkaliga, not to mention Musalmans. The Gui^Tigdra are sptcially 
ihe producers of the beautiful sandal-wood carving for whicli the 
Mysore country is famous. They are settled in Shimoga Uistrict, 
chiefly at Sorab. S'ilpi are properly sculptors, and mighi be classed 
among masons. 

The A'dyinda or barbers, also called Hajam, include a number of 
sections, namely, Balaji, Bajantri, Bengali, Karnata, Kelasi, Konda, 
Kondamangala, Mangala, Na^a, Ndtaniangala, Rcdcli, S'ilavanta, 
Teluga and Uppina. The Ndyinda is a member of the village 
atrporation. They speak both Kannada and Ttlugu, and arc generally 
employed as musicians as well as barbers: in the former capacity they 
are in great requisition at feasts and marriages. They include wor- 
shippers of both Vishnu and Siva, the S'ilavanta being IJngiiyits. 

The Vttrj'i 01 tailors, besides 4,817 so returned, include Shimpi or 
Quppiga {12), Namdev (3,566) and Rangdre (2,269). The latter are 
also dyers and calico-printers. The Darji are immigrants from the 
Mahratta country and specially worship Vi^^hbba or Krishna. 

The yeyigdra (86,986) are weavers proper, the (16niga (1,426) being 
specially sack weavers and makers of gunny bags {goni). The main 
divisions of the former are Devanga (49,006), Togata or Dandase^i 
("3.300), Sale or Sdliga (10,255), Biliniagga (9,94f>)» S^niga (105), 
Patvegar (3,174)1 Khatri (946), and Saurashtraka (254). In these are 
included minor sections called Jiida, Kuruvina, Padmamurikinati, 
Padmasile, Pat^asale, Painrtlukdr, Sakunasdle, and Singundi. 

Ihe Kannada Dt^vdnga are weavers wlio wear the Unga, but they 
have no intercourse with the Linga Banajiga. They worship S'iva and 
Parvati, and their son Cancs'a, who is a special patron of their looms. 



ISO 



^GR. 



There arc also Telugu D^vanga, who are of two sects, one of whom 
worship Vishnu and the other S'iva, but the latter do not wear the 
linga. This difference of religion is no bar lo intermarriage, and the 
ynic adopts the religion of her husband. The Tognta, most numerous 
in the eastern Uistricts, arc of Telugu origin and worshippers of Siva 
in the form of his consort Chaudes'rari. They manufacture the 
coarse kinds of doth that are worn only by the poorer classes. The 
Sdle or Saliga are also Telugu by origin, and comprise the Padmasale 
or Pattasdie, who are worshippers of Vishnu, and the S'akunasile, who 
are worshippers of Siva and wear the linga. The two sects do not 
intermarry. The Bilimagga, most numerous in Mysore District, call 
themselves Kuruvina Hanajiga, and regard the former designation as 
a nickname. They are an indigenous caste and speak Kannada : 
worshippers of S'iva. The Seniga, confined to Kobr and Bangalore 
Districts, are a wealthy caste of weavers, immigrants from the lower 
Carnatic, and speak Rannaija. They specially manufacture cloths for 
female wear, of superior kind and high value. They are Lingayits by 
religion, but are not friendly with the other Lingdyits. 

The Patvegar, of whom the majorit)* are in Bangalore District, are 
silk weavers and speak a language allied to Mahratti. They worship 
all the Hindu deities, but especially the S'akti or female energy, to 
which a goat is sacrificed on the night of the Dasara festival, a 
Musalman officiating as slaughterer, for which he receives certain fee?. 
After the sacrifice the family of the Paivegir partake of the flesh. 
The caste have the reputation of not being over cleanly in their habits. 
The Khatri, all but two being in the Bangalore District, are also silk 
weavers, and in manners, customs and language are akin to the 
Patvegdrs, but do not intermarry with tht*m, though the two c^istes eat 
together. They claim to be Kshatriyas. The Saurishtraka, commonly 
known as Patniili or JamkhdnvAla, are, all but 7, in the Bangalore Dis- 
trict. They manufacture superior kinds of cotton and woollen carpets, 
and also shawls of cotton and silk mixture. They are worshippers of 
Vishnu. 

The Gbniga (1,205), as already described above, are sack weavers. 
More than a half are in the Bangalore District. Other divisions are 
Janapa (32) and Sadhuvams'astha (189), the latter all in Tumkur 
District. Some are agriculturists, and some grain porters. 

The Agnsa or Asaga are washermen. They are divided into 
Kannada Agasa and Telugu .Agasa, who neither eat together nor 
intermarry. But there are numerous subdivisions, named Belli, 
Dhobi, Halemakkalu, Iraganti Madivdii, Kapusikala\'dclu, Madivdli, 
Morasu, Murikindti, Padata, Sdkalavadu, Tamil and Vannan. The 



ARTISA.VS 



25' 



Agasa IS a member of the village corix>ration and his office is 
hereditary. Besides washing he benrs the torch in public processions 
and at marriages. The class seldom follow any other profes- 
sion than that of washing. Both men and women wash. Their 
proper beasts of burthen are asses, and these are sometimes employed 
in carrying grain from one place to another. 'J'heir principal object 
of worship is Ubbe, the steam which causes the garments to swell out 
in the pot of boiling water in which dirty clothes are steeped. 
Animals are sacrificed to the god with the view of preventing the 
clothes being burnt in the Ubbe pot Under the name of Bhume 
Dcva there are temples dedicated to this god in some large towns, 
ibe services being conducted by piljaris of the Agasa caste. They 
also worship Vishnu and other gods. Their gurus are Satanis. 

The GoUa are cowherds and dairymen. The Kai_lu or forest Golla 
(21,820) are distinct from the U'ru or town Golla (15,618) and other 
(K»lla (82,357) who belong to villages, and the two neither eat together 
nor intermarry. The subivisions of the caste are very numerous and 
are returned as follows : — Alia, Arava, Bokkasada, BIgamiidre, 
Chapprada, Ch<5li)'a, Doddi, Fidaiyar, dauli or Kachche Gauli, Gaulbans, 
Ciayakavadi, Gopala, Giidejangdliga, Halu, Jambala, Kankar, Kannada, 
ICaradi, Karma, Karne, Kavadiga, Kempu, Kilarit Kolalu, Konar, 
Kiiduchappara, Kuri, Mande, Nalla, Nimadakula, Nayi, Pata, Pata- 
\iidavalu, POja, Punagu, PiSri, Raja, Salja, Sambarn, Sonnan, Ss-dri, 
Tellapiisala, Telugu, Yadayar, Ydkuln, and Yddavakula. They worship 
Krishna, who is said to have lx;en bom in the caste. Formerly they, 
or a section of them, were largely employed in transi>orting money, 
both public and private, from one part of the country to another, and 
are said to have been famed for their integrity in such matters. From 
this circumstance they are also called Uhanapala or treasury guards. 
The Kddu Golla are mostly in Tumkur District, and a good many in 
Chilaldroog District. They live in thatched huts outside \-illages and 
»re inclined to be nomadic. Some of their customs resemble those 
of the Kddu Kumba. 

The Kuntba are shepherds and weavers of blankets or carablels 
\kamhii). The Kddu Kuruba have already been noticed under forest 
and hill tribes. The remaining great Ixady of the civilized are divided 
into two tril>es, the Hande Kuruba and Kuruba proper, who have no 
intercouise with one another. The btter worship Eire D^varu and 
are Sivites. Their priests are Brahmans and J6gis. The caste also 
worship a box, which they believe contains the wearing apparel of 
Krishna, under the name of Junjappa. The subdivisions of the caste 
Bine, Banige, Banni, Belli, BCrappana W'okkalu, Bydlada, 




252 



ETHNOGRAi 



Gaudakula, Haje, Ha|li, Halu, Heggacle, Hosa, Jadi, Jattcd^vara, 
Kamba{i, Kanakaiyanajati, KannaHa, Kcnchala, Kotia, Kuri, Maji, 
Majjana, Majjige, Pita, Sale, Sd\-anti, Suggala, and Toppala. The Halu 
Kuruba( 191,087). Hande Kumba {7,9.14), and KamlnliKuruba (7,792), 
are mostly weavers of kamblis. Parts of Chitaldroog and the town of 
Rolar are noted Tor the manufacture of a superior kind of a fine 
texture hke homespun. The women spin wool 

The Gdni^a are oilpressers and oilmongers. They are known by 
different names, according to the special customs of their trade, such 
as Hegganiga, those who yoke two oxen to the stone oil-mill ; 
Kirugiiniga (principally in Mysore l-)istrict), those who make oil in 
wooden mills ; Wonjiyettu Gdniga, those who use only one buUock in 
the mill. They are also known collectively as J6tipana or Jdtinagara, 
the light-giving tribe. The other subdivisions are Kannado, Tclugu and 
Se^L There is n small section called Sajjana, who wear the linga and 
have no intercourse with the others. But the caste generally includes 
worshippers both of Vishnu and Siva. 

The Kumbdra are potters and tile-makers, and members of the 
village corporation. Of the two main divisions of Kannada and 
Telugii, the former claim to be superior. The subdivisions are 
Gaudakula, Gundikula, Kos'ava, Kulila, Navige, S'Alivahana, Tamil 
and Vadama. 

The Uppdra or saltmakers are so called chiefly in the eastern 
Districts; in the southern they are called Upiialiga and in the western 
Mdusakkare. There are two classes, the Kannada and the Telugu. 
The former are principally engaged in making earth-salt, and the latter 
as bricklayers and builders. The well to-do or Sreshtha also undertake 
public works on contract and the erection of ordinary Hindu houses. 
They arc both Vishnuites and S'ivites. 

The small body of Sarige or gold-lace makers are Rdchevar by caste. 
They are all in the Bangalore and Kolar Districts. 

The Besta are fishermen, boatmen and palanquin-bearers. This is 
their designation principally in the east ; in the south they are called 
Toreya, Ambiga and Parivara ; in the west Kabyara and Gange- 
makkalu. Those who speak Telugu call themselves Bhoyi. There 
are some other smaller sections of inferior rank, named BeUi, 
Bhoja, Chammatji, Kabbaliga, Palaki, Palyapat, Rayaravuta and 
Sunnakallu. The latter are lime-burners. Many of the females are 
cotton-spinners and some of the men are weavers of cloth. There are 
also some in the employment of Government as peons and in other 
capacities. Most of the caste arc worshippers of Siva. 

The J'di^a are toddy-drawers, their hereditary occupation being to 




ozrrcASTEs 



253 



I 



extract the juice of palm-trees and to distil spirits from it. In the 
Malndd they are known as Halcixiika (15,000), and were formerly 
employed as soldiers under the local rulers. Many of them are now in 
household ser\'ice. Most of them also hold land, and are agriculturists. 
The other subdivisions are Bilva, Dev-ar, Sigroyidalu, Telugu Sanar, 
Tenginah.'lie. They worship all the Hindu deities, as well as S'aktis, 
and espeti;illy the pots containing toddy. 

The Noleya and Mddiga form the great body of outcastes. The 
former have already been described above {p. 215). These, in addi- 
tion (o their duties as Wllage ^^•a(chmerl, scouts and scavengers, are 
employed as field-hands, and in all kinds of manual labour. They also 
make \'arious kinds of coarse cotton or woollen cloths in hand-looms, 
vhile the Alemdn furnish recruits for the Rnrr SL'poy regiments. There 
uetno tribes, Kannada and Telugu Holeya, who eat together hut do 
DOC tntemurry. Their subdivisions are very numerous, but the follow- 
ing are said to be the principal ones : — Kannada, Oangadikara, 
Haggada^ Morasu, Telugu, Tigula and Tamil Holeya or Pareya. The 
minor sections are Agani, Aleman, Balagai, Beljikula, Bh\5mi, Chakra, 
Chalavddi, Chambula, Chavana, Chillaravdr, Ddsari, Gollatc, Jhadmali, 
JiDtra, Joti, Kdlu, Karndtaka, Kripu, Konga, Kurupatte, L(5k(5ttara- 
ptreya, Madya, Mala, Mxsalu, Mattige, Nagaru, NalUr, Pdle, Palji, 
Pinne, Pasali, Rampada, Roppada, Sambu, Sangu, Sitra, S'idlukula, 
Simcs'a, Tanga, Tangaja, Tirukula, Tude, T6ti, Uggranada, Vadaga, 
Valange, Vanne, Varka, Velagi, VelHIa, VaUuvdr, Veluva, Vanniyar, 
Vfrabhagna and Vfrasambu. 

They are regarded as unclean by the four principal castes, and 
ptttticuLirly by the Brahmans, In the rural parts, especially, when a 
Hole)"! has to deliver anything to a Krahnian^ he places it on the 
ground and retires to a distance, and when meeting one in a street or 
toad he endeavours to get away as far as possible. Brahmans and 
Roleyas mutually avoid passing through the quarters they respectively 
occupy in the villages, and a wilful transgression in this respect, if it 
did not create a riot, would make purification necessary, and that not 
only on the part of the higher caste but even on the part of the lower. 
With all this, there is no restriction in the Mysore State on the acquisi- 
tion of land or property by Holeyas, and under the various blending 
influences of the times— educational, missionary, and others — members 
of this class are rising in importance and acquiring wealth. So much 
io 'bat in the cities and large towns their social disabilities are, to a 
great extent^ being overcome, and in public matters especially their 
complete ostracism can hardly be maintained. 

In the Maidan parts of the country, the Holeya, as the kulavdds, had 



=54 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



a recognized position in the village, and has always been regarded as 
an ultimate referee in cases of boundary disputes. In the Malnid he 
was merely a slave, of which there were two classes, — the huijdi^ or 
slave born in ihe house, the hereditary serf of the family ; and the 
ma/MitUi o^ slave of the soil, who was bought and sold with the land. 
These are, of course, now emancipated, and are benefiting by the free 
labour and higher wages connected with coffee plantations, often to the 
detriment of the areca-nut gardens, which were formerly kept up by 
their forced labour. 

The Madiga are similar to the Holeya^ but are looked down upon 
by the latter as inferior. They arc A'/', or village scavengers and 
nlr;gattti^ or watermen, in charge of the sluices of tanks and channel.s, 
regulating the supply of water for irrigation. They are principally dis- 
tinguished from the Holeya in being workers in leather. The carcases 
of de:id cattle are removed by them, and the hides dressed to provide 
the thongs by which bullocks are strapped to the yoke, the leather 
buckets used for raising water in kapile wells, and other articles 
required by the villagers. They are also cobblers, tanners and shoe- 
makers, and the increasing demand for hides is putting money into 
their purses. 

Their subdivisions are Arava, Chakkili, Chammir, Garapa, Cfampa- 
sdle, (ioppasale, He<;ligcbiivva, Kanchala, Kannarla, MarabUvva, 
Morasn, Malangi, Tirukula, Singacli, TanigebiHva, Telugu, U'ru and 
Vainadu. "^J'hey are worshippers of \'ishnu, S'iva and S'aktis, and have 
five different gijrus or mafhs in the Mysore country, namely, at Katjavc, 
K.6dihall:, Kongarli, Nelamangala and Konkallu. They also call 
themselves Jambava and Matanga. There is, moreover, a general 
division of the caste into Des'abhaga, who do not intermarry with the 
Others. Though subordinate to the maths above mentioned, they 
acknowledge S'rfvaishnava Brahmans as their gurus. The Des'abhdga 
are composed of six classes, namely, Bijloru, Mall6ru, Amaravatiyavani, 
Munigaju, Vanamaloru and Morabu\Tadavani, 

Certain privileges enjoyed by ihc Holeya and Madiga in regard to 
temple worship will be found described in connection with Melukoje 
and B^litr. 

The MkM (746) are not to be classed with the Madiga, except in 
the matter of working in leather. They are immigrants, who, it is said, 
came into Mysore with Khasim Khan, the general of Aurangzeb, and 
settled originally in Sira and Kolar. They claim to be Kshatriyas and 
Rajputs, pretensions which are not generally admitted. They are shoe- 
makers and saddlers by trade, and all S'aivas by faith. They have sub- 
divisions called Gujarat, Kannada, Kempala and Mar*i(a. 



rVODDAS 



^ss 



The next class (E) is styled Vagrant Minor Artisans and Performers, 
and is composed of the following groups : — 



EATih-workennnd Stone-tlrcssers . , WtxUla 

Mat and Bukct-niakers M^da 

Hunters and Kuwlcis Betja 

Misccllancfius, and Disrcputalile IJvcrs ... Jngi, &c 

TumVilers and Acrobats Domln, JcUi 

Ju^leCfi, SnAke-chumers, &c Garadiga 



107.203 

4,261 

217.128 

10,884 

3.703 

876 



The large and useful class of IViu/i^ias is composed of Kallu VVoHda and 
Manrm Wodtja, between whom there is no social intercourse, nor any 
intermarriage. Both worship all the Hindu deities and S'aktis, but a 
goddess named Yellama seems to be a special object of reverence. 
The Kallu Wodda are stonemasons, quarrying, transporting, and build- 
ing with stone, and very dexterous in moving lai^e masses of it by 
ample mechanical naeans. I'hey consider themselves superior to the 
Mannu Wodija. The latter are chiefly tank-diggers, well-sinkers, and 
generally skilful navvies for all kinds of earthwork, the men digging 
and ihe women removing the earth. Though a hard-working class, 
ihey have the reputation of assisting professional thieves in committing 
dicoities and robberies, principally, however, by giving information as 
10 where and how plunder may be easily obtained. The young and 
ist of the Mannu Wodda of both sexes travel about in caravans in 
;h of employment, taking with them their infants and huts, which 
consist of a few sticks and mats. ^Vherever they obtain any large 
anhwork, they form an encampment in the neighbourhood. The 
older members settle in the outskirts of towns, where many of both 
sexes now find employment in various capacities in connection with 
siattary conservancy. The Wodda, as their name indicates, were 
originally immigrants from Orissa and the Telugu country, and they 
jcoerally speak Telugu. They cat meat and drink spirits, nnd arc 
j^en to polygamy. The men and women of the caste cat together. 
Tbe subdivisions are Bailu, Bh6ja, B6yi, Ha]e, Jarupa, Jangalpatfe- 
burusu, Telugu, Ti|;ala, Uppu and U'ni. They are most numerous 
in the eastern and northern Districts. 

The Miiia or Gauriga are mat and basket-makers, and workers in 
bftinboo and cane. One-fourth are in Shimoga District, and a good 
number in Mysore and Kadur Districts. 

The Beda or Niyaka consist of two divisions, Telugu and Kannada, 
who neither eat together nor intermarry. One-third of the number are 
m Chitaldroog District, and the greater proportion of the rest in Kolar 
and Tumkur Districts. They were formerly hunters and soldiers by 
profession. Most of the Mysore Pallegars belong to this caste, and 



ETHNOGRAPHY 

the famous infantry of Haidar and Tipu was largely compose<I of 
Bedas. Now their principal occupation is agriculture, labour and 
Government service as revenue peons and village police. They claim 
descent from W-ilmiki, the author of the Rdmayana, and arc chiefly 
Vaishnavas, hut worship all the Hindu deities. In some parts they 
erect a circular hut for a temple, with a stake in the middle, which is 
the god. In common with the GoUa, Kuruba, Mddiga and other 
classes, they often dedicate the eldest daughter in a family in which no 
son is born, as a Basavi or prostitute ; and a girl falling ill is similarly 
vowed to be left unmarried, which means the same thing. The main 
divisions are Halu (3,929), Niiyaka (15,453)1 PaHegar (48), Kan'ka. 
Kannaiyanajati, Kiritaka, and MAchi or Myasa (9,175). The minor 
sulxlivisions are Arava, Balaj6gi, OujjAri, Halli, Kanaka, Mo«laya\-aru, 
Muchchalamire, Mugia, Nagi, Telugu and Yanamala. The Mdchi or 
Mydsa, also called Chunchu, call for special notice. Many of them live 
in hills and in temporary huts outside inhabited places. The remarkable 
point about them is that they practise the rite of circumcision, which is 
performed on the boys of ten or twelve years of age. They also eschew 
all strong drink, and that so scrupulously that they will not use materials 
from the date-pahu in their buildings, nor even touch them. On the 
other hand they eat beef, but of birds only partridge and quail. Possibly 
these peculiarities may have arisen from forced conversion to Islam in 
the days of Tipu. With the Musalman rite they also combine Hindu 
usages at the initiation of boys, and in the segregation of women in child- 
birth follow the customs of other quasi jungle tribes. The dead are cre- 
mated, and their ashes scattered on tangadi bushes (cassia auricuiata). 

In the Miscellaneous group xhejoj^' (9,692) are the most numerous. 
They are mendicant devotees recruited from all castes. Their divisions 
are Ganjij6gi, Gorava, Helava, Jangdliga, Monda, Paka.na;i, Pichcha- 
kunte, SillekyAta and Uddinakorava. They mostly pretend to be 
fortune tellers, while the Jangdliga and Pakanati deal in drugs, and 
wander about calling out the particular diseases tliey profess to cure by 
means of their wares. 

The Budubufiike (1,092) are gypsy beggars and fortune-tellers from 
the Mahratta country, one section being called Busare. They pretend 
to consult birds and reptiles, and through them to predict future events. 
They use a small double-headed drum, which is sounded by whisking it 
about so as to be struck by the knotted ends of a string attached to 
each side. The others of this group of beggars are Sudugadusidda 
(46), Gondaliga (29), Pandaram and Valluvar (15), Karma (7), and 
S'dniyar {3). The fiRt are all in Shimoga District, and the last three 
in the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore. 




MCrSALMAuVS 



aS7 



The Tumblers and Acrobats include Domba (2,500) and JaUi (1,203). 
The former are buffoons, tumblers, and snake-charmers. They are 
supposed to Ije descendants of an aboriginal tribe from the north of India 
(Doms probably). The Jatli or Jetli, also called Mushtiga in the 
western Districts, are professional athletes and wrestlers, or Malla. 
They are Richevir by caste Nearly a half are in the Mysore District. 
A number arc maintained in connection with the palace, and are 
trained from infancy in daily exercises for the express purf)ose of 
ejchibiiion. An interesting account of this order, as it existed at the 
beginning of the century, extracted from Wilks, vms given in the first 
edition. 

The group of Odrudiga and M<5dihidiyuva consists of jugglers, snake- 
charmers, and conjurers. 

The last class (F) is styled Races and Nationalities, numbering 
291,168, and includes the Musalmans and Europeans, with Eurasians 
and Native Christians. The following are the figures : — 



Asiatic Races of reputed foreign orig^- 

Musalmans 

I'axsis, Jews, Chinese, &c 
MiieO Asiatic Kaces — 

Labbc 

Pinjari 

IMnddri 

Miipile and others 

Nun-Asialic Races — 

English, Scotch and IrUh 

Other Kuropeans 

Enrasuuu 

Native Christians 



5>943 
2S8 

3.931 
37.954 



The Musalmans belong to one of two religious sects — the Sunni and 
Shiah — the great majority being Sunnis. They are so called from 
accepting the Sunnat or traditional law, based on the sa>nngs and 
practice of Muhammad, as of authority supplementary to the Kunin. 
I They also revere equally the four successors of the prophet, alleging that 
he made no arrangements for hereditar)' succession and left the matter 
to the faithful The Shiahs, on the other hand, attach supreme impor- 
^tancc to the lineal descent of the Imam or head of the faithful. They 
therefore reject the claims of the three Khalifs that succeeded 
Muhammad and recognize Ali, the fourth Khalif, husband of Fatima, 
the prophet's only surviving child, as the true Imdm, followed by their 
two sons Hasan and Husain. To the usual formula of belief they add 
•' Ali is the Khalif of God." 

The foUowing is the distribution of the Musalmans in the several 

s 



J 



3S8 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



Districts. There are also 892 Sharif, 244 Meman, and 861 returned 
only as Musalmans, besides 28 Arabs, 2 Randahiris, and z Baluchis. 



Clot^ 


1 


1 


I 


1 

S 


1 


1 




1 


Shckh ... 


38,923 


8>«3i 


14.247 


25,634 


9,324 


18,834 


10.912 


13,843 


Saivid ... 


11.407 


6.S4I 


3.009 


7,327 


1.705 


4.470 


<.943 


2,271 


Mugtial ... 


1.999 


1.264 


1.032 


1.413 


481 


2,615 


376 


237 


Patnan ... 


[1,057 


4.937 


4.463 


7.586 


1.828 


3.753 


3,117 


1.839 


llaniR ... 


33 


6 


127 


433 


139 


343 


14 


3 


Dairc ... 


M19 


— 


I 


80 










Labbc ... 


1,09s 


199 


93 


'•'Jl 


67 


119 


161 


8 


Mripilc ... 


28 






71 


30 


41 


— - 


Piujiri ... 


124 


447 


1^ 


— 


26 


10 


1 


955 


I'indiri ... 


180 




1,027 


" 


11 


~~ 




Total... 


67.a68 


38,225 


34,395 


48.491 


13,64* 


30.J97 


15.565 


18.155 



The four classes first above given are those of reputed pure descent. 
But although gf.»od families doubtless remain in various parts, the bulk 
are of mixed descent, due to intermarriage and conversions, voluntary 
or enforced. Shckh denotes properly a lineal descendant from 
Muhammad through his successors Abu Bakr and Umar ; and Satyid, 
a descendant through his son-in-law Ali and Husain. But these titles 
have probably been often assumed by converts promiscuously without 
reference to their signification. Pathans are of Afghan origin, descen- 
dants of Kuib-ud Din, the founder of the Pathan dynastVj and his 
followers; while Mughals are descended from Tartar chiefs who 
followed Tamerlane into India. The Sharif, nearly all in Tumkur 
District, claim to be descended from nobility. 

The Hanifi are a sect of Sunnis who follow the teachings and tradi- 
tions of Abu Hanifa, one of the four great doctors of Islam. In 
practice one of their principal distinctions is in multiplying ceremonial 
ablutions. The Daire or Mahdavi are a sect peculiar to Mysore, 
principally settled at Channapatna in the Bangalore District, and at 
Bannur and Kirigdval in the Mysore District Their belief is that the 
Mahdi has already appeared in the person of one Saiyid Ahmed, who 
arose in (lujardt about 400 years ago claiming to be such. He obtained 
a number of followers and settled in Jivanpur in the Nizam's Domin- 
ions. Eventually, being worsted in a great religious controversy, they 
were dri\en out of the Haidarabad country and found an abode at 
Channapatna. They have a separate mosque of their own, in which 
their priest, it is said, concludes prayers with the words "the Imam 



EUROPEAN'S 



259 



Mahdi has come and gone," the people responding in assent, and 
denouncing all who disbelieve it as infidels. They do not intermarry 
with the rest of the Musalmans. The Daire carry on an active 
trade in silk with the western coast, and are generally a well-to-do 
class. 

The Arabs, Kandaharis and Balilchis are mostly in Bangalore, and 
come here as horse-dealers and traders in cloth. 

The Labbe and Mdpile' are by origin descendants of intermarriage 
between foreign traders (Arabs and Persians), driven to India by 
persecution in the eighth century, and women of the country, but the 
latter designation was taken by the children of those forcibly converted 
to Islam in Malabar in the persecutions of Tipu Sultan's time. The 
Labbe belong to the Coromandcl coast, their principal seat l>eing at 
Negapatam, while the Mdpile belong to the Malabar coast. The 
former speak Tamil and the latter Malaydlam. The Labbe are an 
enterprising class of traders, settled in nearly all the large towns. They 
are vendors of hardware, collectors of hides, and large traders iii coffee 
produce, but take up any kind of lucrative business. They are also 
established in considerable strength as agriculturists at Oargesvari in 
the Mysore District. 

The Meman, all in the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore, are 
immigrants from Cutcb, come here for trade. By origin they appear to 
have been Rajputs. The Pinjdri, as their name indicates, are cleaners 
of cotton. They do not intermarr>' with other Musalmans, who as a rule 
have no intercourse with them. The Pindari were to a great extent 
Afghans, Mahrattas and Jats in origin, disbanded from the service of 
the Mughal empire, but became known as a tribe of freebooters who 
ravaged Indui on a grand scale, with large armies, and gave rise to many 
wars. They were finally suppressed in Central India in 1817 in the 
time of the Marquess of Hastings. They are now settled down in the 
pursuit of peaceful occupations in agriculture and Government sernce 
of various kinds. 

The Parsis (35) are from Bombay, and engaged in trade, except a 
few who are in Ciovemment service. One-half are in Mysore, and most 
of the remainder are in Bangalore. Of the Jews (25), the majority are 
in Hassan District, relatives of an official there. The Armenians (8), 
Chinese (7), Burmese (4), and Singalese (3), are all in Bangalore. 

Of Europeans (6,231), the folloMring is the distribution of the 
nationalities that are strongest in numbers : — 

1 Labile is supposed to \jc derived from the Arabic lahhaik^ *' here I am," Iwing 
the rcspun>e of slaves to the call of ihcir masters. Mapilc is apiiaicDily from 
MiiiilU, Malaydlam for "soii'inlaw." 

S 2 




i 



zrmfCGMAnrr 



f f 



6 — 
I — 

3 — 



Of IhOM from the Untted Kmgdon, a m mi d rr i Me propoition 
fA iIm CMI Mid Miliary Sucion of Bangilnre bdoog to the British 
AflWf ' ffudi a« are not toduded in the mflitaTy are oigaged in civil 
«fytp|/>y of variou* kind* tmder Goiremment, or Railway Companies, 
And HI UHincm f/f trade, while a number are missionaries, pensioners, 
and vi fr/fth. The Kuroficani in Kolar District arc mostly connected 
Willi the t(old mines, all the Italians there being miners. Those in 
My»ore who are not (rovemment servants or employed under the 
2'alaC«, arc an in Hnngnlnrc. The Europeans in Kadur and Hassan 
DUlrlcta aro princijwiiy coffee-planters. Besides the foregoing there 
nro cloven Hpantards, eight Swiss, four Auscnans, two Belgians, two 
llrtMrit, nnd twenty-four others. Nearly all are in Bangalore, except six 
o( llic Swi»«, whrj are in Kadur District. 

Tho tCunuiianft numljer 3,931, of whom 2,649 ^^ *" the Civil and 
Military Slnlion of Bangalore, and 401 in the Bangalore District. 
Ifi the other Distrirtu there are 27A in Kolar, 17 in TUmkiSr, 20S 
In MyHOfc, 97 in Hassan, 16 in Shimoga, 229 in Kadur, and 38 in 
I'hlinldrnng, The remarks under Europeans in great measure apply 
lit tlu'ii' (il.vi, Imt Ihey are as ;i rule in more subordinate positions. 
Anglit hulinn nm! Kumsiiin colonies have been formed at \A'hitefieId 
and SiUMMoml, about fifteen miles to the cast of Bangalore, the 
rciidenlH of which arc occupied in agriculture and dair)'-farming. 

TIk' Native Christians are mostly Hindu by origin. Of the total 
number tif ^7,954, as many as 10,252 are in the Civil and Military 
Station, Aiul 5,404 more in the District of Bangalore. Of the remain- 
ing DiMrietH therv arc 2,418 in Kolar, 699 in Tilmkdr, 2,509 in Mysore, 
Ji»o07 in Havtan, 1,603 '» Shimiiga* 1,773 in Kadur, and 229 in Chitai- 
droOK. A large numlwr are no doubt domestic sen-ants to Europeans 
an\1 Kur^sianv b\)t thoy .an^ found in all grades of life, and a 
|>rv|HMih>n nrr ^etikxi in agricultural villages of their own, 
by varK>us mifii)onar>* agende& This is especially the case in the 
MMIIcm wA KWthem Districts. The Christian settlement of SatbaK m. 
th* lUaan Dteict dates from the time of the Abb^ Mboi^ the 




URBAN POPULATION 



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762 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



There arc thus twenty-four towns with a population exceeding 5,000, 
namely, 



Bangalore 


180.366 


Danngere ... . 


.. 8,061 


Nanjangud ... 


6^1 


Mysore 


. 74.048 


Chiknia^lut 


- 7,816 


Harihai 


6,3*5 


Soingapauun.. 


'2.55* 


Aneka! ... . 


- 7.419 


CloscpcC 


6,236 


KoUr 


. 12,148 


Dod HaUapur . 


7,141 


Hole Narsipur 


5.758 


ShinK^a 


■ n,34o 


Tarikcrc ... . 


• ■ 7.056 


MaUvalli ... 


5.639 


Tumkiir 


. 11,086 


Devanhalli ... . 


.. 6.693 


Huasui 


5.141 


Chile BalUpur 


10,623 


Hassan ... . 


.. 6,654 


Mulbafia] ... 


5.<»« 


Channajiatna .. 


9.160 


Sidbghalla... . 


- 6,572 


Shikarpur ... 


S,oii 



to which, in order to make up the totals given, must be added the 
large village of Agara in Mysore District, with 5,218 inhabitants ; and 
the village of Wokkalcri in Kolar District, where the occurrence of a 
large festival at the time of the census raised the population to 7,273. 

Besides these, there are seventy-four other smaller municipal towns, 
namely. 



1 1 with poputalioTi of over 4,000 
JS .1 .. I. 3'O0O 



26 Kilh population of over 2,000 
22 I. ,. M i.aoo 



The town population may thus be reckoned as 626,558, forming 
127 per cent of the total. 

To estimate the growth of towns during the present century the 
following statistics are available : — 



Towa 


T85, 


.858 


ii7< 


i8S( 


.Sgt 


Bangalore 


134.628 


175.630 


142,513 


<S5.8S7 


180.366 


Mysore 


54.729 


SS.761 


57.815 


60,292 


74-048 


Reringaptttam 


'2.7+4 


14,928 


10.594 


11.734 


12.55' 


Kolar 





— 


9.924 


11,172 


12,148 


Shimoga 


— 


14.186 


11.034 


12,040 


11.340 


Tunikur 


— 


9.339 


11,170 


9.909 


11.088 


Chik Ballapur 


•^ 




9,882 


9,183 


10,623 




Except in Bangalore and Mysore these figures do not disclose any 
firmly established tendency to a decided increase in the urban popula- 
tion in the case of the principal towns. 

Other particulars regarding the occupations, &c. of the people, are 
given under each District in Vol. 11. 



CHARACTER. DRESS. &o. 



The people of Mysore are a hardy and well-formed race, fairer as a 
rule than those of the low country-, and with regular features. " I have 
never," says Buchanan, " seen finer forms than even the labouring 




DiVELUNGS 



263 



women of that country frequently possess. Their necks and arms are 
in particular remarkably well-sliaped." 

In public character and disposition they may be described as the 
most conservative of the South Indian races. In practice, perhaps ihcy 
exhibit a greater aptitude for the labours of the field and the tending of 
cattle than for other occupations. With the bucolic turn of mind there 
was no doubt much stolidity to be found among the agrestic hinds, and 
till lately predial slaves, but accompanied with blind devotion and 
simple fidelity to their masters. The better specimens of headmen, on 
the other hand, arc dignified and self-reliant, commanding and gaining 
respect, proud of hospitality, sagacious observers, shrewd in conversa- 
tion and with a vein of homely good sense and humour. The 
industrial classes and field labourers are very hard-working, especially 
the women. 

The dwellings of the people are generally built of mud, one-storeyed 
and low, with few, if any, openings outwards except the door, but 
possessed of courtyards within, surrounded with verandahs, and oiwrn 
to the sky. In the better houses these are well-paved and drained, 
while the wooden pillars are elaborately car\ed or painted. The huts 
of the outcaste and poorer classes are thatched, but the houses of the 
higher orders are covered with either terraced or tiled roofs, the latter, 
more especially in the west, where the rainfall is heavy. 

The villages are pretty generally surrounded with a thick hedge of 
ihom, a protection in former days against the attacks of the Mahratta 
cavalry*. For the same reason the entrance is often a flat-arched stone 
gateway, so constructed as to present an obstacle to a horseman. In 
the districts lying north-east from the Baba Kudans, villages commonly 
have the remains of a round tower in the middle, a somewhat 
picturesque feature, erected in former days as a place of retreat for the 
women and children in case of attack. Most important villages and 
towns have a considerable fort of mud or stone, also the erection of 
former troublous limes, when every gauda aimed at being a palegar, and 
c%'ery palegar at becoming independent, 'i'he fort is the quarter 
generally affected by the Hrahmans, and contains the principal temple. 
The pete or market, which invariably adjoins the fort at a greater or 
less distance beyond the walls, is the residence of the other orders. 

There is seldom any system in the arrangement of streets, which are 
often very roughly paved, and neariy always abounding in filth. The 
only motive for the formation of wide and regular streets in some of the 
towns is to pro\*ide for the temple-car being drawn round at the annual 
festival. All other lines of way are irregular beyond description. But 
improvements, both in laying out the streets and in their sanitation, are 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



now to be seen in many places which have been brought under 
municipal regulations. 

White or coloured cotton stuffs of stout texture supply the principal 
dress of the people, with a woollen kamNi as an outer covering for the 
night or a protection against cold and damp. Brahmans are bare- 
headed, the head being shaved all except the tuft at the crown (j'uftu), 
and most of the Hindus observe the same practice. The moustache is 
the only hair permanently worn on the face. The dhotra^ a thin sheet, 
covers the lower limbs, one end being gathered into folds in front and 
the other passed between the legs and tucked in at the waist behind. 
A similar garment is thrown over the shoulders. To protect the head, 
a bright magenta worsted cap is often donned, such as a brewer's dray- 
man wears, but not in the same jaunty manner, for it is pulled well 
down over the ears and back of the neck. This and a scarlet, green, 
or blue blanket are favourite articles of attire for the early morning or 
on a journey. In attending offices Brahmans wear a turban {runtdl) 
and a long coat (angi), eillier woollen or cotton. This also is more or 
less the costume of the merchant class. A fashion has sprung up 
among college students of wearing a sort of smoking-cap instead of a 
turban. The ryots are generally content with a turban and a kambli, 
with most frequently a short pair of drawers (chaiiatja). When not at 
work they often wear a blouse or short smock-frock. 

The dress of the women is generally very becoming aild modesL A 
tight-fitting short bodice {kupsa) is universally worn, lea\ing the arms, 
neck, throat, and middle bare, the two ends being tied in a knot in 
front. It is generally of a gay colour, or variegated with borders and 
gussets of contrasting colours, which set off the figure to advantage. 
In the colder part.s, to the west, a somewhat loose jacket, covering all 
the upper part of the body and the arms, is worn instead. The s^re 
or sdri^ a long sheet, the ordinar>* colours worn being indigo or a dull 
red wiih yellow borders, is wrapped round the lower part of the body, 
coming down to the ankle. One end is gathered into a large bunch of 
folds in front, while the other, passed across the bosom and over the 
head, hangs freely over the right shoulder. In the west it is tied there 
in a knot. The Brahmani women pass the lower end of the cloth 
between the legs and tuck it in at the waist behind, which leaves the 
limbs more free. Their heads too are not covered, the hair being 
gathered into one large plait, which hangs straight down the l:>ack, very 
effectively decorated at the crown and at different points with richly- 
chased circular golden cauls and bosses. 

The Vaisya women arc similarly dressed, hut often with less good 
taste. As the fair golden-olivc complexion natural to most Brahmani 




DJ^ESS 



afiS 



giris is much admired, those of ihe sex who are not so fair smear them- 
selves with saffron to produce a yellow tint, and not only on their cheeks 
but over their arms and legs. This practice, which seems very common 
with the trading class, is by no means attractive. Neither is the habit 
of blackening the teeth, adopted by married women. Many fair women 
are elaborately tattooed on the arms from the wrist to the elbow. The 
Sildra women generally gather the hair into a chignon or bunch behind, 
stuffed out with a fleece of woo!, and run a large pin through, with an 
ornamental silver head to it, which is rather becoming. In the Malnad 
the women often do up the back hair in a very picturesque manner, 
with a plaited arrangement of the cream white kefaki blossom {pandanus 
odoratissimus\ or even with orchid blossoms or pink cluster roses. 

(Ornaments are commonly worn in the ears and nose, and on the 
arms, with rings on the fingers and toes, and as many and costly 
necklets and chains round the neck as means will allow. Chains 
frequently connect the upper rim of the ear with the ornamental pin in 
the back hair, and have a pretty effect. The richer Brahmani and other 
girls wear silver anklets, often of a very ponderous make, which are by 
no means elegant A silver zone clasped in front is a common article 
of attire among all but the poorer women, and gives a pleasing finish to 
the graceful costume. 

It would be useless to attempt to go through a description of the 
varieties of Hindu dress in different parts. The only marked differ- 
ences are in the Malnad, as described under Manjarabad, and the dress 
of the Lambini women. 

The Muhammadan dress for men differs chiefiy in cut and colour, 
and in the wearing of long loose drawers. But for undress a piece of 
dark plaided stuff is worn like thti dhctra. Muhammadans shave the 
head completely, but retain all the hair of the face. A skull-cap is worn, 
over which the turban is tied in full dress. The women weara coloured 
petticoat and bodice, with a large white sheet enveloping the head and 
the whole person, and pulled also over the face. 

The higher Hindus wear leather slippers, curled up at the toe and 
turned down at the heel, but the labouring classes wear heavy sandals, 
with wooden or leather soles and leather straps. The Muhammadans 
also wear the &lip[)er, but smaller, and frequently a very substantial big 
shc»e, covering the whole foot. W'omen arc never shod, except occa- 
sionally on a journey, or in very stony places, when they sometimes 
wear sandals. 

Members of the various Hindu orders are known by the sectarian 
marks tainted on their foreheads. Married women commonly wear a 
wafer-spot or patch of vermilion, or sometimes of sandal-powder, on the 



^H a66 ^^^ ETHNOGRAPHY ^^^^^^^^H 


^^H forehead. The Lingayits are known by the peculiar-shaped silver boic. 


^^H the shrine of a small black stone emblematic of the linga, which is 


^^H worn suspended by a string from the neck and hanging on the chesL 


^^1 The working-classes of that order often tie the linga in a piece of hand- 


^^H kerchief round the arm above the elbow. The commoner religious 


^^H mendicants dress in a variety of grotesque and harlequin costumes. 


^^H But garments dyed with red ochre or saffron arc the cnminonest indlca- 


^^^^^ tion of a sacred calling. 




^^^V Alphabetical List of CMtes mentioned in this chapter. 


^^H A'chiri 248 .\ttdn kuUldr 2401 Bellikula 253 ChaU^ddt 253 


^^H Achpijli^ 2a8 Avadhuta 243 Bengali 249 Cham 227 


^^^B A'di (Jianajiga) 346 Ay6dh>-iinag(ira 247 Berafukotjuva |' Chambula 253 


^^H „ S'aiva 237 Ay>'a 242 * 228, 2Jo 


Chammadi 252 


^^B „ (Witkkalign) 229 Besu 


Cham mar 254 


^^H Agamudi 247 Bablnir Kaium^ 223, 226, 247, 252 


Chandra Bans 227 


^^^B Agani 253 237, 238 Bettadpura 239 


Chandra Thikiir 227 


^^^1 Agarvila 247 Biichanig^ 229 Hciui Kiiruba 213 


Chapprada 251 


^^H Agasa 223, Bada Arasu 227 Belinlc 233 1 Chamnti 241 1 


^^^1 2^6,247,250 Bailflgala%-a 246 Btivina Kuruija 213 Chatui 227 | 


^^^1 Agasdie 248 Ba<la}i:aruid 237 Bhdgnvata 236-7 


Chavan 227 1 


^^^1 Aggada (Bannjiga) Radagar 229 Bhaniya 228 


Chavaita 253 


^^H 246 Badagi222,226,248 Bhal Kiiu 226, 244 Chill&ravir 253 
^^^1 ,, Knnicha233 Bailu Akkajtale 248 , Hhattahfchirya 240 , Chippiga 249 


^^^P Agiii (Tigula) 231 Kainmiira 


Bh^ri 223. 247 1 Cbitap^van 237 


^^H ,. Wokkaliga 229 233, 249 


Bheris'etti 246 ! Chitdrt 245 


^^H Agramiidl 229 ,. Woih.la 255 


BhiVar 229 Chitragara 223, 245 


^^^B A^ Va^ouu' 231 BainLgi 227, 242-3 ' Bhuja [Bcita} 252 ! Chiltala 229 


^^^B Aty&ngdr 236 BaiK 2371 (Wodda) 255 Choi! 240 


^^H Akkasal^ Bajanlri 249 > Bhoyi 252 Choli>^ 251 
^^B 222, 226, 248 Bakkal 247 Bhumda 233 Chunchu 256 


^^^H A'kuteti 246 Balagai 215, 253 BhiJmi 253 1 


^^H Aladakipu 229 Bnlnjt 249'Bh(isii 228 Dnt)l>f 233 
^^H Al^tnin 253 Bhlflji'igi 256 Bhutya 231 Dairc 258 


^^H Alia 251 Bal^ 246 Bidiira 246 I>anda&etti 249 


^^H Amaravatiyavaru Ba,bAJ>&^3''*3-M5'^ Bi)^amudr6 251 Dandi 243 
^^^^ 254 Bdn^ 251 Bilimagga 249-50 ; Darji 226,247,249 


^^^1 Atnbiga 252 Banig^ 251 BiMoru 254 Dasakuta 236 


^^H Anrhe Reilili 229 Huntya 227, 245,247 Bllva 212,253 I>iLsa Itanajiga 246 


^^1 Andhra ' 234 Banjari 231 Binldkur 227 ., (WokkaIiua)229 


^^^1 A'n^ Kunilia 213 Banpadava 246 ' Birappana Wokkalu Disari 226, 234, 242 


^^^H Angklika 229 Bano^igdra 245 251 lllolcyal 253 
^^^1 A'radhya 241 Banni 251 Bodhayana 237 L>asa%-an litre 229 


^^M Ara]^ 246 Banla 246 Bogavaru 245 IVkal Thakiir 227 
V Aramudi 229 I^riks 256 Itokkasada 251 D^sastlia 237-S 


^^^ Ansu 227 Baruv-a 228 Bondili 227 I>«avi 246 


^^H Arava Beda 256 Basalt 246 iV>yi' 255 \ I>^>-aciau 24$ 
^^H M Goila 251 Bosavi 345 Brahman 226, 233 1 Dc%;tdiga 246 


^^H Midiga 254 B&\-iji 242 Brahmarishi 231 D^valaka 237 


^^H ranchab248 Bi\-ane 246 Brihachchaia^a 


Dcvir^ 223, 249 


^^B Rcddi 229 B^da 223, 226. 255 237-S 


I>evar 253 


^^H Tigala 231 Bc|agud^ 229 Brinjari 231 
^^^B Arav-altukkalu Uelakuvadi 229 HudabvidikC 226.256 


l)e\-aniniakkalu2I2 


Dhaly^a 233 


^^H 237-S Bcltala 22S Busarc ' 256 


I)hanapi£U 223 


^^H A'niWlu 237-S Bcitaia Rcddi 229 Byalada 251 


Dharma IJasari 242 


^^H .. Niy^ 237-S Bciii'uVf^l 250 


Dharmariju 246 


^^H Asaga 250 ,, (l}c«ta) 252 Chakkili 254 


Dhannarajukipu 


^^H Ashta&aha^ra 237 „ (Kuniba) 251 Chakra 253 231 



^^^^^^^^^ LIST OF CASTES ^^^^^^^^ 


DUttri 237 ilyvir 227 Ja.li 352 KaiuUrara 237, 239 


f>h6lii 250 Cliidama Ddsari 242 


JahalaVcIWIft 229 


KancVdlu 229 


Dhuniit\-a.t{)A<la 331 Ctudcjangiliga 351 


Jiina 223, '233. 242, 


Kankdr 251 


D^mbara 242, 244 ( ;u<)ikiVni 249 


245,247 


Kannada Agasa 250 


Dodajrm 247 , (lujjiri 256 


Jalagira 227, 24S 
Jaman 247 


„ Hanajiga 246 


DmWi 351 Gun»likultt 352 


„ B«U 255 


Domlw 226,355 (>uru5t1uLk23S,34i 


Jdmbava 351, 354 


„ De\*inga 249 


DimvirU 334, 237-« . liujanit Mochi 254 


Jamkh.-iru-ala 250 


,, Gcfniga 252 


' Gujarili 222, 227, 


Janapa 250 


„ GuIIa 251 


EtUiyaf 251 245. 247 


Jan{*aliga 356 


„ lloleya 253 


Einw 240 Gurjani Brahman 


Jangalpatlcbuntsu 


,, Kamiiic237-S 


Enn^ 331 334 


25s 


,, Kama 1 246 




Janeama 241 


„ KoracKa 233 


Glidaluuiii 229 Hai^ 216, 237. 239 Jarupa 255 


„ Korama 333 


Gii.U Lingiyit 346 Hajam 249 }i\ 337, 245 


„ Kumbdra 353 


(^digti-viiva 246 lUk Kannadi^ 


attdd^vara 252 


„ KuruU 353 


Gahar^«nyaThikur 237-8 


■ aiti 257 


„ Madiga 254 


221 1 ,> Kamatka 237-S 


ctiu Kurutw 213. 


„ Mochi 251 


CijuUtvIji 246 1 t< Kuntlo 252 


233 


„ Kiju 237 


C«tiipa 254 ! Haji^iiiakkalu 250 


Jetti 355, 357 


„ Tigala 231 


GunDAsdlit 354 lUWpoika ' 312, 
GapddhisSara 242 22S-30» 253 


Jh^dmili 353 


„ Uppdrn 353 


inf^ra 245 


,, Wokkaliga 339 


Gftnilhaililaljt 246 Hal^paiki 212 


intra 353 


Kannadtga 346 


(Suifia 246 Haie Tijjala 231 


ogfla 333 


Kannaiyaiia Jiu 356 


Gftii^dikani 217, Haje WofUla 255 


ogi 226, 332, 355-6 


Kant'ha ]'av'ad^346 


228-9, 253 IlaiU Bc«.la 256 


61 i 253 


Kanva " 237 


GaoMfanakkalu 252 ,, Kunitia 251 
Ckfit^ 322, 226. .. TigaU 231 


utilianaji^a 346 
otinajjtua 252 


Kan)-akubja 334 
Kajtali 346 


247, 352 Hallikira 229-30 


6tipana 353 


Kapu 253 


GMit96gi 356 Milu It^U 236 




Kipii Re<!di 229 


Gantu 233 „ Uulla 251 


Kabljaliga 252 


Kapus'akalavadu 


Gini<iifia 227.255, „ Kuniba 252 Kachche Gaiili 251 


250 


257 M Wokkaliga , Kadambiyar 340 


Karadi 337, 239 


Gttudaatan^ 228 228-9 ^a'.^" i:,o\\A 251 


Karadi 251 
KaraW 229 


Gaiubllrahman234 Hant)^ 251-2 


,, Kiirulia 213, 


,. Tigala 231 Manifi 258 


231. ^zh ^51 


KarhA4lc 339 


GuidakuU 252 Ha^ular 314 


Kaikola 245-6 


Kariga 339 


Gftudu 246 Havika 216.237,239 


Kaikoia 237 


Karma 227, 25 1, 256 


GauLLaiu 251 Hchliar 340 


Knlayi 246 


Karman 249 


(^uli 251 lleili^tflti'iva 254 


Kalkutuka 248 


Kurnala 249 


lUutif;a 328 lic^gadt 252 


Kallar 249 


Karndiaka (Brah- 


GaurKtar 249 1 letgaiiiga 223, 252 
Gaurija 255 Hcm-a 256 


Kaiiu Wix.Kia 255 


nuiii) 234, 237 


Kalu 253 


.. llolcya 253 


Guiaa^iS^ 229 H^ma Ket.Uli 228 


Kdmdti 333 


Kami 251 


Giyaka 245 Hcmmigcyar 240 


Kimawokkalu 339 


Kanjik^ 244 


lUyaUvidi 251 Hintluslani 337 


Kanil;ali 353 


Kdru 329 


Gayi Thikiir 227 IttrihasuW 246 


Kamljahir 237-8 


Karukal 229 


GiuiU 233 llolcya 215,223, 


Kammadi Kc«_Idi 229 


Kasalndd 237 


Gcjj^ra 249 226, 246-7. 253 


Kammdru 222, 226, 


Kityayaiia 237 
Kavddiga 251 


G^Kain 246 llonn^Kedtli 228 248-9 


Ghacuya 339 Hosad^vnra 339 Kammc 237-8 


Kavari 346 


GoUa 333, 226, 247. I Insa Kiiruba 352 


,, lJanai^246 
„ Rciar 238 


Ka^rga 337, 239 


251 Hoysa^ 237-8 


Kausika 239 


Golbt^ 353 Huvvddiga 346 


Kamsi 327 


Kdyasia 227, 244 


(rfxitlal^ 237, 356 


Kanaka 327, 356 


Kelabi 249 


tioi»(E^i 233 THiga 226. 347, 252 


KflnHkaiyannjiti252 


Kcmpala 254 


ttcoiga 236. 347, Ipintnalkara\-aru 


Kan:ikkaii 244 


KcJiipti 246 


249-50 „ .237 


Kan chain 254 


Keni{m BaQajiga246 


Gnpola 251 1 I rnganti Madivali 


Kanchiigim 332, 


„ Golla 251 


Go(>[«aIc 254 250 


227, 24S 


Kenchdla 252 


(Kxsva 256 Inili^ 314, 226, Kanilidt: 240 


Khitlri Vaishi^ava 


Co«anp 229 1 231,233 


KamUpjmlU 231 


241 


K}iM£j\ 227, 242-3 J:ida 249 


Kanda Kaju 337 


KhaoKlat 232 



^H 268 ^^^ ETHNOGRAPHY ^^^^^^J 


^^^H Khntri 249 Kurupatie 253 


Maya 24S NayakawSni 24^^! 


^^H Kh^iivat 231 


Kuru&'ivalH 237 


M6«U 226, 255 Niyar 227-8 | 


^^H Kilari 251 


Kuruvina 249 


Melpivadi^ 246 


Na>-i 251 


^^^H Kilnail 237 


Kus'asI haJa 237 


Meluaklcare 252 


Na>-inda 223. 226, 


^^^H KUtuitir 240 




Mi^man 258-9 


247.249 


^^H Kine 


UbW 257, 259 


Mciukunliryar 240 


Netta Reildi 229 


^^H Kira Giiciga 253 


Lida 232, 326. 245 


Mirasikat 232 


N^rdti ,1* 228 


^^H Kirduka 256 


I-alagonda 229,231 


M^chi 227, 247,254 


NYy-ipira 226, 247, 


^^^H KcxLaga 227 


I^mUidi 231 


MtHlayavaru 255 


249 


^^H Kixlati Keiim 228 


Lamlfiicii 226> 231 


Modihidiyuva 257 


N'lhflfij* 243 


^^^B KoUlu 1 


Lankekin 33S 


Monda 227, 256 


Ninimclinava 246 


^^^B Koiania 229 


Lingabalji 246 


Mopir Raju 227 


Niyogi 237 
Noijalm 217,228-30 


^^^B KoIIa 246 


Unga Banajiga 223, 


Morabuvvadavani 


^^^H KolH Kuruba 313 


245 


254 




^^^H Kolu%i. 239 


Ungakattt Vcjjila 


Monuiinad 240 


Oja 248 


^^^H Komarapaita 227 


229 Mur.L-*u{Holcya)253 


Oswiil 247 


^^^B K^jmali '233, 226, 


Ungiiyit 226,228, „ (Madiga)254 




^^H 


233.2*1-2,345 „ Wokkaliga 
LokabAlik^ 345 228. 230 


i»adata 250 


^^^B Kondr 351 


I'a day-achiniyakan 


^^^B Kontla 249 


Lok.)tUirap«reya353 Muchcbalamir^ 256 


229 


^^^fl Konflakatt^ 239 


Muflali 226.245.247 


Padmamurikinati 


^^^B Konrlamangala 249 


Mdchi 256 Mu.Iali Wukkaliga 


249 


^^^fl Koncli Rct.UH 229 


Madhva 335 


229 


I'adnuiiUtl^223, 249- 


^^^B Konga(I{oteya) 333 


„ I'eiiimttui 237 


Mudusdiebalji 246 


50 


^^^B Kunga Wokkaliga 


,, Vaishnava237 


Mughal 258 


Pagadala 346 


^^B 


Madhyanjana 239 


Mugia 256 


Takaniti 256 


^^^B Xonkaoa&t'ha 


Mailiga 223, 226, 


Midikiiiadu 237-8 


I'ikaniti RedcU 22Jf 


^^l 


247. 2S3-4 


Mullani ' 227, 245, 


PiUki ' "252 


^^^B Xonka^ign 239 


>radiva|i 350 


247 


Palayar 339 
Paichankoti 233 


^^^fl Koracha 214, 226, 


Madya 252 


Munchob' 240 


^^1 233 


Madyjindina 239 


Munigala 254 


Pdit 353 


^^^H Korama 214, 231, 


Maggada 253 


Murik'iii.ili 250 


Piilli 223.331.353 


^^H 233 Maharashtra 234 


MuruMre 246 


PdUegar 356 


^^^B Korava 214 Mah(|%-i 258 


Musaku 229 


PAlya 229 


^^^B Karatakipu 239 


Mahratu 228 


Mushtiga 257 


I'alyngar Cauda 239 
l-dlyakar ' 239 


^^H Kos'ava 


^taji 352 


Mutia 246 


^^m K6ta 237, 239 


Majjana 252 MuHaraju 246 


Piiviipttt 252 


^^^B Kotari 227 


.Mai}ig<; 252 Muttu 229 
M-ila 253 Myjida 246 


pAinar 329 


^^H K6t^gara 229 


Paiian 328 


^^^B Kotisvaia 337, 239 


Malava 22S Mydsa 256 


Panasakipu 229 


^^^B Kolta Banaiiga 246 
^^^B Kuruba 


Malavani 229 


Panch^chara Ganda 


.Ntaleya 214 Nagarta 223, 226, 


228,249 


^^H Kottad^varakapu 


Malta 253 245 
MallDru 254 Ndgaru 246 


Pancha Gauda 234 


^^B 229 


Paiichagrania 237, 


^^^B K<)1mtralj)ulnu 22S 


Maude 251 Naci 256 


240, 348 


^^H Kshntriyn 226. 229 Mandyalldr 240 Nallancbakras-artr 


i*:Snchala 233-3. 


^^H Kudtkc Wakkalu Manga 338 340 


247-« 


^^H , . ^^^ 


Mangah 249 Nulla 257 


Panchania&dl^ 346 


^^^H Ki'iduchappara 251 


Ma^iriu Woilda 255 Nallir 253 


PincharatrtU 34 1 


^^^B Kiiiala 


Manu 348 


Namad.ikula 251 


F'andiram 227, 256 


^^^B Ki'ilibedagii 229 


Mapilc 357, 359 


Namadhari 247 


Pandya Tigala 331 


^^^B Kiimaii 328 


Marabu\~\Ti 254 


Namburi 237 


,. VeljiUa 339 


^^^B Kumbara 223, 226, 


Ntaradiirdr 240 


Nimdiv 249 


Panne 253 


^^H 247. 252 


Mara-ti 246 


Naiulavudika 237, 


I'anneri 339 


^^^B Kumbi Mnrviidi 247 


Marata 226, 328 


239 


Paradi 333 


^^^B ,, Wokkali}^ 229 


„ M6chi 254 


Ndltu 249 


Parcj-a 253 ' 


^^^B Kunchatiga. 228-9 


Mar\-idi 227, 245, 


Naiachirosurtl 24 1 


I*arivara 253 


^^^H Kundali 249 


247 


Natainangala 249 


Parsi 359 


^^H Kun(e 229 


Masalu 353 


Naluva 226. 245 


Pasali 253 


^^^B Kuri (iolla 251 


Matanga 354 


Nava Thiikiir 227 


I'asaluviit^ 246 


^^^H Kuni]»t 252 


Malangi 254 


Navigrf 252 


Piita (Golbi) 251 


^^^B KurutKi,2i3, 223-6, 


Mauiij^ 253 


Nayadu 346 


„ Kuruha 252 


^^1 


Maval 233 


Nayaiia 255-6 

m 


„ Yada>-alu 251 ' 



^^^^HW^Sf?l^^^^^^^i^^^ 


Pathan 358 ' Sajjana (Lingityit) Smirta 235, 237 1 


Tigala 333. 326, 228. ^H 


Tat tar 248 


245 S6U 239 


231 ^M 


I'aitari 24S 


.. {G4piea)252 S01i«a 213-4 
„ (Pi(nch4!a)248| S-^liyas'etti 246 


.. (Wodda) 355 ^M 


(■aijasil^ 349-50 ' 


Tfrthonkara 242 ^^H 


ratniili 350 


Sdkalrtvidu * 250 Somcsa 253' 


Tinikiila 253-4 ^^1 


hitnuliikar 349 


SakunasdU 249-50, Sr>nie-shandal 240-1 , 


Ttnimalcyiir 340-1 ^^H 


Patvegir 249 50 


SiMr 327 S*'majiliand 248 : 


Tininima Ddsari ^^H 


I*edftluuuiK«tdi22$ 


S'ile 249, 351-3 S6ruir 348 


24a ^M 


PeiaguniU 229 


S'aliga 249-50, Sorjnan 251 


Togasetti 246 ^^B 


r^etnan'r 346 


S'alivihana 353 Sosh)-a 229 


Togata*339. 249-50 ^^1 


Petligcwilina 339 


Salja 251 S't.-ivaka 345, 247 


TopHa 352 ^H 


PtcfacKakunt^ 356 


Samaji 24I , Srt^shl'ha 353 


Torc^'a 223, 253 ^^H 


PDW 337-S 


AamayAgi 243 1 SfiMiishnava 235, 


Tota 231 ^H 


Pindare 357, 259 


Sandn 231 


340 


Tntaila Tigala 338 ^^1 


Hnjiri 237. 259 
PHimtora 242 


Sanilxira 25 1 


Sthaladava 246 


Tntngara 239 ^^H 


Sanibu 253 


SudugdduSidda3l6, 


T6tt 353 ^H 


Pr»kni<l 337 


SanHfnl>u 24 1 


227, 256 Trikanna 246 ^^H 


Praihanws'flshj 


SiniyitT 227, 256 Snggiila 352 Tude! 253 ^^H 
Sanim 3^3 Sukali 231 Tuluvu VelUla 228 ^^M 


237. 239 


Prathama Vaish- Sankara 241 1 Sukharaanji 246 ,, Wokkaliga ^^^| 


nava 34 1 Sanke^i 237,239 S'ukla Vajus s'^khe 


229 ^H 


iVativddi - bhayan - S'anku Disnri 243 


237. 239 


Tuppada 246 ^^H 


karattar ' 34O Sannyisi 337, 242 


SuHQakallu 353 


Tunikape Banajiga ^^H 


Puda 339 


Situ 253 Sun 241 


246 ^M 


Piija 351 


Sirasvata 234 


Suraj Buns! 337 




Punagti 351 
Puittinalif 329 


Sarigc 247, 252 
Satani 226, 233, 241 


Svalpa 339 
Sviri 351 


Uddina Korava 356 ^^H 
Uggnloada 253 ^^| 
Ulchflkammi 237-8 
IJlIi 231 
Uppaliga 25a 
Uppdfa 223, 246-7 
Uppina 249 
l'p[)inak»laga 239 


Pun 351 


Siinid!ia\Ti 241 S'vetimbttra 242, 

Satiilxfda 233 1 244 


kicWvir 336, 228, 

245 

Rija (Golla) 351 

., (Tigab) 331 


Sauiibhtrakn 249-50 
Si\-anti 252 
Soyjid 258 
SerHga 249-50 
Senvc 237 
S'etti (Banajiga) 346 
„ (G^iga) 353 
„ (K<Smati) 246 
., (Korama) 233 
Sharif 35S 
Shotsthala 242 
Shekh 358 
Sidjukula 353 
SipTtMiialu 353 
Silavanla 245 
Sillckyila 227, 256 
S'ilpt 349 
S'imc 339 
Singh 337 


Talukhandiya 227 
TamU'tli ' 227 
Tauiil Agosa 250, 

253 

., fIole>-a 253 

,, Kumhara 252 

Tammadi 241 

Tanga 253 

Tangala 253 

Tanigebiiwa 254 

Tclaghinya 237 

Tellapiisala 251 

Tcli^u Agasa 250 

,, Banajiga 246 

,. B<^da 255 6 

„ Gaijiga 254 

., Golla 251 

„ Holcya 253 


Kiiakula 337 

Vuffind^ 227 

lUjput 327 

„ (lauita 337 

Rihi 337 
Riju Rcldi 339 
Rtaiavatpidda 33 1 
Kampada 353 
Rao^eira 328 
Raogir^ 222, 249 
Riivula 328 
Riyar^vuta 333 
Riyaroddug:Ira 339 
Re<Wi(Nayin<U»349 
.. (TigaU) 331 
,. Wokkaliga 33&-9 
Kntldugara 339 
R6hiJa 237 


Uppu Koracha 233 

,, Korama 233 

„ Kora^•a 233 

„ Wodda 255 

Uriya 227 

Uru Golla 251 

,. Koracha 233 

M Midiga 354 

„ Wodda 255 

Utkala 234 

Uttaradi 239 

Uttardji 239 

Vatloga 353 


Singidi 254 „ Koracha 233 
Singmidi 349 ,, Kuml^dra 25 1 


„ Rc<.Idi 229 
Vadagale 237, 340 


Sirdevani 229 „ Madiga 254 


Vadama [Brahman) 


Sirkaiiakkan 244 ,, Njijinda 249 


238 


Sirkar^jikar 244 ,. Riichc\-ar 228 


,, KumbdirB 353 


S'frnad 337, 239 1 „ RctUli 339 


Vad.*r 242, 244 




SVu^-arga 237, 239 „ Sindr 353 


Viidh>-ama 237 


SaMvat 331 


Sishya\-arga 339 ,. SAtani 341 


Vadtya 232 


Sida 338 


Sitabhaira 329 ,, W...Jda 355 


Vaikhdna^ia 241 


„ Wokkaliga 328- 


Siv:ichir 347 Tengale 337, 240 


Vain^du 354 


30 


Sivdchira 246 Tenginahald 253 


Vaishaniga 238 


Sidhu 344 


Sivadvija 339, 241 1 Tcnugu Wokkaliga 


Vaijih oava( Nagarta ) 


SUhu-t-anuaLStha 


Sivalli 237 1 338 


247 


250 


Sivanambi 241 ' Thdkur 327 


VaUhQava Salani 


Sahavifti 237,239 Sivinidh)'a 237 Tiga]a(Holeya) 253 


241 



270 



ETHNOGRAPHY 



Vaisj*a 247 

Vaivaghni 248 

Vijar 248 

Valang^ 253 

Valasatc^pu 229 
Vitlu 229 

Valluvir 256 

■„ (Hole)'a)253 
Vappin 250 

Vann<f (Holeya) 253 
Vaooe (Tigala) 231 
Vao^ikula 231 

Viijiyar 253 

Vangfpuram 237 
Vanta 229 

Varka 253 



V^udeva 229 

Vegindd 237 

Velagi 253 

Velama 229 

VeiUla(Holeya)253 
,, Wokkaliga 
228-9, 231 
V^ln^d 237, 240 
Velndti 229 

Vengipuram 240 1 
Venkatapurada 241 
Vijay^pura Kamm^ 

, 237 
Vfrahhadrakapu 229 
Vfrabhagna 253 
Virasaggada 246 



Viras'aiva 


241 


YidavakuU 


251 


Vtrasambu 


^ 


Yadaydr 


25" 


Vis\-a 


Yikula 223 


, 251 


Visvabrahma 


248 


Yalan^ti 


229 


Visvaghni 
Visvakarma 


248 


Yalavoiu 


229 


249 


Yinidi 


231 


Vydsakdto 


236 


Yanamaloni 


254. 
256 
233 


Wodda 226 


• 255 


Yantumultf 


„ (Korama 


)233 


Yavamanta 


246 


Wokkaliga 


222, 


YedaYellama 


229 


226, 228-9 


. 249 


Yellamma 


246 


Wontiycttu Gdpiga 


Yellammakdpu 


229 




252 


Yelumaneyavaru 








329 



Yidava Korama 233 




HISTORY 



LEGENDARY PERIOD 



A land covered tt*ith one mighty and all-embracing forest, — the great 
Daiidak.irai;i>'a ; nestling here and there on the bank of a sacred sircam, 
the dsrama or hermitage of some n'shi or holy sage, with his mind 
intent upon penance or absorbed in austerities of overwhelming 
potency ; hidden in forest clearings or perched on isolated rocky 
eminences, the retreats and strongholds of latvless predatory chiefs or 
still more formidable asuras and rakshasas^ whence they issued for raid 
and foray or bent on deeds of violence :— such is the picture of the 
'South of India presented to our view in the earliest records of the Hindu 
face. In the continual conflict between divas or gods and Brahmans 
on the one side, and asuras or giants and rdkshasas or demons on the 
other, is doubtless depicted a period when the Ar)'ans in their south- 
ward progress were brought into collision with aboriginal races or the 
descendants of prime\'al immigrants. 

The course of events seems to have been somewhat on this wise. 
A few solitar>' vedic rishis made their way as hermits to the south, in 
search of suitable retreats in the depths of the forest, where the acquisi- 
tion of merit, by an uninterrupted round of austerities and rites, might 
gratify the spiritual pretensions which were contested among the haunts 
of men as at variance with the established system of society. But here 
too they found not unpeopled solitudes ; and as intruders of a different 
race, provoked the hostility of previous settlers, which look the form 
of interference with the sacrifices and molestation of the rites*— the 
proclaimed sources of supernatural power, ^whose efficacy depended 
on exact and complete performance. The superior attainments, how- 
ever, of the Aryan Brahmans enabled them in various ways to defeat 
the opposition of the tribes with whom they were thus brought into 
contact, and to introduce the elements of civilizarion among the ruder 
races of the south. 

Impelled by internal strife or by ideas of adventure and conr(uest, 
warriors of the Kshatriya class gradually followed these Brahman 
pioneers across the Vindhps, and came into collision with the rulers of 
indigenous tribes. The Brahmans, having already gained a footing 



I 



HISTORY 



among these, would be led to assert sacerdotal claims with increased 
and uncompromising vehemence, whence violent struggles ensued, not 
alone between hostile races, but between rival sects and factions, marked 
by all the asperity and implacable rancour of such contests. The power 
of the tCshatn'yas is represented as having been virtually extinguished, 
and only resuscitated with the aid of the Brahmans and the admission 
of their ascendency. But the rival system of Buddhism, which was of 
Kshatriya origin, became in course of time predominant ; and so con- 
tinued for some centuries, until the gradual revival of Brahmanical 
influence ended in the banishment of the former from the land of its 
birth to the congenial soils where it still holds sway over the greater 
proportion of the human race. 

But the records which have come down lo us of these revolutions 
and mutations require to be used with discrimination. For the Brah- 
mans, bfing last in the ascendant, have, apparently, by interpolations 
in old works, by the argument of more recent compositions and by the 
systematic destruction of Buddhist and Jain literature and remains of 
the intermediate period, persistently striven, not only to ascribe almost 
every public calamity to the neglect of their injunctions, but have even 
assigned a Brahmanical origin to the royal lines. Notwithstanding, 
therefore, evident anachronisms, and the prolongation of the lives of 
sages for several centuries, implied in their appearance at widely distant 
periods, the ancient literature, with steady uniformity, represents Brah- 
mans and their blessings as the most potent .source of honour and 
power, their imprecation as ensuring the most inevitable doom ; while, 
until the brilliant discoveries of Prinsep, the history of the Buddhist 
period was almost a blank. Modern research has done, and is still 
doing, an immense deal to dis[>el the obscurity which rests upon (he 
early history, and to throw light on the real progress of events and 
development of principles which have resulted in the formation of the 
India of to-day. 

A^asiya. — Of the rishis who in the earliest times penetrated to the 
south, Agast>'a is one of the most conspicuous. The tradition that he 
caused the Vindhya mountains to bow down and yield him a passage, 
no less than the universal popular belief, .seem to point him out as the 
forerunner of the last Ar>*an migration into the peninsula.^ The 
ascendency he gained over the enemies of the Brahmans had, accord- 
ing to the Raraayana, rendered the southern regioiiy safe and acces-stble 
at the time when Rama crossed the \'indhya range. The scene of the 

' To him the Tamil race ottriUulc their first knowledge of letters. After ciWlizmg 
Ihe DrnviHians or Tamil peo|)Ic, he retired \<■^ a hill in the Western Ghats still named 
after him, and was sulisequently idtnlificd with the star Canopus. 



TA/ffA YAS 



273 



following grotesque and monstrous story of the exercise of his power 
is laid at Stambhodadhi (iCammasandra), on the banks of the Arkavati, 
near Nelamangala. There Agastya is related to have had an dsrama, 
and thither came the rakshasa brothers \'.'itapi and Ilvala, who, having 
obtained the boon that they should be invulnerable to gods and giants 
and might assume any form at will, had applied themselves to the work 
of destroying the rishis. Their modus operandi was as follows : — IlvaJa, 
the elder, assuming the form of a Brahman, would enter the asrama 
and invite the rishi to some ceremony requiring the sacrifice of a sheep. 
At this Vitipi, taking the form of the sheep, was sacrificed and eaten. 
The repast over, Ilvala would exclaim " Vatdpi, come forth," when the 
latter, resuming his natural form, would burst out from the rishi, rend- 
\t\% him asunder, and the two brothers eat him up. This plan they 
tried on Agastya, but he was forewarned. When, therefore, after the 
sacrificial meal, Ilvala as usual summoned Vatapi to come forth, Agastya 
replied that he xvas digested and gone to the world of Yama. Ilvala, 
rushing to fall upon him, was reduced to ashes by a glance,* 

Of other rishis. tradition has it that Gautama performed penance on 
the island of -Seringapalam in the Kaveri, Kanva* on the stream at 
Majur near Channapatna, Vibhandaka on the Tunga at Sringeri, 
Markanda on the Bhadra at Kandeya, Dattatreya on the Baba Budans, 
besides many others in different places. 

Asuras and Rdkshasas. — " The (asuras and) rikshasas who are repre- 
unied as disturbing the sacrifices and devouring the priests, signify," 
nys Lessen, " merely the savage tribes which placed themselves in 
hostile opposition to the Brahmanical institutions. 'I^c only other 
actors who appear, in addition to these, are the monkeys, which ally 
themselves to Kama and render him assistance. This can only mean 
that when the Ar^'an Kshatriyas first made hostile incursions to the 
south, they were aided by another portion of the indigenous tribes." 

Of the asuras^ traditions are preserved that Guhasura had his capital 
at Harihara on the Tungabhadra, Hidirabdsura was established at 
Chitaldroog, Baklsura near Rahman Ghar, Mahishisura, from whom 
M)-sore derives its name, at Chamundi, and soon. The asuras, it is 
said, being defeated by the devas, built three castles in the three worids, 
one of iron on the earth, one of silver in the air, and one of gold in the 
sky. These the devas smote, and conquered the three worlds ; the 



• Fnf ihe uriginnl Kory see Muir, Sam. Texts, ii. 415. Welrer considers vi 
mdiatcs ihe exuitence of cannihals in the Dekhan. Of Ilvala. perhaps we liavc a 
trmcc in the village of Ilavdla, knovm to Europeans as VcU-al, near Mysore. Viuipi- 
pirs U the sonie as Bddimi, near Dharwar. 

* KAR\-a u to the Telugu race nearly what Agastya is to the Tamil, 

T 



474 



ffis: 



muster of the forces for the assault on the triple city, or Tripura,' having 
taken place, according to tradition, at the hill of Kurudu mak, properly 
Kudu male, near Mulbagal. 

The rdkshasas appear to have been a powerful race dominant in the 
south, whose capital was at Lanka in the island of Ceylon. The king- 
dom of the vdnara or monkey race was in the north and west of the 
Mysore, their chief city being Kishktndha near the village of Hampe 
on the Tungabhadr:!, The ancient Jain Ramayana, composed in Hala 
Kannada, gives a genealogy of the kings of either race down to the 
time of Rama's expedition, which will be made use of farther on, so far 
as it relates to Mysore. In it we are also introduced tu the vidyttdharas^ 
whose empire was apparently more to the north, and whose principal 
seat was at Rathani5pura-Chakrav41apura.* 

Haihayas.— In order, however, to obtain something like a connected 
narrative of events more or less historical of these remote limes, we 
may begin with an account of the Haihayas. Wilson imagines them to 
be a foreign tribe, and inclines, with Tod, to the opinion that they may 
have been of Scythian origin and perhaps connected with a race of 
similar name who first gave monarchs to China." They overran the 
Ockhan, driving out from Mahishmali. on the upper Narmada (Ner- 
budda), a king named Bahu, seventeenth in descent from Purukutsa of 
the solar line, the restorer of the dominion of the Nagas. He fled with 
his wives to the forest, where one of them gave birth to Sagara, who 
became a great conqueror and paramount ruler in India.* He nearly 
exterminated the Haihayas and associated races — the Sakas, Yavanas, 
Kdmbojas, P^radas, and Pahlavas^ — but, at the intercession of his 
priest Vasishtha, forbore from further slaughter, and contented him- 
self with imposing on them certain modes of shaving the head and 
wearing the hair, to mark their degradation to the condition of out- 
castes.'* 



' Keference to a city named Tripura will be founJ in connection with the Kadamln 
kings, farther on. Tlie legend ]x;rlxiiijs means thai the indigenous trilws in the west 
retired above the Ghats lx:fore Aryan invaders, nnd were fittally suUIucfi l>y their 
lusailants ])cnelrating to the table-land Troin the east, and taking the lofty hill forts. 

' The Silaharas of Karahdia (Karhad), near Kolapur, arc called Vidj-adharas. — 
Dr. Buhler, V'ik, Dcv, Char. Int. 40. 

* Wilson, Viih. Pur. Itk. IV*, ch. xi, last note. Tod, An. fCaj. I, 36. Ilaihaya 
WRS also the name of a greai-grandfion of Vadu, the progenitor of the Vidavas. 

* Sagara is the king inu'.t commonly nameti at the end of inscriptions as an example 
of Hbcralily in granting endowments of land. 

* For the bearing of the*e regiilaitons on certain practice? al ihe present tby, «< 
Dr. Caldwell's article on the iu(fiirnt (Kan. /uffn), reprinted from the MaJras Mail 
in ItiJ. Ant. l\\ 1G6. 

Eventually the Haihayas established their capital at Ratanpur (in the Central 




PARASU RAMA 



a7S 



Parasu Rama. — At a later period, Arjuna, the son of Kriiavirja, 
aiid hence called KartaviQ'irjuna (which distinguishes him from Arjuna, 
one of the P.-indu princes), was ruling over the Haihayas. On him the 
muni Dattdtrcya had conferred a thousand arms and other powers, with 
which he oppressed both men and gods. He is even said to have seized 
and tied up Rivana. About the same time a sage named Jamadagni, 
nephew of Visvamitra, the uncompromising opponent of Vasishtha, 
having obtained in marriage Rcnuk^i, daughter of king I'rasenajit, they 
had five sons, the last of whom was Rama, called I'arasu R.ima, or 
Rima with the axe, to distinguish him from the hero of the Ramayana. 
He is represented as the sixth avatar of Vishnu : his axe, however, was 
given him by Siva. 

Jamadagni w;is entrusted by Indra with the care of Surabhi, the 
celestial cow of plenty ; and on one occasion being visited by 
Kirtavirya, who was on a hunting expedition, regaled the Raja and his 
followers in so magnificent a manner as to excite his astonishment, 
until he learned the secret of the inestimable animal possessed by his 
host. Impelled by avarice, he demanded the cow ;^ and on refusal 
attempted, but in vain, to seize it by force, casting down the tall 
trees surrounding the hermitage.' On being informed of what had 
happened, Parasu Rdma was filled with indignation ; and attacking 
Kanavirj'drjuna, cut ofi" his thousand arms and slew him. His sons 
in return killed Jamadagni, in the absence of Parasu Rama. Where- 
upon Renuka became a Sati, by burning herself on her husband's 
funeral pyre. With her dying breath she imprecated curses on the 
head of her husband's murderer, nnd Parasu Rima vowed, after 
performing his father's funeral obsequies, to destroy the whole 
Kshatriya race. 

Having twenty-one times cleared the Earth of Kshatriyas, he gave 
her at the conclusion of an asvaniedha, a rite whose performance was a 
,«ign of the consummation of victory, as a sacrificial fee to Kasyapa, the 
officiating priest ; who, in order that the remaining Kshatriyas might be 
spared, immediately signalled him off with the sacrificial ladle, saying, 
*• Go, great muni, to the shore of the southern ocean. Thou must not 

if*ro\incci"i, and conttnucl in i>owcr until (Jcpnsed hy the Mahr.'ma'; in 1741 A.n, 
llnw-TiptK/iK have been found proving The tlomininn of the Haihayas nvor the np[x*r 
NarmndK Valley n» far lock as the wjcoml century a.d. — C. P. Gaz. IiiL L 

* There i* little doulit that ihe so-called cow wit> a fertile trad \>l country, such as 
b (litcniny Suntbhi), where the scene of thi.<L transaction is laid, is well known 



> The M(ir>- ts difTerenlly related in the Mahahharata, liut with Ilkj unnatural antt 
imprutMlilccircurostaiiccs, and l»» manifest a design to inculcate certain Rrahtnanical 
)nih The sequel is the same. 

I 2 



276 



mSTORY 



dwell in my territor}*." ^ Parasu Rama then applies to Sagara,* the 
ocean, for some land, and compels it to retire/' creating the se\en 
Konkanas,* or the maritime regions of the western coast, whither he 
withdraws to the Mahendra mountain. The Earth, who finds it very 
inconvenient to do without the Kshatriyas as rulers and kings, appeals to 
Kasyapa, who discovers some scions of royal houses that have escaped 
the general massacre of their race, and instals them. 

This prodigious legend, in which the mythical type of Brahmanism 
is clearly enough revealed as arrayed in opposition to the mihtar}' caste, 
is by tradition connected with many parts of Mysore. Sorab taluq is 
the Surabhi which was jamadagni's possession. The temple of Renuka, 
existing to this day at Chandragutti, is said to mark the spot where she 
burnt herself on the funeral pyre of her husUind^ and that of Kolaha- 
lamma at Kolar is said to have been erected in her honour from 
Kartaviryarjuna having there been slain. The colloquy with Sdgara is 
said to have been near Tirthahalii. At Hiremugalur {Kadur District) 
is a singular memorial in the temple of Tarasu, the axe of the hero, and 
its ancient name of Bhiirgavapuri connects the town with him as being 
a descendant of Bhrigu. 

Rama.— Our history has next to do with Rama,— called, by way of 
distinction, Ramachandra, — the hero of the Ramayana and the seventh 
a^'at.'ir of Vishnu. On his way home after winning Sita by breaking 
the bow of Siva, he Is, strangely enough, said to have been encountered 
by Parasu Rama, who required him to break a bow of Vishnu which 
he produced. This Rama did, and at the same time destroyed Parasu 
Rama's celestial abode. The story of Rama, — a Kshatriya, but 
obedient to the Brahmans ; of the solar line, the son of Dasaratha, king 
of Ayodhya (Oudh) — and of the abduction, during their wanderings in 
the r^andaka forest, of his wife the fair Sita, by RAvana, the r.ikshasa 
king of T^nka in Ceylon, is too well known to need repetition here. 
To this day not an incident therein has abated in interest to the 
millions of India, and few parts of the land but claim to be the scene 
of one or other of its adventures. Without stopping to dwell on the 




' The audacity of the conception is sublime. The explanation given is that Parasu 
Rama being g«iUy of homicide eoulH not Iw allowed tn reside in Brahman Icrrilorj'. 

- Sigara, the ocean, was so named from Sagara (previously mentioned] through 
Bhagiralha. The iradiliun will lie found in the Viiihnu Purana, &c. The taluq 
adjoining Sorab is also calletl Sdgar. 

^ According to some accounts he %\ocA on the promontory of l)illi, and shot his 
arrows to the south, over the site of Kerala. It seems likely that wc have proof of the 
local legend being at least as oM as the Christian era, as the Mons I'yrrhus of Ptolemy 
is, probably, the mountain of IVrasuor Parasu Rama. — Wilson, V'iih. /V/r. Bk. iv,ch. 7. 

' These were Kar^ta. Vihtta, Mah^ritn, Konkaijia, Haiga, Tutai-a and Kerala. 




RA.XfA 



»77 



romantic episode, which will be found in the history of the Kadur Dis- 
trict, of Rishya Sringa, to whom indirectly the birth of the hero is 
ascribed, it is evident that Rama's route from Fanchavati or Nasik, at 
the source of the Godavari, lo Ramesvara, on the south-eastern coast 
opposite Ceylon, would naturally lead him across the table-land of 
M>-sore.* 

All accounts agree in stating that the first news Rama received that 
Ravana had carried off his wife to Ceylon, was conveyed to him while 
at the court of Sugriva, the king of Kishkindha ; and that with the 
forces here obtained he accomplished his expedition and the recovery 
of Siia. He first met with Sugriva, then dispossessed of his kingdom, 
at the sources of the Pampa or Tungabhadra, and assisted him in 
recovering his throne. The former region therefore would be in the 
Western Gloats, in Kadur District; and the situation of Kishkindha is 
generally acknowledged to be on the Tungabhadra, north of the 
Mysore,'' near the village of Hampe, where in modern times arose the 
cities of rVnegundi and Vijayanagar. The Brahmanical version of the 
Raniayana, as contained in Valmiki's famous poem, describes the races 
of this region as vdttaras and kapis^ or monkeys. But the Jain 
Ramayana, previously referred to, calls Kishkindha the viiuara dhvaja 
kingdom, or kingdom of the monkey flag. This simple device on the 
national standard, therefore, may have led lo the forces being called the 
monkey army," and thence easily sprung all the other embellishments 
of the story as popularly received/ We shall follow the Jain version 
in giving the previous history of the kings of Kishkindha.* 

Kishkindha. — Hy the conquests of Sagara, here made a descendant 
of Puru,'' a prince named T6yada Vihana (the same as Megha Vahana, or 
Jimiita Vahaiu), who had thought to many a princess whom Sagara 

» The papers concemii^ Mysore (in ihe Mackenzie coUection) seem lo agree in 
sutine that RamA weni by way of the Mysore country to Lanka. — Taylor, Cat. Rait. 
Or. J/SS. til, 693. 

' W'^iUon. Vil. A*aiu, Char. Act I, Sc a ; Moniei Williams, Ind. £p. /V. 76 ; 
Talbo) * WhccIcr, Hist. htd. II, 31 8. 

' This is noihing but what wc often do in spenking of the milttEry array of the 
Krituh lion, the Kusiiian bear, &c. 

• Kapiilhv^ja (monkey flag) was tmc of the name« o) Arjuna, Ihc incjst jxipular of 
the J'aiidu broihcrs. The monkey ensign wp"as also one of ihc insignia of the Kadaniba 
V\sts>. of Banavaxi and Haiiagal, and ts still a cherished emblem of thcr UalogaJ or 
right-hand aurtes [j« above, p. 214). 

• An atlcnipi has l>L'cn made in N'almiki's Kamapna to supply sumc of these 
pairticukr% in the Uttora Kinila or supplementary chapter, but the accounts ore 
iDctgrc and much altered. 

• The progeniiot of one branch of the lunar line, and, from the similarity of 
names, somcLimes conjectured to Iw the I*orus who was defeated by Alexander 
ihc Great. 



»78 



mSTORY 



appropriates, is driven to take refuge with Bhima rakshasa of Lanka ; 
and the latter, being without heirs, leaves to him that kingdom, as well 
as Pdtah Lanka. After many generations, Dhavala Kirtti arises in that 
line, whose wife's brother, Srikantha Kumara, being desirous of 
establishing a principality for himself, sets out for the vdnara dvipa^ or 
monkey island, where the accounts he receives of the Kishkindha hill 
induce him to select it as the site of his capital. He accordingly founds 
there the city of Kishkindha, and is the progenitor of the line of kings 
of the monkey flag. 

The successors of Srikantha Kumira, in regular descent, were 
Vajrakantha, Indrayudha, Amara Prabhu (who marries a princess of 
Lanka), and Kapi Kdtu. After several more kings, whose names are 
not mentioned, the line is continued by Mah6dadhi, and his son 
Pratibindu. The latter has two sons, Kishkindha and Andhraka. A 
svayamvara being proclaimed for Mandara Mali, princess of Aditya- 
nagara on the Vijayartha parvata, these two princes attend, as well as 
Vijaya Simha, son of Asanivega the Vidyddhara chakravarti, and 
Sukesha, the young king of Lanka. The lady's choice falling on 
Kishkindha, Vijaya Simha is indignant and attacks him, but is killed 
by Andhraka. Asanivega, to revenge his son's death, marches against 
Kishkindha and Sukesha, and takes both their kingdoms. They retire 
to Patdla l^anka. After a time, Kishkindha founds a city on Madhu 
parvata, and has there two sons, Rikshaja and SUryaja. Sukesha, in 
Patila I^nka, has three sons — Mali, Sum^li, and Malyavant,- -who, on 
attaining to manhood, recover possession of l^nka. Meanwhile, in the 
Vidyadhara kingdom, Asanivega has been succeeded by Sahasnlra, and 
he by Indra.^ The Ijinka princes, with the aid of Rikshaja and 
Siiryaja, attack the latter, but arc defeated and again lose their king- 
doms, all retiring to Pitala Lanka as before. In the course of time, 
to Ratndsrava, son of Sumali, is born Havana, the predestined champion 
of the rdkshasa race. He regains Lanka and Kishkindha, and restores 
the latter to Rikshaja and Si\r)'aja. Vali and Sugriva, the sons of the 
last, succeed to the throne. Rdvana now demands their sister in 
marriage ; but VaK, being opposed to it, abdicates, and thus leaves 
Sugriva alone in the government- 

On one occasion, Sugriva, owing to some dispute with his wife 
Sutdre, stays away from his capital ; and during his absence, a double 



^ The Silahitras of Kvahiita (Karhid^ neu Kolapur, claim tn Ix: not only 
Vidy^himu (as alx>ve slated, p. 273), hut also to be connected with the ro)-al race 
of Ceylon. A Chilukya inscri[}Uon of A.n. 1008 says, "The SUdra Eaniily of the 
Sitnhala kings are descended from Jimrna-vdha,na, son of Jimuta-ketu, the lord of the 
Vidyidhanu." (Sec/. Bo. Br, R. A. S. No. V, p. 221.) 




KISHKINDHA 



879 



of himsetft who most closely resembles him, usurps his place and 
imposes upon all the ministers. The real Sugriva, being in a fix, 
resorts to his friend Hanumdn, son of Pavanjaya, king of Hanuvara 
or Hanuruha dvtpa. Then, hearing about Rama, he visits him at 
Pitila I^nka, and undertakes lo discover Sita's place of confinement 
in return for Rama's assistance in regaining his throne. Kishkindha is 
accordingly attacked, the false or Ma>^ Sugri\'a is killed, and Sugriva 
restored. News hanng been receix-ed from a neighlxmring chief that 
he saw Ravana bearing Sita to Lanka,' a council is now held, at which 
it is resolved to send lo Hanuvara dvfpa for Hanuman, as being of 
rakshasa descent. The latter arrives, and undertakes to go to I^nka 
as a spy and discover the truth of the report. He sets out by way of 
Mahendra parvata'- and Dadhi-mukha parvata and brings hack tokens 
from Sita. Forces are at once mustered for the expedition to Lanka 
for her recovery. The march of the anny to the southern sea leads 
them to VeL-indha-pura, ruled over by Samudra; to Suvolachata, ruled 
over by Suvela ; and lastly to Hamsa dvipa, whose king was Dvipa- 
radana. 

The identity of the places mentioned in the foregoing account it is 
pcrha]>s difficult to establish. But it seems not unlikely that Patala 
L^nka, evidently, from the name, a city below the Ghats, and belong- 
ing to the rdkshasa kingdom of Ceylon, was some place in Canara ; for 
the dominions of Ravana are said to have extended to Trichinopoly 
on the east, and to Gokarna on the west of the peninsula. Honuvara 
or Honuruha dvipa again is no doubt one of the islands in the large 
lake of Honavar or Honore"* in the Gersoppa district, near the mouth 
of the Sharavati, which forms the Gersoppa Falls. The principal 
island in the outer bay was fortified by Sivappa Nayak of Ikkdri, and 
is now called Basava Rija durga. The north-west of Mysore seems 
thus pretty clearly connected with an important [virt of Rama's expedi- 
tion. I>oral traditions, less credible in character, will be found noticed 
under the several places where they are current 

Fandavas. — We will therefore proceed to the history of the Pdndus, 



' An inscripiinn on the Jatinga-Knmts'vara hill in Molakalmuru laluq, <iiic<i 
S'ftka 8Sj. sutes that the linga iherc was strl up when iCiiviu^ had seized Sita and 
vben Jaliyu fought and fell there in her behalf. 

* Mahendra is a name applied Lo some poxts uf the Eaulcm Ghals, aod also lo a 
mountain near Cape Comorin. 

* The lake is of great extent and contains many islands, some of which are cuhi- 
rated. It reaches almost to the Ghau, ami in the dr)' season Is c|uitc salt ; but it 
reoti%'es many more streams, which during the rainy nionMKjn become torrents and 
render the whole fresh. My the tuilivcs it is commonly called a river, but lake is a 

proper term. — Buchanan, y^j/zr. II, 279, 



and briefly notice some of the more important events related in the 
Maha Bharata which tradition connects with Mysore. Arjuna, the 
third and most attractive of the five brothers, who by his skill in archery 
won Draupadi, the princess of Panchala, at her svayaMi'ara, after a 
time went into exile for twelve years, in order to fulfil a vow. During 
his wanderings at this period, it is related that he came to the Mahendra 
mountains, and had an inten'iew with Parasu Rania^ who gave him 
many powerful weapons. Journeying thence he came to Manipura, 
where the king's daughter, Chitringada, fell in love with him, and he 
married her and lived there three years, and had by her a son, Babhru- 
rahana. The locality of this incident is assigned to the neighbourhood 
of Chararajnagar in the Mysore District, where the site of Manipura, 
to which we shall have again to refer, is still pointed ouL* 

When Yudhishthira resolved to perform the royal sacrifice called the 
Rdjasdya, by which he proclaimed himself paramount sovereign, it 
was first necessary to subdue the kings who would not acknowledge 
him. Accordingly four expeditions were despatched, one towards each 
of the cardinal points. The one to the south was commanded by 
Sahadeva. After various conquests he crosses the Tungabhadra and 
encamps on the Kishkindha hill, where Sushena and Vrishasena, the 
chiefs of the monkey race, make friendship with him. Thence he 
goes to the Kdv^ri, and passing over to Mahishmad (Mahishur, 
Mysore), attacks Nila its king, whom he conquers and plunders of 
great wealth.' After this he goes to the Sahyddri or Western (iliats, 

' Manipur in Eastern B«ngal, it appears, also lays claim to the siory, but evidently 

on scanty grounds. — Wheeler, Jfist. Ind. I, 149, 425, notes. 

' The Maha Bharata in this pltice (Sabha Pa.mi) ntakes some wiigular siatcni«nl» 
rejrardiiig the women of Mahishmatj. Tlie king Nila Kij.i, it is saiil, had a most 
lovely (bughter, of whom the god Agni (Kirc) became enamoured. He contrived to 
pay her many secret vLmLi in the disguise of a Brahman. Otic day he was discovered 
and seize<l by the guards, who brought him l>eforc the king. When alwut to lie 
condemned lo punishment, he blajcd fonh and revealed himself as the god Agni. 
The Council hastened !o appease him, and he granted the b«*'n thai the women of 
Mahi&hmati should thenceforth be free from the lionds of marriage in order that no 
adultery might exist in the land, nnd that he would befriend the king in time of 
tianger. This dt-scripiion of "free Invc " wouUi apply lo the Xain and Namburi 
Brahmans of Malabar, but seems misplaced jn reference to Mysore. It may, how- 
ever, indicate thai a chief of Malalior origin had at that tJine established himself in 
power in ihe south-west ; and possibly refer to some stratagem attempted against him 
by Jamad-agni, which ended in an alliance. Sahadeva was forced to conciliate Agni 
l)efiire he could take Mahishmati. 

It may here lie staled (hat, according tn traditions of the Haihayu in the Central 
Prm-inccs, Nila Dhvaja. a descendant of Sudhyumna, got the throne of Mahiiihmati 
(Mandia); liamsa Ohvaja, another son, liecamc monarch nf Chandrapur (supposed 
lo be Chanda) ; and a third received the kingdom of Ratanpiir. The two former 
kingdoms, after the lapse of some generations, were overthrown by the Gonds, and 





PA^DAVAS 



38 1 



subdues many hill chiefs, and, descending to the coast, overruns 
Ronkana, Gaula and Kerala. 

The fate of the great gambling match which followed the Rajasilya, 
and the exile of the Fdndavas for thirteen years, during the last of 
which they were to Hve imognitOy need not be related here, as they are 
generally well known. But an inscription at Belagami in Shikarpur 
talurj expressly says that the Pilnijavascame there after the performance 
of the Kajasiiya. In the course of their (iirther wanderings, the brothers 
axe related to have lived in the Kathyoka forest, and this is claimed to 
be the wild tract surrounding Kavale-durga in the Shimoga District. 
The erection of the massive fortifications on that hill is ascribed to the 
Piandus, as well as the Bhimankatfe thrown across the Tunga above 
Tirthahalli. The thirteenth year of exile was spent at the court of the 
king of V'irdta, in various disguises, — Bhima as a cook, Arjuna as a 
eunuch, Draupadi as a waiting-maid, &c. The varied incidents of this 
y«ar are fully given in the published abstracts of the poem. It is only 
necessary here to stale that \'irdia-nagara is more than once mentioned 
in the Ch^lukya inscriptions, and is by tradition identified with Hanagal, 
a few miles north of the Sorab frontier.^ 

We pass on to the great ast'amedha^ or horse sacrifice, undertaken 

by Vudhishihira, which forms the subject of one of the most admired 

Kannada poems, the Jaimiiii Bharata. Among the conditions of this 

rqpd ceremony, it was required that the horse appointed for sacrifice 

should be loosed and allowed to wander free for the period of one year. 

^Mieresoever it went it was followed by an army, and if the king into 

whose territories it clianced to wander seized and refused to let it go, 

war was at once declared and his submission enforced. In accordance 

with these rules, Arjuna was appointed to command the escort which 

ed the horse. Among the places to which it strayed, three are by 

tion connected with Mysore. 

the RatanpUT kingdom alunc sur\'ivc(l itll the advent of the MahraUas. — C. P. 
Gax, 159. 

SudhaiiTa, a Bon of Hamsa Dhvaja, is also said in the iniditions of Mysore to have 
be en the Ibuniler of Champaka-nogara, now represented by the village of Sampige, 
ocu Kadaba, in Gulibi ulmj. 

The nnly actual recuid hitherto found uf a Nila Rdja in the south is in the 
Sunudfa tiupta inscription at Allahntmd, in which he is assigned to an unknown 
country called Avamukla (signif)'ing freed or liberate<l, a nirious coinctilence with the 
rtDiy at»ve given), and is mentioned between Vishnugupa of Kanchi and Harti- 
vwmaD of VengL His period, according to this, would be the fuurlb century. (Sec 
Fleet's Earty Guj>ta A'/w^a, p. 13.) 

* Sir Walter Kltiot says " The remains of enormDUS fortifications, enclosing a 
great extent, arc »till vuohle. I have gut a plan <}i.s:inctly ithowing the circuit of 
xrmx waiU and lUtches on the wdc not covered by the river." — Mad. J. 18, 216. 
Also see /«/. .-/«/. V, 177. 



witn t 
^■■pard 

Tsiiiti 



282 



iriSTORY 



The first of these is Manipur, near Chamrajnagar, previously men- 
lioned.' liabhruvdhana, the son here born to Arjuna, had now grown 
up and succeeded to the throne. His kingdom was also in a state of 
the highest prosperity. It was pre-eminently " a land of Ijeauty, xalour, 
virtue, truth : " its wealth was fabulous,' and its happiness that of 
paradise : it was filled with people, and not a single measure of land 
was unoccupied or waste. \Vhen the horse came near this enchanting 
spot the Raja was infonned of it : and, on his return from the cliase in 
the evening, he commanded it to be brought before him. The scene is 
thus described ; — 

" Now the whole ground where the R.aja held his council was covered "ith 
gold ; and at the entrance to the council chamber were a hundred pillars of 
gold, each forty or fifty cubits hig-h ; and the top of each pillar was made of 
fine gold and inlaid with jewels ; and on the summits of the pillars and on 
the walls were many thousand aniticial birds, made so exact that all who 
saw them thought them to be alive ; and there were precious stones that 
shone like lamps, so that there was no need of any other light in the 
assembly ; and there also were placed the figures of fishes inlaid with rubies 
and cornelians, which appeared to be alive and in motion. All round the 
council hall were slicks of sandal, wound round with fine cloth which had 
been steeped in sweet-scented oils ; and these were burnt to give light to the 
place instead of lamps, so that the whole company were perfumed with the 
odour. And before each one of the principal persons in the assembly was 
placed a vessel, ornamented with jewels, containing various perfumes ; and 
on every side and comer of the hall were beautiful damsels, who sprinkled 
rose-water and other odoriferous liquors. And when the horse was brought 

* There appear to l>e several reasons for accepting this as the locality in preference 
to Manipur in Baslem Bengal. In the version given hy Wheeler. Vol. I, ii is staled 
(396) that the horse when loosed went towards the somh, and that its rtfUirTi was in a 
northerly direction (414) ; these directions would not lend it to and from K. Bengal* 
but to and from S. Mybure they would. Il is alsso said (406} thut clicks of sandal* 
wood were burnt in the council hall of Manipur, and also (408) iha: elephants were 
vcr)' excellent in that country. Now Mysore is the well-known home of the sandal- 
tree, and the region I have assigned as the site of Manipur is iKCuliurly the resort of 
elephants: within ten miles of that very site were made the remarkably successful 
captures of elephants described on p. 179. The se^iuence of places visited bj* the 
horse after Manipur is also, as shown in the text, consislent with the identification 
here pro[x>scti. I-~rom the notes ( 149, 425} it appears that the application of the stoiy 
to Manipur in Bengal Is of very recent date. 

' Of Solomon in all his glory it is stated that ** he made silver and gold at Jerusalem 
as plentetHisas stones." So here " many thousands of chariots, elephants and horses 
were employed in bringing the revenue, in gold and silver, to a thoufand treasuries ; 
and the officers sat day and night to receive it ; hut so great was the treasure that the 
people who broiighi it had la wait ten or twelve years before their turn came to 
acciiunt fur itiv money, obtain their act^uittal and return home ! " One Kaja confessed 
that he scTit n thmiMnd cartloatU of gold and silver every year merely for leave to 
remain 4uietly in his own kingdom. 



\ 




PANDA VAS 



283 



into tlie assembly, all present were astonished at its beauty and excellence ; 
and ihey saw round its neck a necklace of excellent jewels, and a golden 
plate hanging upon its forehead. Then Raja Babhnjv4hana bade his 
minister read the writing on the plate ; and the minister rose up and read 
aloud, that Raja Yudhishthira had let loose the horse and appointed Arjuna 
to be its guardian." 

It was resolved that Babhruvahana, being Arjuna's son, should go 
forth to meet him in a splendid procession and restore the horse \ but 
Arjuna, under some evil influence, refused to acknowledge the Raja as 
bi.s son : he even kicked him, and taunted him with inventing a story 
because he was afraid to fight. Babhruvahana was then forced to 
change his demeanour, which he did with great dignity. A desperate 
battle ensued, in which Arjuna was killed, and all his chieftains were 
cither slam or taken jirisoners. Congratulations were showered upon 
the victor, but his mother, Chitrangada, swooned and declared her 
tnteotion of burning herself on Arjuna's funeral pile. In this dilemma, 
UlUpl, a daughter of Vdsuki, the Ndga or .serpent raja, whom Arjuna 
had formerly married, and who had afterwards entered the service of 
Chitrdngada, resolved to get from her father a jewel which was in the 
possession of the serpents, and which would restore Arjuna to life. 
She accordingly sent a kinsman to her father with the request His 
council, however, being afraid of losing the jewel, refused to give it up. 
On learning this, Babhruvahana made war upon the serpents and com- 
piled them to give it up. Arjuna was by its means restored to life and 
reconciled to his son. 

The horse then entered the territory of Ratnapura, a city of which 
name, it will be seen, was situated near Lakvalli in Kadur District. 
The animal was here seized, but rescued by Arjuna. It next wandered 
into Kuntala, the country of Chandrahisa, whose capital we shall find 
was at Kulwttur in Shimoga District. Here also the king was com- 
pelled to release it. 



The story of Chandrah4sa is a pleasing and favourite romance. He was 
the son of a king of Kerala, and was born with six toes. While an infant, 
his father was killed in battle, and his mother perished on her husb^^nd's 
funeral pile. His nurse then fled with him to Kuntala, and when she died, 
be was left destitute and forced to subsist by begging. While doing so one 
day at the house of the minister, who is appropriately named Dushta buddhi, 
or evil counsel, some astrologers noted that the boy had signs of greatness 
upon him, indicating that he would one day become ruler of the country. 
The minister, hearing of it, took secret measures to have him murdered in a 
forest ; but the assassins relented, and contented themselves with cutting 
off his sixth toe, which they produced as the evidence of liaving carried out 



a84 ^^^^ HISTOR Y 

their instructions. Meanwhile, Kulinda, an ofificer of the court, hunting 
in that direction, heard ihc boy's crj- ; and, pleased with his appearance, 
having no son of his own, took him home to Chandandvati and adopted 
him. 

He grew up to be very useful and, by defeating some rebellious chieftains, 
obtained great praise and wealth for his adopted father, which excited the 
jealousy of the minister. The latter, resolved to see for himseif, paid a visit 
to Kulinda, when, to his astonishment, he learnt that all this prosperity was 
due to an adopted son, Chandrahasa, who had been picked up in the forest 
years ago bleeding from the loss of a sixth toe. The truth at once broke 
upon him thai it was the boy he had thought to murder. Resolved more 
than ever to get rid of him, he dissimulates and proposes tu send him on an 
errand to court, which was gladly enough undertaken. A letter was accord- 
ingly sent by him to Madana, the minister's son, who was holding office 
during his father's absence, directing that poison {vishii) should be at 
once given to the bearer as he valued his own advancement. For the 
minister had secretly resolved, as there was no male heir to the throne, to 
marrj' Madana to the king's daughter and thus secure the kingdom to his 
own family. Chandralidsa, bearing the letter, arrived near the city, where 
he saw a channing garden. Being weary, he tied his horse to a tree and lay 
down to rest, when he fell asleep. 

Now it so happened that this garden belonged to the minister, and that 
morning his daughter Visha\*a (to whom, before leaving, he had jestingly 
promised to send a husband), had come there with the daughter of the Raja 
and all their maids and companions to take their pleasure ; and they all 
sported about in the garden and did nut fail to Jest each other about being 
married. Presently Vishaya wandered away from the others and came to 
the tank, where she saw the handsome young Chandrahisa lying asleep on 
the bank, and at once fell in love with him. She now noticed a letter half 
falling from his bosom, and, to her great surprise, saw it was in the hand- 
writing of her father, and addressed to her brother. Remembering what 
had been said about sending her a husband, she genth- drew out the letter 
and, opening it, read it. One slight alteration she saw would accomplish 
her wishes ; she accordingly changed the word viskava^ poison, into viskaya^ 
her oivn name, rcscaled it with a copy of her father's seal which she had 
with her, and replaced it in the young man's bosom. 

When Madana received the letter he was greatly surprised, but as the 
message was urgenlj at once proceeded with arrangements for marrying his 
beautiful sister to the handsome stranger. The ceremony had just been 
concluded with all manner of pomp and rejoicing, \vhen the minister 
relumed. .Seeing what had happened, he was struck dumb with amaze- 
ment. The production of the letter furllier convinced him that through 
fate the mistake must have been his own. Suffice it to say that he makes 
another attempt to get rid of Chandrahasa, btit it so chances that his own 
son Madana is killed instead : and Chandrah.-isa, taking the fancy of the 
king, is adopted as heir to the throne and married to the princess. Whereon 
the minister, driven to desperation, kills himself. 



JANAMEJA YA 



»85 



Janamajaya. — Before quitting the legendary pt^riodt there is yet one 
tradition demanding notice. During the first twelve years' exile of 
Arjuna, before visiting Manipur, he had married Subhadra, the sister of 
Krshnx By her he had a son named Abhimanvoi. When, at the 
conclusion of the thirteenth year of the second period of exile, the 
Panda\-as threw off their incognito at the court of Virap., the raja 
offered his daughter Uttara to Arjuna. But the latter declining her for 
himself, on the ground that ho had acted as her music and dancing- 
master, and she had trusted him as a father, accepted her for his son 
Abhinian}'u, from which union sprung I'arikshit,' whose son was 
Janamajaya. This is the monarch to whom the Maha Bharata is 
recited- There is a professed grant by him at Bhimankalte matha,* 
now Tirthahalli, dated in the year 89 of the Yudhishihira era, which 
would be 3012 B.C., but, if for no other reason, it is quite discredited 
by the signature being in comparatively modern Kannada characters. 
The grant itself is in Sanskrit, and in Nagari characters. Janamdjaya is 
represented in it as ruling in Kishkindha, and making a gifr, in the 
presence of the god Harihara, of the place on the Tungabhadra in 
irhich his great-grandfather Yudhishihira Iiad rested. 

Parikshit, according to a curse, died from the bite of a serpent;^ in 
TCvenge for which it was that Janamtijaya performed his celebrated 
sttrf>a ydga or serpent sacrifice. This ceremony, according to tradition, 
look place at Hireniugalur in the Kadur District, and three agraharas 
in the Shimoga I>istrict, — Gauj, Kuppagadde and Begur — possess 
inscriptions on copper plates, also written in Sanskrit, and in Ndgari 
characters, professing to be grants made by Janamajaya to the officiating 
Brahnians on the occasion of the sarjta rJf,'ti. The genuineness of the 
first of these, which is the one best known,* has been a subject of much 
controversy : but all three arc almost identical in the historical portion. 
TTiey describe the donor as the son of the emperor Parikshit ; of the 
Sffma vams'ii and Pdm^twa kula \ having a golden boar on his flag, and 
ruling in Hastinapura. The grants are made during an expedition to 
the south, in the presence of the god Harihara, at the confluence of the 
Tungabhadra and Haridra. The inscriptions are no doubt of some 
antiquity, but to accept them as dating from the commonly-received 



' He was ft posthumous son and slill-bom, but KrUhna pmnouiicecl some worda 
OTcr the Ixtdy which instilled life into it. 

' Sec Mys. Int. 251. 

' The Bhiga%'ata I'uraoa was redted to him lietween the bite and his death ! The 
Bippoaed meaning of the legend is, that Parikshit met "hxA death at the hands of a 
Nipi tribe, and that hit son cxierniiiiated thtr Naga.s in revenge. 

* Set Colebrooke, At. Kes, IX, 446. 



»B6 



HISTORY 



period for the commencement of the Kali yuga,* when Janam^jaya is 
said to have reigned, would be absurd. 

A weli known native astronomer* worked out the calculations for me,, 
and maintained that they accord with no other year but 36 of the Kali 
yuga, or b.c. 3066. He also stated that there is an interval of twelve 
days between the first date and the other two ; and that the former 
marks the beginning, and the latter the conclusion, of the sacrifice. 
On tlie other hand, the eclipse mentioned in the Gauj agrahara inscrip- 
tion, is stated,"* on the authority of Sir G. Airy, to have happened in 
A.i>. 1521J but this seems based on a mistake. I have elsewhere' 
published what professes to be a Chalukya inscription, dated Saka 3G6 
(A.D. 444), which is in the same characters, and corresponds closely in 
many of the particulars, and in the peculiar terms of these grants. I 
have also made a minute comparison between them al), and given 
reasons for assigning them to about a.i>, i 194. More recent discoveries 
lead to a suspicion that these and some other unaccountable inscrip>- 
tions were in some way connected with Henjeru, a Nojamba city, now 
called Hemavati, situated on the Sira border, and perhaps with 
Harihaca on the Tungabhadra. 

Regarding the chronology of the events which have been mentioned 
in the foregoing account of the legendary period, it can only be stated 
generally, that the destruction of the Kshatriyas by Parasu Rama is 
said to have taken place between the Treta and Dvapara ages ; and 
that an era of Parasu Rama used in Malabar dates from 1176 b.c. 
Rama's expedition against Uinka, assigned to the close of the Trcta 
age, is supposed to have taken place about the thirteenth century B.C.* 
and the war of the Maha Bharaia about fourteen centuries h.c/ The 
earliest version of the two epics must have been composed before 

500 B.C.' 

1 It is reckoned to have begun an the iSth of February, 3102 B.C., at mitlntght on 
the meridian of Ujjayini. 

» The late SuUihanti Sulfnthmanyii S'ltrtri. '* J. Bo. Br. R. A. S. X, 81. 

* imi. Anl. I'f//, 89; Mys. /us. Ixx. * C.riffiih, A'lrw. Int. xv. 

• Wilson, I'ish. Pur. prcf. ci. A Chalukj-a inscription of the sixth ceniurj- malces 
the era of the war of the Maha Bharata 3146 n.c— /wrf. Ant. V, 68 ; /. Bo. Br. 
Ji. A. S. IX. 

■ Tlie Kali Vuga or fourth age of the world was •vupixj«<I lu commence at the 
birth of Krishria. Hence the events uf the Mah.i Bharata must have taken place 
during the third or nv.-ipara age, and those ofihc Riniayana at the end of the second 
or TreUi age.— ^Tonier \Villiam». Itid, IVis. 333, 315 ff. 




s87 



HISTORICAL PERIOD 

Hauryas. — The authentic history of India begins with the invasion 
of the (Irceks under Alexander the Great in 327 kc, and when the 
Sindrakotlos* of the Greek writers was identified with Chandra Gupta, 
a secure basis was esLibHshcd on which to found thu chronology of 
cvcnu in India itself. From the little wc know of Chandra Gupta, he 
first appears as an adventurer in the camp of Alexander, from which, 
owing 10 some quarrel, he had to flee. Collecting bands of followers, 
he contrived to overthrow ihc dynasty of the Nandas' in Magadha, or 
Bchar, and made himself supreme sovereign throughout northern 
India, with his capital at Pataliputra (Palimboihra in the Greek version), 
the modem Patna, on the Ganges. On the other hand, after the dc:ith 
of Alexander in 323, Baktria and (the Greek provinces in) India had 
(alien to the share of Seleukos Nikator, the founder of the Syrian 
monarchy. But it was not till he had recovered Babylon in 312 that 
the Utter was at leisure to turn his attention to India. He then found 
himself unable to cope with Chanda (iupia, and therefore entered into 
aRiance with him, ceding the Greek settlements in the Punjab and the 
KabMt valley in return for a ])resent of 500 elephants, and giving him 
his daughter in marriage. He also appointed to the court at Pataliputra 
an ainbassador named Megasthenes, from whose accounts the Greeks 
Lined much of their information about India, The reign of Chandra 

ipta lasted for twcniy-four years, from about 316 to 292 B.C., and the 
line of kings originating with him are known as the Maur>'as. 

The earliest event in the annals of Mysore that may be regarded as 
historical Ls connected with Chandra Gupta. According to the accounts 
of the Jains, Bhadrabahu, the last of the s'rutakfia/is, or hearers of 
the first masleri, foretold the occurrence in Ujja>-ini of a dreadful 
famine which would last for twelve years. On its approach the main 
body of the Jains there forsook the northern regions and migrated to 
the south under his guidance. UTien they had journeyed as far as 
S'ravana Bclgoh, Bhadrabahu, feeling that his end was drawing nigh, 
sent on the rest of the pilgrims, undei the leadership of Vis'dkha, to 
the Ch6b and Pdndya countries, and remained behind at the smaller 
hill (called Kafavapra in Sanskrit and Kalbapptra or Kalbappu in 

I AibriKirus writes the name Sondrakoptus. — Wilson, Tktatre of the Hindus^ II, 13a. 

- In Ihc |iUy called Miuirii-riiksAi»sa he \& rcpresentetl as Iiaving cfTccled this with 

the *iU of Chdinakya (ihc Itulion .MachlavcUi)* who is ali^o called Visihnu C>u]>Ui and 



288 



KannaHa), to die, nttended by only a single disciple. That disciple, it 
is alleged, was no other than the Mauiya emperor Chandra Gupta. 

In accordance with the obligations of the jaina faith he had abdi- 
cated towards the close of life, and renounced the world in order to 
prepare for death by acts of penance performed under the direction of 
a spiritual guide. For this purpose he had attached himself to Bhad- 
rabihu, the most distinguished professor of the faith at that time living, 
and had accompanied him to the south. He continued to minister to 
the wants of this his guru to the last, and was the only witness of hts 
death. According to tradition, Chandra Gupta survived for twelve 
yearn, which he spent in ascetic rites at the same place and died there; 
after welcoming the emigrants on their return journey from the south 
when the great famine was over which had driven them from their homes. 

In testimony of these events not only is Bhadrabihu's cave, in 
which he expired, pointed out on the hill at S'ravana Belgoja, but the 
hill itself is called Chandra-giri after Chandra Oupta : while on its 
summit, surrounded with temples, is the Chandra Gupta basti, the 
oldest there, having its fa<;ade minutely sculptured with ninety scenes 
from the lives of Bhadrabihu and Chandra Gupta, though these may 
be more modern. Additional evidence is contained in the ancient rock 
inscriptions on the hill. The oldest of them relates the migration of 
the Jains and the other events above mentioned, while a second asso- 
ciates Bhadrabdhu with Chandra Gupta as the two great munis who 
gave the hill its distinction.' Similar testimony is borne by two inscrip- 
tions of about 900 A.i>. found near Seringa pa tarn.' Furthermore, stone 
inscriptions at S'ravana Belgola dated in the twelfth and fifteenth 
centuries confirm the same traditions.' That Chandra Gupta was a 
Jain by creed may be inferred from the siateineius of .Megasthenes, 
who, writing of the Sarmanes (or S'ravanas) distinguishing them both 
from the Brachmanes (or Brahmans) and from the followers of Doutta 
(or the Buddhists), says: — "They communicate with the kings, who 
consult them by messengers regarding the causes of things, and who 
through them worship and supplicate the deity. "'^ That Bhadrabdhu 
was contemporary with Chandra Gupta is not denied. 

According to the Greek accounts Cliandra Gupta was succeeded by 
Amitrachadcs (probably Amrtraghdta, one of the king's titles), and 
I)eimach(js wa.s the ambassador appointed to his court But the 
Vishnu I'urina gives the following list of the Maur>-a kings: — 

' Sec my /nun'pti0ns at Srai>ana Bdgola, Nos. 1,17, loS, 54, 40. 

' See iny F.pigrafthia Camatua, Vol. I, Sr. 147, 148. 

» See McCTiniUc'ii fudU-a of AftigasthfNet, /«(/. Ant. Vf, 344 ; also Thomas, The 
Early h'nith itf JsaJ^a, 23; Colebrooke, Essays^ H, 203} Lasach, ftuHscMe AUer- 
tkumslumle, II. 700. 71a 




Bindusdr.1 reigned for twenty-eight years, say 292 to 264 B.C., but in 
Mysore the next record we have carries us to the reign of As'oka, the 
grandson of Chandra Gupta. The discover)' by me (in 1892) of three 
of his insrriptions in the ^tolkaImu^u taluq, d.Tting perhaps from 
258 B.C, has put it beyond doubt that the Mysore country, or at any 
rate the northern part of it, was included in his dominions. All t!iat 
was jjreviously known of his connection with Mysore was contained in 
the suiteincnt in the Mahawanso that after the third convocation (244 
tvc) he despatched missionaries to foreign parts to establish the religion 
of Buddha; among whom "he deputed tlie thera Majjhantika to 
Kasmfra-Ctandhara, and the thera \tahadcva to Mahisa-mandala 
(Mysore). He deputed the thera Rakkhita to Vanavasi " {Banavasi 
on the Sorab frontier), tVc. These places would seem therefore to 
have been just beyond the limits of his territories. An inscrijition of 
the twelfth century' describes Kuntala as the province governed by the 
Nlauryas. This, roughly speaking, would be the country between the 
rivers Bhima and \'edavati, bounded on the west by the (lliats, includ- 
ing Shimoga, Chitaldroog, Bellary, Dharwar, Bijapur, atid adjacent 
parts to the north in Bombay and the Nizam's Dominions. 

The remarkable Edicts of As'nka, engraved C)n rocks and pillars, are, 
as is well known, the earliest specimens of writing that have been found 
ill India. A\'ith the exception of those at Mansahra and Shahbazgarhi 
in the Yusufzai countrj', in the extreme north-west of the Punjab, 
which are in the Baktrian-Pali characters,*' written from right to left; all 
the others are in the Indo-Pali characters,' written from left to right. 
But a singular circumstance about the Edicts found in Mysore is that 
although, as was to be e.xpected, they are in the Indo-Pali characters, 
the scribe who wrote them has introduced the Baktrian-Pal; at the end 
in describing his profession.* This character appears in no other 
inscriptions throughout India, except those in Yusuf/-;ii first mentioned. 
The inference is that the scribe may have been an official transferred 
from the extreme north 10 the extreme south of the empire, which 
implies a freer intcr-communication tlian has lieen generally supposed 
to exist at that period. 

As'oka was governor of Ujjain, under his father, before he came to the 



* At Buidanikke, Shlkarpur taluq. 
' Properly the Brahroi lipl. 




' AUo called Arirni-Palt and Kharoshli. 
• As discovered by I)r ULihler. 

U 



throne. He reigned for forty-one years, about 264 to 223 B.C., or 
thirty-seven if counted from his coronation-anointing. During those 
previous four years he was engaged in struggles with his brothers. 
That he was at first a Jain has been deducwl' from his Edicts, and also 
from the statement by Akbar's minister, Aliul Kazl, in the Aitt-hAkfniri^ 
that As'oka introduced Jainism into Kashmir, which is confirmed by the 
Rdja-tarangini or Brahmanical history of Kashmir, recording that 
As'oka "brought in the Jina s'dsana." Others, however, consider 
that he followed the Brahman creed. At any rate, he eventually 
embraced Buddhism, and made it the State religion, doing for that 
faith what the emperor Constantine at a later period did for Christianity. 
In the 13th Rock Edict he informs us that his conversion was due to 
the remorse he felt on account of the slaughter and devastation which 
attended his conquest of Kalinga, in the ninth year after his coronation. 
Henceforward he resolved to miiinUiin peace and devote himself to 
religion. He thus gradually came to appoint officials {mahdmdiras and 
others) to watch over morality, and by teaching and persuasion alone 
to extend the knowledge of dhixmma or moral duties. The slaughter of 
animals was to a great extent stopped ; he had wells dug and avenues 
of trees planted along the roads ; made arrangements for dispensing 
medical aid in all parts of the empire; and taught that the attainment 
of future happiness was open to all classes, and dependent, not on the 
ministration of priests, but on personal right conduct and humanity. 

The Edicts in Mysore- are Issued in the name of Devanam Piye 
(the beloved of the gods), a royal title of the Maurya kings, and are 
addressed by the Prince (ayaputa) and mahamatras in Tachchannugiri 
and S'ivannugiri^ to the mahamatras in Isila, places which have not 
been identified. The contents run as follows : — 

The Beloved of the gods (thus) commands : — For more ihao two years and 
a half, when I was an uf>iiuika (or lay-disciple), I did not take much trouble. 
For one year* (I took) immense trouble ; the year that I went to the sart^ha 
{or assembly of dcrics) 1 put forth great exertion. And in this time the 
men who were (considered) true in Jambudvipa (were shown to be) false, 
together with the gods." This, indeed, is the result of exertion, But this 
can not be attained only by the great. For in any case, even to the lowly 

* Uy Ed. Thomas, yaiMfiJvr, or the Jiariy Faith of Axoka. His gran<tson Sampnti 
was certainly a jain. 

- Translations have Wtn ]>«!>lishcd by Dr. HUhlcr in Epigraphia JndUa^ III, 14Q; 
and by M. Senarl, in French, in \\\^ Journal AsiatiifUf for 189a. 

■ The reading of these names is nni quite clear : Dr. Itlihler proirases .Suvao^asiri 
for both. * Or, according lo another version, " for one period of six years." 

• This difficult {lossagc also reads in other versions as "The men who were really 
eqoal to guds in Jambudvipa (were proved to be) falsely (so regarded)." 




.\fAURYAS 



29 1 



by effort high heaven {sviirj^a) is possible, and may be attained. To this 
end has this exhortation been delivered :— Both humble and great should so 
exert themselves : and the neighbouring countries should know this ; and 
this exertion should be of long continuance. Then will this matter increase ; 
U will increase greatly ; it will increase to at least as much again. And 
this exhortation has been delivered by the vytitha 256.' 

Thus says the Beloved of the gods :— Obedience should be rendered to 
mother and father. So also regard for living creatures should be made 
fum. Truth should be spoken. These and the like virtues of the dhaimna 
should be practised. So also the disciple should honour his teacher. And 
due respect should be paid to kindred. This is the ancient natural way. 
This also lends to long life, and this should thus be done. Written by Pada 
ihe scribe. 

The above will suffice to show the earnestness and high moral tone 
of these singular and interesting inscriptions, so unlike any others met 
with in the country. The sentence about the men who were regarded 
as gods in Jambudvipa or India is considered to refer Co the Brahmans, 
and to their being now deprived of the almost divine prestige tbey had 
arrogated. At ilio same time, the duty of reverence to them and the 
bestowal of alms both upon Hrahmanas and S'ramanas is more than 
once inculcated. Toleration was denied only to their false claims. 

Asoka's son Mahindo and his daughter Sanghamitta entered the holy 
order and introduced Buddhism into Ceylon. It may be noted here 
that Asoka never calls himself by that name in his inscriptions, but 
alwaj'S Piyudasi or Devdnam Piye. Of his grandson Dasaralha (in 
Pntkrit called Dashabtha) some inscriptions have been found at the 
Nagaxjuni hill caves." 

According to the Puranas the Maurya dynasty continued in power for 
137 years, and Brihadratha, the last king, was murdered by his general 
Pushyamitra, who founded the S'unga dynasty. Agnimitra is mentioned 
as the son of Pushyamitra in the play called Mrilavikagnimitra, and as 
reigning at Vidisa, identified with Bhilsa in Central India, An inscrip- 
tion of the time of the S'ungas was found by Cleneral Cunningham in 
the Stupa at Bharhut in Central India,-' They are said to have ruled 
for 1x2 years, but for the latter part of that period were superseded by 
the Ranva family, who were supreme for 45 years. These may have 
been at first subordinates, as they are called in one place S'unga- 
bhrityas. Sus'arman, the last Kanva king, was overthrown by Siinuka, 
described as a servant of the race of A'ndhras/ and he was the 

' The ngniScation of this term and of the aumcmU is much disputed. 
= rmd. Ant., XX. 364. * "*.. XIV, 138. 

* The .X'ndhras are described by I'toleniy as a powerful nation, under the name of 
Afidarte. The}- are aUo mentioned in Pliny. 

u s 



2Q; 



H/STORY 



A. It. 

reigned nt least 

24 years — 137 
34 .. 



— 182? 



founder of the line of kings thence called in the Puranas the 
A'ndhrabhrityas.' 

Batavahanas. — But from inscriptions it seems more correct to call 
them the S'atavaliana dynasty, a name corrupted in Prakrit to S'iHvA- 
hana. Their chief capital appears to have I>een at I )hanakataka, in the 
east (Dhdranikotta on the Krishna, in Guntur taluq), but their chief 
city in the west was Paithan on the Godavari. InscriiJtions found at 
Nasik and Nanaghal^ provide us with the following names (in their 
Prakrit form) and succession. The peculiarity that the name of his 
mother always appears with that of the king may be also remarked in 
the Sunga inscription, and is a Rajput custom due to polygamy. Thus 
we have Gotamiputra Sdtakani, Vasithiputra Pulumiyi, and so forth.* 

Simuka. 

Kanhft (Krishna) 

S'.ilrtk.-ini, son of Golnmi ... 

I^JIumiyi, son of Vjwithi 

Sirist-na, son of Miidhari 

Cbaturajxina S'alaka^i, son of Vasithi 

Siriyaxia S'dlakani,* sun of Gutamj 37 „ 

KhKravela's inscription in Kalinga tells us of a S^takani in the 
2nd century K.t ., but these kings arc assigned to the 2nd century A.P. 
on the dates of the contemporary Kshatrai>as or Satraps of Surashtra 
in Kathiawar, and other coincidences. Thus, the first Satakani was 
victorious over Nahapana, and destroyed the dyTiasty of the Kliaharalas 
or Khakha.ralas. Rudradaman, grandson of Chashtana, was the con- 
queror of a Satakani, perhaps Chaturapana.* Again, Ptolemy, who 
wrote his Geography soon after 150 a.ik, describes Ozene (Ujjayini) as 
the royal seat of Tiastenes, Baithan (Paithan) as that of Siri Polemaios, 
and Hippofcoura, in the south of Ariake (Maharashtra), as that of 
Baleokouros." In these names it is not difTicult to recognize Chashtana, 
Siri Pulumayi, and Vilivayakura, who are known to us from inscrip- 
tions and coins. Chash|ana was the founder of the dynasty of 
Kshatrapa Senas,' which succeeded that of the Kshaharatas, ending with 
Nahapdna. Siri Pu!tnTi.iyi wns the S'atavdhana king, the son of Vasilhi« 
given in the list above. \'ilivayakura was the viceroy of the Sdtava- 
hanas, governing the .southern provinces." 

' Bhandarkar, Ear/y Hist, of th( Dtkkau, ^ Arch, Surt: »'. htd.^ iv, v. 

* *?« Dr. Biihier's explanation in Cunningham's Stupa 0/ Bharhut, p. 129. These 
do not give us the actual names of the mothers, htit the Utter, fts in the cax of Rijas 
loo, are callctl after the gotm of their ftimily priest. 

* In Sanskrit, SVi Vajiia 5>aiakarni. * Senart, Ind. Aut., XXI, 206^ 
" McCrindle. PloUtu/s Gettg., ib., .Xtll, 359. 366. 
^ The following are the early names: — Chashtana, Ja>-ad;inian, Kudradinuiii, 

Kudrasimha, Uudra^ena. * Bhaadarkar, op. at. 



I 

I 




SATAVANANAS 



293 



To revert lo the kingdoms which arose out of Alexander's empire. 
We know that Egypt under the Ptolemies and Syria under the 
SeleukidiE were eventually conquered by Rome. Bui the Greek 
kingdom of Baktria was overthrown by a people from the north, called 
the Tochari (whence its name of Tocharistan), who next advanced 
wtslward against the kingdom of Harlhia, founded in 250 B.C. by 
Arsakest who had revolted agamst the Seleukidfe. Artabinus, king of 
Panhia, fell fighting against the Tochari, but his son Mithridates II. 
(124 B.c) drove them back towards Kabul and India. Meanwhile, 
Saka or Tunishka tribes from Central Asia had poured into Baktria, 
and by about 24 ilc. had firmly established themselves in the north- 
west of India. 

From coins and other sources we obtain various names of kings, 
such as Heraiis, Gondopharcs and others, hut the best known are the 
Saka kings Kanishka, Huvishka, and Vasudeva, or, as they are called 
on their coins, Kanerki, Ooerki, and Bazodeo. They belonged to 
ihe Kushana family, and Kashmir was the chief seat of their power. 
But Kanishka's empire extended from Yarkand and Khokand in 
the north to Agra and Sindh in the south. The last great Buddhist 
council u-as held in hLs reign. The best authorities are of opinion 
with Ur. Oldenberg that the Saka era, reckoned from 78 a i>., dates 
from his coronation. But the word Saka after some centuries came 
10 l)e misunderstood as itself meaning "era," and therefore, to dis- 
tingutd it, was at length, more than a thousand years after its origin, 
called the S'alivdhana S'aka, a reminiscence of the fact that it had been 
adopted by the Sdtavahanas. This is the era still in common use 
throughout the south of India, as well as in Bengal* 

We may now return lo the S'itavahanas. 1 heir rule in the northern 
pans of Mysore is proved both by inscriptions and coins. There was a 
find of Buddhist leaden coins a few years ago* at the site oF an ancient 
city whose name, according to tradition, was Chandravali, situated 
inunediaiely to the west of Chitaldroog, and among these was one 
bearing the name of Pulomayi. Again, an inscription of Sdtakanifii, 
son of Hdriti, was found some time ago' at Banavasi on the Sorab 
frontier. And recently I have found one also of Satakanni, son of 
Hariti, at Malavalli in .Shikarpur taluq. Roth the Sdtakarnis above 
mentioned are described as "joy of the Vinhukaddavutu family," but the 



* The era uf V'ikramidit^a, iccUoncd from 56 s.c.^ecnislu Ijc u|U3llya. misnomer. 
No infrUuicc uf it»use wiih such a name has Ijcen round for 500 years after that ilaic. 
Dr. Fleet identifies it with the Malava cm. — /us. of the Early Gupta Kings, 
By Mr. .Mcrvjii Smith, a mining engineer, pn>specting for g»>Id. 
' By Dr. Biirgen: for Dr. BUhter's Irunslation see Jtid. .-Int., Kl\\ 331. 




394 



iriSTORY 



Banavasi inscription is in characters which appear to be of a somewhat 
earlier type than those of Malavalli, and corresponding with the alphabet 
of Siriyana Sdtakarni's inscription at Nasik. On this ground, and also 
on account of the dates, though they are both in the same Pali or 
Prakrit language, it is possible that they may belong to the time of 
different kings of the same name. Their relationship to the S'dUva- 
hanas before mentioned does not appear, but they probably represent 
a branch of the dynasty.' At Malax^lli, Satakarni is called king of 
Vaijayanti, or Ranavasi, and the inscription at the latter place implies 
the ha me. 

The Banavasi inscription is dated in the twelfth year, the first day 
of the seventh winter fortnight, and records a gift by the king's daughter, 
the Mahabh6ji Sivakhada-Ncfgasiri. The Malavalli inscription begins 
with ascriptions of victor}- to the holy Maitapatti deva, evidently the 
god of Malavalli. At the present time this is a most ordinary linga, 
called KallesVara, in a most insignificant village temple, nor are there 
any indications about the place of former grandeur except the inscrip- 
tion. It is dated in the first year, and the first day of the second 
summer fortnight. In it the king S.'ilnkami issues an order to the 
Mahavalabham S'ungakam. If the reading of this last name be correct* 
it looks like an interesting link with the S'ungas, previously mentioned. 
The grant consists of certain villages for the Mattapatti god. There is 
a second inscription on the same stone pillar, in similar characters and 
kinguage. It is dated in the fourth year, on the second day of the first 
autumn fortnight, and records a fresh grant for the same god by a 
Kadantba king, name defaced, and was engraved by \'isVakamma. 
A fine Kadamha inscription at Talgunda also names Satakarni as or 
of the great kings who had visited the temple there. 

The Sdtakarnis were undoubtedly succeeded by the Kadambasin theJ 
north-west of Mysore. From this time, the third century, we enter 
upon a period more amply elucidated by authentic records. 

While the north-west was, as stated, in the possession of the 
Kadambas, part of the north was under the rule of the Rashtrakiilas, 
or Rattxs. '!'he east was held by the Mahavalis and the Pallavas, and 
the centre and south came to be occupied by the (langas, who [lartially 
subdued the Mahdvalis. In the fifth century the Chalukyas from the 
north reduced the Rattas and the Kadambas to the condition of 
feudatories and prevailed against the Paliavas, who were also attacked 
by the Gangas. Early in the ninth century the Rattas regained power 

' Similarly, in the Jaggayyaiieta stupa w-as found an inscription of another branch, 
of ihc time uf Furisadatia, son of Madhari, in which he Ls said to lie of the Ikhiku 
Ikshv^ku] httiWy.—AnM. Surv, S. /thf.. No. 3, p. 56. 



SATAVAIIAiVAS 



495 



over the Chalukyas, and for a short time took possession of the Ganga 
kingdom, but restored it and formed an alliarue with the Gangas, with 
whom also were allied the Nolambas, a branch of the Pailavas, 
)lished in the north-east of Mysore. In the tenth century the 
"Rattas with the fjanjjas gained great success over the Cholas, but the 
close of that centur)' saw the ("halukyas once more in the ascendant, 
bringing the rule of the Ra^tas to a final end, while the Nolambas 
were uprooted by the fjangas. The eleventh century began with a 

werful invasion of the Cholas from the soulh, in wiiich the Gangas 
and the Pailavas were overthrown; but from the ruins of the (Unga 
empire arose the Hoysalas, who drove out the Cholas from Mysore and 
established a firm dominion. In the twelfth century the Ch.ilukya 
I'cr was subverted by the Kalachuryas, in whom the Haihayas 
^reappear ; and they, in their turn, were shortly dispossessed on the north 
by the Vadavas and in the south by the Moysalas, who also before long 
subdued the Cholas. But l>oth Yadavasand Hoysalas wereovertlirown 
in the middle of the fourteenth century by the Musalmans. The 
Vijayanagar empire, however, then arose, which held sway over the 
whole of South India till the latter half of the sixteenth century, when 
it was subverted by a confederacy of Musalman powers. Of these, 
Bijapur secured a great part of Mysore, but was overcome in the 
seventeenth century by the Mughals, who took possession of the north 
and east of the country. Meanwhile the Mysore Rajas gained power 
in the south, during the contests which raged between the Mahrattas 
and the Mughals, and between rival claimants on the death of 
Aurang/.eb. Haidar Ah extended the Mysore dominion over the 
Mughal provinces in the east and north, and over Bednur in the west, 
usurping supreme power in 1761. On the capture of Seringapatam by 
the British and the downfall of Tipu Sultan in 1799, the country 
included within the present limits was granted to the representative of the 
Hindu Rajas. In 1832 it was placed under British Commissioners, but 
leslored to native rule in 1881. Such is an outline of the changes of 
seventeen centuries, the details of which we may now^ proceed to fill in. 

Kadambas. — The dominions of the Kadambas embraced all the 
west of Mysore, together with Haiga (N. Kanara) and Tulava (S. 
Kanara). Their original capital was Banavasi (Jayantipura or 
Vaijavantipura), situated on the river Varada on the western frontier of 
the Sorab taluq. It is mentioned by Ptolemy. Also in the Mahawanso, 
which names it as one of the places to which a (Aero was sent in the 
lime of Asokx 

The origin of the Kadambas is thus related. Some years after 
Parasu Rama had recovered Haiga and Tulava from the sea, Siva and 



31)6 



HfSTOR V 



Parvati came to the Sahyddri mountains, the Western Ghats, in order 
to look at this new country' ; and in consequence of their fiasttmes a 
boy was born under a kadamha. iree^ whence the name of the dynasty. 
According to another version, he was born from the drops of sweat 
which flowed from Siva's forehead to the root of the kadamba tree in 
consequence of his exertion in conquering the asura Tripura. A more 
realistic account, given in an inscription, is that a kadamba tree grew 
in front of the family residence, and that by cultivation of it they 
Acquired its name and qualities.^ In any case thuy appear to have 
been an indigenous race. 

The people of the coimtry, bfing at the time without a monarch, had 
recourse to the Slate elephant, which, being turned loose canning a 
wreath, presented it to the youth whose birth was so miraculous, and he 
was consequently proclaimed king. He is variously styled Jayanta, 
Trilochana Kadamba, and Trinetra Kadamba. The royal hne thus 
founded, in about the second century, continued independent till the 
sixth century, and during this period they claim to have performed 
many asVamedhas or horse sacrifices, indications of supreme authority. 
Their family deity was Madhukes'vara of BanavasL 

After Trinetra the kings in regular succession ascribed to this line 
were Madhukesvara, Mallinatha and Chandravarma. The last Iiad two 
sons, named C^handravarma or Chandavarma and Furandara, the elder 
of whom was the father of Mayiiravarma. Of these early kings it is 
not improbable that the first Chandravarma may be the Chandrahasa 
whose romantic stor>" has already been given above (p. jRz). The 
second Chandravarma, again, may be the prince of that name who was 
the progenitor of the Kodaga or Coorg race. Of him it is related that he 
rescued from a forest fire a serpent named Manjista, which, entering his 
mouth, took up its abode in his stomach. He was forced lo wander 
about, with his wife Pu&hpavati, in search of a cure, which was evcntualiy 
effected at Valabhi by a woman* whom he was obliged in return to 
marry, and desert his wife, then with child. The truth probably is that 
his kingdom was usurped by some Naga chief, such as we know were 



' The Lm; itself is Mid tu have been produced by a drop of nectar which fell upon 
the eflrth from the churning siicV., the Mandara mouniain, at the churning of the 
ocean. The tall and handsome tree^i Itearing this name arc species of ttau^tea^ of the 
natural order tincHcmaceit^ and grow in many parts of India. A spirit is said to be 
distilled from ihc flowers. \,Sfe WiLwn's V'iihnn I'ltrana, Bk. v, ch. xx\-.) In 
Watt's Dictionar>' the tree is describetl as an anffwifphalm^ l>elongii^ lo lite 
ruhiatea^ and the flowers are said to be sacred to Siva. According fo the Pharma- 
<0grttphia Iiufica il is the arhor grneratioHU uf the Mahralta Kunbis, and * branch 
of it is brought into the house ut ihc time of ihcir nuijriage ceremonies. 

' .She was the attendant at the ihairam in which be lodgei), and advised him lo 




^ 



special enemies of the Kadamba.s.> According to the K^v^ri Purdna^ 
Chandravarma was a son of Siddhartha, king of Matsya (Virdta's 
capital, Hangal in Dlian^ar, one of the Kadamba cl>ief cities). lie 
left his country, il is said, and went on a pilgrimage to all the holy 
bathing-places, until Parvati appeared and offered Iiim a boon, in con- 
sequence of which he received a kingdom at the source of the Kaveri, 
and a Sudra wife, from whom he, as a Kshatriya, should beget a valiant 
race called Ugras. For the eleven sons he had by her the hundred 
daughters of the king of Vidarbha (Berur) by Sudra moilicrs were 
obtained as wives. Each of these bore more than a hundred sons, 
who, to provide accommodation for their growing numbers, levelled the 
hill slopes and settled over a district five yojanas in extent at the sources 
of ihe Kaveri river in Coorg. 

Mayiiravarma seems to have restored the authority of the Kadambas, 
and is sometimes represented as the founder of the line. He was 
the son of whom Chandra\'arma's wife was delivered at \'alabhi after 
she had been deserted. The following is the legend of the manner in 
which he acquired the throne : — One night some robbers got into the 
boose of a Brahman at \^alabhi, and at the same time a i>eacotk in the 
yard screamed. They then overheard the Brahman laughing and 
teiUng his wife the story of the peacock. He said that a Brahman of 
Banavosi once performed various penances with the view of becoming 
a king, but a \oice from heaven informed him tliat he was destined to 
^ bom again as a peacock, and whoever should eat the head of the 
peacock would he king. On this he went to Benares to die, and was 
fc-bom as the i>eacock now in the yard. Hearing this the robbers 
made off with the peacock, but immediately fell disputing as to who 
should liave the head. To decide the rn:iiter they resolved to ask tlie 
woman staying in the chatrain to cook the bird for them, and sec to 
whom she gave the head. But while she '.vas getting the meal ready, 
her little son suddenly snatched u]> the head and ate it. Being thus 
clearly indicated as heir to the throne, the robbers conveyed him and 
his mother to Banavasi, and had just arrived at the outskirts of the 
town when they met the State elephant carrying a wreath, which it at 



•onhip the goddos Kilika and the effig>- of a »:r|!cnt c&ned uii a .stone at ihtr back 
of bcr Icmple. On hiA tloing so anolhcr serpent npjwared out of an ant-hill, ami 
tried Kt t>ersuaik* Manjisla lo come furlh, liut wilhout Mircess, The woman, over* 
hearing the di&puie lieiween Ihe iwu, npeedily pouvewMxi henwlf of certain plants they 
had threatened tu use agaiii.«l each other, — I'uAamarJi unil ynr/aw/rf//, ^ruwing at 
tJ)e fool of aa ant-hill, ami tthtmira h»tri, a creeper spreading over the asiitflhn tree. 
yyisiM was cxpellwl and died hy virtue of the juice nf ihc former, an<l the other 
;ni wa.s got rid of by thai of the latter. 
» Ste /«/. .^M/., XIV, 13. 




fffSTORY 



once presented to the boy. His origin being revealed, he was forth- 
with recognized as king of Hanavasi, under the name of Mayiiravarma, 
from rrutj/ira, ix;acock. He there obtained "the sword of sharpness, 
the shoes of swiftness, and the garment of invisibility." He is said to 
have rescued Sasiprabhe, the wife of Raja Vatlabha. prince of Kalyina, 
from a Yaksha named Kandarjja Bhi'ishana, li>'ing in Gomanla-guhe, 
who had carried her off. He received in consequence a large accession of 
territory, together with the Kalj-ina princess S'as'inkamudre in marriage. 

He is also stated to have introduced Brahman colonists from 
Ahichchatra (in Rohilkand), and distributed the countrj' below the 
t Jhats into sixty-four portions, which he hestowed upon them. In the 
reign of his son Kshetravarnia, Chandrdngada or 'IVinetra, these Brah- 
mans attempted to leave the province, but they were brought back : 
and in order to prevent a repetition of the attempt were compelled to 
leave unshorn a lock of hair on the forehead as a distinguishing mark. 
From these are descended the Haiga or Havika Brahmans of the north- 
west of Mysore. They would appear on this occasion to have been 
settled by Mukanna, tlut is, Trinetra, above the Ghats, at Sthana- 
gundiir (Talgund:! in Shikarpnr taluq). Ouring his reign, a kinsman 
named Chandrasena ruled the south of Tiilava, and the Brahmans were 
spread into those parts. Lokdditya or Lokadipya, the son of Chandra- 
sena, married Kanakfivati, the sister of Trinetra, and had by her a 
daughter, whom Hubasiga, the king of the mountain Chanddlas, sought 
as a wife for his son. In pretended compliance, he was invited to 
Tripura and there treacherously murdered. The authorit>- of the 
Kadatnbas was extended in consequence above those (Ihats, and the 
Brahmans followed this accession of territory. Lokadip)'a is said to 
have reigned fifty years. 

These traditions no doubt include much that is entitled to credit. 
But a fine stone inscription at Talgunda gives a different version, which 
seems to refer to the same period, or to a time when the Pallavas were 
supreme from west to east. In it we are informed that a Brahman 
named Maydras'anna of the Kadamba family, who are described as very 
devout Brahmans, went with his guru Viras'arma to the Pallava capital 
(Kanchi) to study. While there a sharp quarrel arose between him and 
the Pallavas, and he Ijecame so enraged that he resolved, although a 
Brahman, to become a Ksliatriya in order to revenge himself. Arming 
himself and overcoming the Pallava guards at the frontier, he escaped 
lo the inaccessible forests at Sriparvata {in Kaniul district, near 
the junction of the Tungabhadra and Krishna rivers), and there attained 
such jiower that he levied tribute from the great Bdna and other sur- 
rounding kings. The Palla\-as thereupon led an army against him, but 



he swooped down upon them like a hawk and completely defeated them. 
They therefore resolved to make peace with him, and invested him with 
a territory extending from the Amara ocean to the borders of the 
Premira country.^ His son was Kangavarma, whose son was 
Bhagiratha, sole ruler of the Kadamba territories. His son was 
Raghuparlhiva, whose brother was Kakustha or Kakusthavarma. The 
latter was a powerful ruler, and his daughters were given in marriage to 
the Gupta and other kings. His son was S'antivarma. 

The two last names occur in other inscriptions, but the rest are new. 
Several more early Kadamba inscriptions are available, but unfortunately 
ihey are dated only in the year of the reign, or by the ancient system 
of the seasons, and the succession of the Icings cannot on this account 
be definitely determined One series gives us Krishnavarma ; his son 
Viihnuvarma, by the daughter of Kaikcya ; his son Simhavarma ; and 
his son Krishnavarma.- Another gives us Krishnavarma and his son 
r)e\-avarma.^ \^■e have also Mandhatrivarma, whose grant was com- 
posed by Damodara-datta,'' and there is a separate rock inscription by 
Dimodara.^ We havealso the series Kakustha or Kakusthavarma, his son 
S'dnlivarma ; his son Mriges'avarma; his three sons Ravivarma, Bhdnu- 
varma, and Sivaratha ; and the son of the first of these, Harivarma.' 

All these records, relating to at least sixteen generations, undoubtedly 
belong to some lime between the third and sixth centuries. One stone 
inscription in Prakrit, immediately following a grant by Satakami, and 
another in Sanskrit, are engraved in small Cave characters. The re- 
mainder, all in Sanskrit, are engraved in bold characters called box- 
headed, which in certain specimens present a very elegant appearance. 
Many of the grants are to Jains, but a few are to Brahmans, one to an 
Atharvani Brahman. 

The historical facts deduced from them are that the Kadambas claim 
to be lords of \*aijayantt or Banavasi, though certain grants are issued 
from Triparvata, from Palisika (Halsi in Belgaum district), and from 
Uchchas'ringi. Like the Satakami who preceded them at Banavasi, 
they are stated to be of the Manavya gotra and sons of Hdriti. Their 
OYSt was a lion, and they bore the monkey fiag. They seem to have 
had enemies in a Naga race, represented later probably by the Sindas 
of Erarabarige (Yelburga in the Nizam's Dominions),' and Krishna- 

' Perhaps the Pramdra klngdnni of Miilwa in Cenlral India is iiieani. Aniararitava, 
[he other limit, is difficult to dciennine, unless it means ihc Western Ocean. 

• (Irant at Halelml, IJclur taluq. ' itid. Ant., VM, n. 

* (>mit at Kuda^re, Shikarpur laluq. * Ind. Ant., XXI, 93. * //., \I, 22ff. 
' These deduce their genealug)' from Sinda, king of the Sindhu countr)-, who was 

tNim in Ahichchhalra, and married a Kadainha priiicci^!*. Fleet, Kan. Dyn.^ 97. 
.S« also Ep. /ltd., HI. 231. 




varmj, father of Devavarma, claims to be in possession of a heritage 
not to l:>e attained by the Nagas. But their great rivals were the 
Pallavas. AVe have seen evidence of this in tl^u Talgunda inscription 
above, and from an indepcnd<"nt stone inscription of Krishnavarma it 
appears that in one severe battle with the Pallavas his army was so 
comijlL'lely deslroycd that he gave up his life to save !iis Iionour. The 
sister of a Kadaniba king, Krishnavanna, was (according to Ganga 
grants) married to the Ganga king Madhava II. Mriges'avarma claims 
to have uprooted the lofty Ganga family and to be a fire of destruction 
to the Pallavas. Ravivarma, again, slew V'islinuvarnia, prol.>ably a 
Palla^'a, and uprooted Chandadanda, lord of Ranchi, and thence a 
Pallava, thereby establishing himself at Palasika. 

The Kadambas lost iheir independence on being conquered by the 
Chalukyas under Kirtivarnia, whose reign began in 566. But ihey 
continued to act as viceroys and governors under the Chalukya and 
other dynasties, and the name does not disappear from history till the 
rise of Vijayanagar in 1336. Among the later inscriptions, one al 
Kargudari (Hangal taluq)', dating in 1108, gives the following traditional 
list of the kings, each buing the son of his predecessor. After seventy- 
seven ancestors, of whom wc know no more, there came MayiSravarma, 
Krishna {add varma to each), Ndga, V^ishnu, Mriga, Satya, Vijaya, 
Jav-a, Ndga, S'dnti, Ki'rtti, A'ditya, Chattaya, Jaya. The last had 
five sons, Taila and S'aniivarma being the most important. The 
latter's son was 'I'aila, whose son was Tailama, whose sons were Kirtti 
and Kdma. But though this includes some of the genuine names, and 
allowing for kings often having more than one name, the list as a 
whole is of doubtful credit, except in the last stages. There is no 
question, however, that the Kadambas became more prominent at the 
end of the eleventh century, when their alliance seems to have been 
sought by the Chalukya Vikrama in his plans against his brother, and 
on his success they were advanced in honour. A separate branch had 
its capital at Gopaka or Goa, but all the Kadambas were absorbed 
into thu conquests of the founders of the Vijav-anagar empire. 

Mahavalis^ — The Mahavali kings were of great antiquity, and, 
according to their inscriptions, ruled over a seven and a half lakh 
countr)% containing 12,000 villages, situated in the west of the Andhra 
or Telugu country. They were in possession of the east of Mysore, 
where several of their inscriptions are found, especially in Mulbagal 
taluq, and their kingdom was evidently to the cast and north uf the 
Palar river. They claim to be descended from Bali or Maha Bali, and 
his son Bana, whence they are also styled the B^-Cna kings. According 

' Inii. An/., X, 249. 




MAffA VALIS 



30 > 



to Hindu mythology Bali was an Asura emperor, who through his 
de%«tion and penance defeated Indra, humbled the god:> and extended 
his authority over the three worlds. In order to restrain him, \*ishnu, 
who ft-as appfciled to hy the gods for protection, assumed his fiPth 
incarnation, the form of the Brahman dwarf, the thimana avtt/Jra, and 
appearing before Bali, asked for only three paces of ground as a l>oon, 
which was granted. As the water conveying the gift fell into his hand, 
the dwarfs form expanded till it filled the world; and Vishnu, now 
nnanifcsting himself, deprived Bali in two strides of heaven and earth, 
but ffl account of the virtues the latter possessed, left PdtAla or the 
infernal regions still in his dominion. 

The ancient mined city of Mahdbalipura or Mamallnpura, generally 
known as the Seven Pagodas, situated on the east coii'it, thirty miles 
south of Madras, was perhaps their original capital. According to 
'cgcnd' it was founded by Bali. His son was Banasura, who is repre- 
sented as a giant with a thousand hands ; Aniruddha, the son (or grand- 
*<>'>) of Krishna, came to Bana's court in disguise and seduced his 
Slighter; which produced a war, in the course of which Aniruddha 
^^^ taken prisoner and brought to Mahabalipur : upon which Krishna 
*^nie in person from his capital Dvdraka and laid siege to the place. 
Siva guarded the gates and fought for Banasum, who worshipped him 
*"'lh his thousand hands, but Krishna found means to overthrow Siva, 
d having taken the cit)*, cut off Bandsura's hands, except two, with 
''tiich he obliged him to do homage. He continued in subjection to 
Krishiu till his death, after which a long period ensued in which no 
•Mention is anywhere made of this place. It seems to have l>cen 
sequcnily destroyed by an inundation of the sea. The inscriptions 
( found there appear to be all Pallava, of about the seventh ccntur}', 
Or Chola, of later date than tliat.= 

The oldest Mahavali inscription bearing a date is one professing to 

^ of 339 A.D., found by me at Mudiyanur (Mulbagal lalufj).' But 

from the one which contains the fullest genealogy of the line, published 

^y the Kev. T. Foulkcs,* there were several generations before that. 

As aids towards fixing the period of the kings we have the statements 

^bat the early Kadamba outlaw of S'ripar%:au levied tribute from 

the great Bina ; that the first Ganga king, assigned to the second 

**iUur), conquered the Bana country : that the Cluluk>*a king 

^■kriDudicya I., ruling in the seventh centur>', subdued Rajamalla 

^ the ^fahamalla family ; that the Chola king, \'ira Nirayana, 

' Sfe Cftpuin Cnr's Jbrvw Pagttiai, 13 ; Asiatic Hettarchrtt I, 1 56. 

' Mdltjach, St. /W. /it/-, I, Iff. ■ Ittd. Ant., XV, 171. 

* !»., XHI, 6; Ep. /mi,, III. 74- 



^ Kris 
■*ncn 



3« 



HISTOR Y 



uprooted the Binas about the end of the ninth century ; but that they 
were replaced soon after by the (iangas in the person of Hastinialla.' 
Tlic genealogy as derived from inscriptions is as follows : — 

Bali, Mahaliali ; his son 
llipa, in whdse line wnas liorn 
[Idnidhirija. 

After he and many other Bana kings had passed away, there were : — 

Nandivarma, Ja)*ai3andivarma. 

Vijaydditya I. 

MnUadevB Nandi\-arnia, Jagaclckanialla, \"adhu\*allabha. 

Udoa Vid>'ddhara. 

I'rabhumiTU. 

Vikram-^ditya 1. 

Vijayiditya II. 

Vikramiditya It, VijayalKihu. 



Each of these eight kings was the son of his predecessor. The 
Mudiyanur inscription is of the twenty-third year of No. 3, 
Stone inscriptions exist in Mysore of Nos. 4 and 5. There arx; 
also inscriptions of a Bejeyitta Bdnarasa, one dating in 899, He 
may be identified with Vijayaditya II. V'ikramaditya II. is said 
to have been the friend of Krishna Raja, no doubt the Rashtra- 
kutu king, ruling in about 940 to 956. Then an inscription dating in 
971 presents to us Samba>7a, who, though invested with all the 
Mahavali titles, was ruling as a governor subordinate to the Pallavas. 
The line must therefore have lost its independence in the latter half o( 
the tenth centur>'. Extracts are given by Mr. Koulkes'^ from literature 
indicating a recognition of the power of the Dana kings in the thirteenth 
and fifteenth centuries. Moreover, at the end of this latter period, in- 
scriptions at Sri villiputiur in Tinnivelly district show that two kings named 
Sundara Tol and Muttarasa Tirumala, calling themselves Mahdvali 
Banadhiraja even obtained ix>ssession of the Pandya throne. Except 
these and the Salem inscriptions, which are in ("Trantha and Tamil 
characters, all the other inscriptions of this line are in the ancient 
Kannacla characters and \x\ the Sanskrit and Kannada languages. 
Some of their later inscriptions indicate Paduvipuri as their capital, 
which may possibly be identified with Padavidu in North Arcot 
district} south of VeUore, where there are extensive ruins, the ancient 
city having been destroyed apparently by a volcanic eruption. Their 
crest was the recumbent bull Nandi, and they had a black fliig. 



' Seel»d. ^/i/.,Xin, 6, 187. 



■ Loc, xii. 




:,4 VAS 



303 



Yaidumbas.— Inscriptions of these kings are met with in Chintamani 
taiLi4. The Kalinga Ganga king Vajrahastu W married a Vaidumba 
princess; and the Chola king Pardntaka subdued a Vaidumba king. 

Pallavas. — The Pallavas were a powerful dynasty who succeeded to 
the dominions of the Andhrabhritya or S'atavdhana family throughout 
the region in which the Telugu language prevails. They seem at first 
to have had a chief city at Vitdpi (Bdddmi in Bijapur district), from 
which they were expelled by the Chalukyas in the fifth century, and 
Also at Vengi, between the Krishna and the (lodavari, which was token 
from them by the Chalukyas in the seventh century. But from an early 
part of their history tlieir capital was Kdnchi (Conjeveram, near 
Madra.s). Their grants arc also issued from Paiakkada and Dasana- 
pura, the latter name being perhaps a translation of the former. This 
place has not been identified, but may be the Palakka of the Samudra 
Gupta mscriplion at Allahaljud. Trichinopoly seems to be the southern- 
most point in which Pallava inscriptions have been found. Stone inscrip- 
tions in the Rolar, Chitaldroog. Tumkur and Bangalore Districts bear 
evidence that the Pallavas in the ninth and tenth centuries exercised 
dominion throughout the north and east of Mysore. Here they frequently 
had the cognomen No|amba, and their territory came to be known as 
Kolambavadi or Nonambavdrli, a Thirty-two 'I'housand province^ the 
subjects of which are represented by the Nonabas of the present day. 

The origin of the Pallavas is uncertain, though they profess in some 
grants to I>e of the Bhdradvdja gotra. They are mentioned in the Puranas 
along with the Haihayas, Sakas, Yavanas, &c., as Pahlavas, which would 
imply a Persian source. But Professor Weber says' : — *' As the name of 
a people this word Pahlav became early foreign to the Persians, learned 
reminiscences excepted : in the Pahlav texts themselves, for instance, it 
does not occur. The period when it pas.scd over to the Indians, there- 
fore, would have to be fixed for about the second to the fourth century 
A.i>., and we should have to understand by it, not directly the Persians, 
who are called Pdrasikas rather, but specially .Ansacidan Parthians.^ 
Pallava may possibly be derived from Pdrthava (Parthian). 

According 10 tradition, from S'alivahana, that is S'atavdhana, who 
ruled at Pratishthana (now Paiihan, on the Godavari), were descended 
Midhavavarma, Kulaketana, Nilakantha, and Mukunti Pallava. The 
last appears as the founder of the Pallava line, and is said to have been 

» /fist. Ittd. Lit.^ 18S. 

* The I'arthians rcvolicH from the Seltucichc .-lUiui a.<-. 150. under a chief named 
Arsakc« (Askh), who fcmndecl an indcpcndenl monarchy. The I'arthians sub- 
sequentljr overran the provinces east of the Euphrates, and alimit B.r. 130 overthrew 
the kingdom of Bactria., so that their empire extended from the Euphrates to the 
lodus, and from the Indian Ocean to the Paiopamiswr, or even lo the Oxus. The 





N/SrOR V 



a son of Mahadeva (Siva) by a girl of the mountain tribe callt'd 
Chensuans (Chensabara).' He is also stated to have introduced 
Brahmans into his country in the third century. 

'I'rilothana, Trinetra, or Trinayana Fallava, was ruling in the fourth 
centiir>" when Jayasiniha, sumamed Vijayaditya, nf the Cahlukya 
family, invaded his territories. But the latter lost his life in the attempt, 
and his queen, then jircgnant, fied and took refuge with a Brahman 
named Vishnu Somnyaji, in whose house .she gave hirth to a son named 
Rdjasimha. On attaining to man's estate the latter renewed the contest 
with the Pallavas, in which he was finally successful, and e\'entually 
married a princess of that race." 

Resorting to inscriptions, one at Nasik says that Sdtakami, son of 
Gotami, destroyed the Pahlavas, with the Sakas and Yavanas;' and one at 
Jundgadh that a Pallava named Suvis'akha, son of Kulaipa, was minister 
to the Kshatrapa Rudraddman.* But in the east we obuain the names 
of several scries of Pallava kings, whose period seems sufficiently 
certain, although their exact dates are for the most part not known, 
nor in several cases their relationship and order: — 



I 



ChftiKlflvnrmft, ? ChamUilnnda 300 

N'andJVArnia 

Sknndavarma to 

Ilutldhavurma 

S'iva?*kamlnvarma 400 

Skantlavnrma 4^ 

Vinivarma 

Skamlavuniia to 

Simhavarma 

Vlihniigopovarma 500 

Simhavishnu 

U^radui)tl», LoUarlityii 

Kijasimha, ? Jayasimha, Simha- 

vi^htiu, Nara^itntiavi'vhnu, 

At>-iiiitakdma,?Aiirapachanda c.550 
Mahcn<lravarma I. 
NaraAttnhavarnu, Naiuumliapola- 

vartna 1. G. 620 

Mahcndntvarma 11. 
I'aruntes'vanvanna I, Is'vurepOUi- 

raja c. 670 



N'arasiinhavarma, Naras)mha|)otii- 



c 67s 



Nandi- 



vamu II. 
Paninie!.'vanivanna II. 
Nnn<li\-arrna 
E^llAvatiialla Nanclix'aniia 

putavartna 
(Skondavonna] 
(Simhavarma) HemAsilala 
(Skandavaroia) Dantlga 
Nandi varma 

NolanilMldhinija, Mangala 
Siuiha{x>la 

Chiru Ponntra, Pallavidlurdja 
Pololctiora NulatnbQ, Nolambftdhi 

r^ja 
Mahendra, Itira Maheiidra 
AyyajM, Nariniga 
Atiiiiga, Bin NolamLia, Annayya 
Dilipnyya, Iriva Nolamba, 

Nnlaj«>-)a 943-974 

Nanni Nolamla 975~977 



c 733 



804 

c. 810 



8S1 



919 




TQemorabte wars bclween the Parthians and the Romans eventually weakened the 
ftiriijcr, and gave ihc Persian* Uic u[>portuntly of throwing off ihc Parthian yoke. 
I^d by Arcaxerxcs (Ardashir), ihey put an end to ihe I'arihian kingdom of the 
ArsRcida-. after it had lasted 476 years, and eslal>lished the Persian d)tiasly of 
the SassaniUa:, A.U. 226. 

' Wilson, Af(A'. C(»//.. I, cxx, cxxiv. = Sir Walter Elliot, MaJ. /., IV, 78. 

» .Anh, Surv. /K /ruf., IVf, 108. * /tid. An/., VII., 257. 




305 



The grants of the first five,' made to Brahmans, are in Prakrit, and 
issued from Vengi, except the last, which is from Kanchi. Chanda- 
\*arma might be the Chandadanda who was defeated by the Kadamba 
king Ravivarma. Nandivarma was his son. They claim to be of the 
Salanlciyana family. The next two were father and son, and are expressly 
cnlled Palbvas, but in what relation they stood to the foregoing is not 
known. Sivaskandavarma, again, refers to his happn, or father, without 
naming him : it is uncertain therefore who he wxs. The next series of 
six' appear in grants in Sanskrit, also to Brahmans, issued from Palakkad 
and Dasanapura. Simhavarma and Vishnugopa were probably brothers, 
otherwise the succession was from father to son. In the Samudra Gupta 
inscription on the Asoka pillar at Allahabad, assigned to the fourth 
century,* we have mention among the southern kings of V^ishnugopa of 
Kajichi, Hastivarma of Vengi and Ugrasena of Palakka, as well as a 
Chandravarma in the north. It seems very probable that these may 
have been some of the above. 

With Ugradanda we come to a period of somewhat greater certainty, 
and the list of kings* admits of arrangement based on their points of 
contact with the Chalukya and other contemporary kings whose dates 
are known.' Several of the names are alternately Saiva and Vaishnava, 
while the designation Pota seems to be Buddhist The remarkable 
buildings and sculptures at Mamallapura, or Seven Pagodas, also relate 
lo these three faiths. Numerous Pallava inscriptions furnish us with 
details of the history of this jwriod. Those at Mamallapura, Saluvan- 
kuppa, and Kinchi are in Sanskrit, and inscribed in four different 
alphabets, one of which is of an extremely florid character." 

Ugradanda claims to have destroyed the town and army of Rana- 
rxstka, that is, the Clialukya king Ranaraga. Rdjasimha married 
Rangapatdka, and built the Rijasimhes'vara temple at Kanchi, now 
known as the Kailasanatha. The danga king Durvinfla, reigning at 
about this lime, is said to have taken Kaduve^i (Karveii iiagara, North 
Arcot) from the king of Kdnchi called Jayasimha, and pbced the son 
of his own daughter upon the throne. A series of wars, attended with 
varying fortune, took place in succeeding reigns between the Pallavas 
and the Chalukyas, who describe the former as being by nature hostile, 
as if there were some radical cause of animosity between the two. 
Narasimhavarma I. is said to have repeatedly defeated Vallabhardja, 
that is, the Chalukya king Pulikesi II., and destroyed Vitdpi, while on 

' hid. .-tuf., V. 176 ; IX. 100 ; £p. hid., I, 5. ' Ind. Anl., \, 50, 154. 

* Meet's Jm. t/thf Early Cufia Kings, No. I. ' Ind. Ani., VIII, 273. 

• See MultzMili, So. Ind. fm.j I, II, 145: I have made a few aUcrntions in The 
srrar^ciiicnt, which seem to me re<]uirc<l. • Ojt. a'/., I. ; Set/, Pag.^ pi. 14, 15, 18. 

X 




3o6 



HISTORY 



L 



Ihe other hand Pulikcsi claims to have made the leader of the Pallavas 
hide his prowess behind the ramparts of Kdnchi. It is pleasant to turn 
aside from these scenes of violence to the account of the Chinese pilgrim 
Hiuen Tsiang, who visited Kanchipura (Kin-chi-pu-lo) in 640. He 
says it was about thirty li, or five miles, round. The soil was fertile and 
regularly cultivated. The climate was hot ; the character of the people 
courageous. They were deeply attached to the principles of honesty 
and truth, and highly esteemed learning. There were 10,000 Buddhist 
priests, some eighty Brahman temples, and many Nirgranthas (or Jains).* 
Paramesvaravarma I. is said to have put to flight Pulikesi's son 
Vikramaditya I., who, on the other hand^ says that he conquered 
Is'varapotaraja and took Kdnchi. The Clialukyas admit :hat the 
Pallavas had been until this unconquered, for the important \'okkaleri 
inscription* says that the king of Kanchi, " who had never bowed to 
any njan," was forced to kiss the feet of the conqueror with his crown. 
Vinaydditya, the next Chalukya, is also said to have captured the army 
of the Pallava king, here called Trairajya. Narasimhapotavarraa II. 
was killed in a battle at Velanda with the Cianga king Bhiivikrama, 
being trampled under the elephants. Two grandsons of his were 
apparently brought up by the Oangas. But the greatest disaster of all 
was that which befell Nandipotavarma. The Chalukya king Vikramd- 
dit)'a II., soon after his coronation in 733, hy a rapid movement 
penetrated to the Tunclaka province (Ton-la-mandala),* and in a 
pitched battle completely routed the Pallavas, capturing as trophies 
their war-trumpet, their big drum called ** roar of the sea," their great 
Siva banner, many elephants, and heaps of splendid rubies. The victor 
marched to Kinchi, which was at his mercy, and, refraining from 
destroying it, made donations of gold to the Raiasimhes'vara and other 
temples, a statement which iscontjrmed by an inscription at the former. 
His queen Loka-niahadevi afterwards caused a temple to lie erected at 
Pattadkal (Bijapur district) to celebrate the victory.* This eventful 
defeat seems to have broken the power of the Pallavas, and the king, 
unable to face another Chalukya force, under the crown prince Kirti- 
varma, fled for refuge to a hill fort. The Ganga king S'ripurusha now 
retook Kaduvetti, which the Pallavas had recovered, and seized the 
Pallava umbrella, a.ssuming at the same time the title of Permanadi,, 
which he took from the lord of Kdnchi. 

The location of the next four names* is somewhat doubtful, but the 
Rdshtrakd(a kings about this lime gained the ascendancy over the 
Chalukyas, and overcame the Oangas and Pallavas. \\'e accordingly 

< Bcal's 5»Vi/.i-/, II, 292. * htd. Ant, VIII. 2j. » .S'^j. Ind, fm., I. 146. 
* /«,/. Anf.y VI, S5. » ib. \III, 167 ; £/. /W., Ill, 142. 



I 



find Nirupama claiming to have conquered the PalLivas in about 760. 
In 804, again, we lind Govinda levying tribute from the ruler of 
Kanchi, called Dandga. Also a Pallavddhirdja acting as governor 
under the same, over the Nolaml^ilige 1,000, the Nirgunda 300, &c. 
A Pallava king Nandivarma was moreover associated with Govinda in 
rerpbciiig on his throne the Ganga king Sivamdra, in about 810. It was 
during this period, too, or in 788 according to Wilson, that the great 
religious discussion between the Buddhists and the Jains took place at 
Kinchi before the king Hemasitala, who was a Buddhist The Jains 
were victorious, and the Buddhists, in lieu of being ground in oil-mills 
according to the conditions of the contest, were banished to Kandy in 
Ceylon, the king embracing the Jaina faith. 
■ With Nolambadhinija, whose relation to the preceding is not known, 
V^icgin the series of Pallava kings who more directly ruled in Mysore, 
I and they are indiscriminately called Pallavddhiraja and Nolambddhirdja. 
I Their chief city above the Ghats seems to have been Penjeru or 
Henjeru, now Hemavali, on the Sira border. There was also a 
No]amba-pattan;i, of which only the name remains, to the east of 
Chitaldioog, near Aymangala, properly Ayyapamangab. There is 
indeed a grant by Vira Nonamba, made from Henjeru,^ but as it pro- 
fesses to date from 444, and he is described as a Chalukya, in these 
respects it must be a forgery. The real genealogy of the Nolamba 
kings is given on a fine stone at Hemavali, confirmed by many other 
inscriptions in various parts. 

They claim descent from the Is'vara-vams'a (Siva), through 
Trinayana, and Pallava the master of K:inchi. In his line was bom 
Nolambadhiraja, named Mangala, praised by the Kurndtas, victor in 
war over the Kirala king, and worshipper of Chandika. His son was 
Simhapola, whose son was Cham Ponnera, the Pallavadhiraja whose 
daughter was married to the (ianga king Richamalla, Polal Chora 
Nolamba was her elder brother, the Nolambidhirdja who married 
Ja)-abbe, the younger sister of the Ganga king Nitimarga. Their son 
was Bim Mahendra, who was contemporary with the Ganga king 
Ereyappa. Mahendra's queen was Uivabbarasi or Uivambika, of the 
Kadaiuba family. Their son was Ayyapa Deva or Nanniga-nripa, who 
had two wives, N'agi>*abbc and Heleyabbe. Two sons were bom to 
him, perhaps one by each of these mothers, — Anniga or Bira Nolamba, 
and Dilipayya or Iriva Nolamba, who reigned in turn. The latter 
ruled till 974, and had a son js'anni Nolamba, whose inscriptions date 
from 975 to 977. But the Ganga king Mdrasimha (9^3-974) is 
specblly styled Nolambakulantaka, or death to the Nolamba race, and 
' huL Ant., VIII, 94 ; Mys. Ins., 296. 

X 2 




HISTOKY 



it seems probable that they now lost their independence and were 
finally absorbed in the great wave of Chola conquest which overspread 
the east of the peninsula at the close of the tenth centur)'. 

Notices of Fallavas and Nolambas in a subordinate capacity as 
governors under the Cholas and Chalukyas continue to be met with 
long after: and the Chalukya king Somes'vara or A'havamalla (1040- 
1069) must have had a Pallava wife, as his younger son Jav-asimha 
professes to he of both Chalukya and Pallava descent, and, among 
other titles, calls himself V'ira Nolamba Pallava. 

Gangas. — The Gangas were a line of kings who ruled over the 
greater part of ihe Mysore country, and of the Kdvcri river basin 
(excepting the delta of Tanjore), from early in the Christian era till about 
1004. They may be described as the principal Jaina dynasty of the 
South. The name (ianga is not an ordinary one, and how it came to 
be their designation, whence their kingdom was called Gangavddi and 
its subjects Gangadikdras, is not accounted for. It is impossible to 
avoid noticing that the only other occurrence of such a name 
in history is in the (J reek accounts of Chandra (iupta, who is 
described as ruling over the Prasii and the Gangarida;.' Ptolemy 
locates the Gangaridai in all the counirj* about the mouths of the 
Ganges, with their capital at Gangt* (not identified). They are also 
jiientioned by Virgil, Valerius J-'Iaccus and Curtius. Pliny, on the 
other hand, calls them Gangaridx Calingse.* That there was an im- 
portant line of Ganga kings in Kalinga in the seventh and eighth 
centuries we know from inscriptions, and there was another of the 
same name in that region at a later period. The connection of the 
Kalinga (Jangas with the Mysore Gangas, who were earlier, is admitted, 
but there is nothing to show that the name originated with the 
(iangarida: Calinga;. The Hindu traditions, as might be expected, 
also refer the appellation to the sacred river Ganga or Ganges, but in 
stories (see below) which are apparently only invented from the name. 

Of the origin of the Gangas the following account is extracted from 
inscriptions (of the eleventh century) at Purale, Humcha and Kallur 
Gudda. In the Ikshvaku-vams'a arose Dhananjaya, who slew the king 
of Kany;ikubja. His wife was Gandhiri-devi, by whom he had a son 
Haris'chandra, bom in Ayodhyi-pura. His wife was Rohini-dcvi, and 
their son was Bharata, whose wife, Vijaya-mahidevi, ha\ing bathed in 

' Tlie Bandanikke record of ihe rale of Nanda. Gupta and Maur^u kings over 
Kuntala ha-i already been referred to (p. 289). Another inscription of the same 
period, at Kupatur, close 1j)-, says that N'dgakhandaka (of which Wandanfkkc was the 
chief city) wa-s protected by the wise Chandra Gupta, on aliode of the good usages of 
emir\ent KshatrijTis. - Sr^ Ptohmys Geog. Ijy McCrindIc, Ind. Ant., XIII, 365. 



GA^TGAS 



309 



(he Ganga at the time of conception, the son she bore was called 
Gangidatta (the gift of Gangd), and his posterity were the Gangas.^ From 
him was descended Vishnu Gupta, who ruled in Aluchchhatrapura,' to 
whom Indrn, pleased with his performance of the Aindra-dhvaja-pdjd, 
presented his or an elephant Vishnu Gupta, by his wife Prithuvimati, 
had two sons, Bhagadatta and S'ridatta. On Bhagadatta was bestowed 
the government of Ralinga, wliente he became known as Katinga (ianga : 
while to S'ridatta was given the ancestral kingdom, together with the 
elephant, which thencefonvard became the crest of the (Jangas. Sul>se- 
quently a king named Priyabandhuvarma was born in that line, to whom 
Indra appeared and presented him with five royal tokens or ornaments^ 
at the same time uttering a warning that if any king of the line should 
prove an apostate they would vanish. Giving to Vijayapura" the name 
of Ahichchhatni, Indra departed. 

The Ganga line continuing to prosper, tiiere was born in it Kampa, 
whose son was Padmanabha. Being in great distress on account of 
his childless condition, he supplicated the sdsana devati of Padma- 
prabha and obtained two sons, whom he named Rama and Lakshmana* 
Mahipala, the ruler of Ujjeni, now made a demand for the delivery to 
him of the five royal tokens presented by Indra. Padnundbha in- 

;nantly replied that they could not be given up, and would be of no 
nsc to another ; also that if the demand were persisted in, it would be 
met by forte. At the same lime he held a consultation with his 
ministers, and as the result, resolved to quit the countr)-. Taking his 
two sons, whose names he changed to Dadiga and Mddhava, and 
>mpanied by his daughter, his younger sister, and forty-eight chosen 
followers of Brahman descent, he set out for the south. On arriWng 
at Perur, Dadiga and Mddhava there met with the great muni Simha- 
nandi, of the Kanilr^-gana, and explained to him their circumstances. 
He took up their cause, gave them instruction, and obtained for them 
a boon from the goddess I'admavati, confirmed by the gift of a sword 
and the promise of a kingdom. Madhava, with a shout, at once laid 
hold of the sword and struck with all his might at a stone pillar, when 
the piUar fell in two.* The muni recognized this as a good omen, 



' The account given in ihc Kalinga Ganga inscriptions is lliat Turvasu, the son of 
Yayiiti, being without sons, practised self-restraint and propitiated the rivet (Jangd, 
the bcstower of boons, by which means he obtained a son, the unconqiiemble 
(iange>a, whose descendants were victorious in the world as tht- tianga line. — /W. 
Ant.^ XIII, 275. - Either in Rohilkand or in Miilwa.— */. 361. 

' Vijayapurn appears as the place from which a Chalukya grant of the 5th century 
waJi iuue<l, and was probably in IJujarat {see Ittd. Ant.., VII, 241). * Or Krinur. 

* What this piUar (//Ai itambha) was it is dtfificuU to understand, but in one place 
il 11 docnbed as the cliief obstacle in the way of his securing the throne. 



3IO 



made a crowii from the petals of the kamikara blossom, and placed it 
on the heads of the brothers, giving them his peacock fan as a banner, 
and in due course, providing them with an army, invested them with 
all kingly powers. He also impressed upon them the following 
counsel : — If you fail in wliat you promise, if you dissent from the 
Jina s'dsano, if you take the wives of others, if you are addicted to 
spirits or flesh, if you associate with the base, if you give not to the 
needy, if you flee in battle ; — your race will go to ruin. 

Thus, with Nandagiri as their fort, Ku\-al£da as their city, the Ninety- six 
Thousand countr)' as their kingdotn, Victor)' as their companion in the 
battle-field, Jinendra as their god, the Jina mata as their faith, — Dsdiga 
and Madhava ruled over the earth. The north, touching Madarkale ; 
the cast, Tonda-ndd : the west, the ocean in the direction of Chera ; 
the south, Rongu ; — within these limits of the CJangavadi Ninety-six 
Thousand did the Oangas undertake the subjection of all enemies. 

Most of this is no doubt legendary, but some truth may perhaps 
underlie the narrative, and with the arrival of Dadiga and MAdhava at 
Perur we seem to be on solid ground. For Perur must be the place in 
Kadajxi district still distinguished as Ganga-Perur; Simhanandi is 
known from literature,' and is expressly stated in various inscriptions to 
have helped to found the Cianga kingdom ; moreover, the succession 
of kings as given from this point is in general accordance wid\ numerous 
records found in all parts of Mysore. Several inscriptions, however, 
carr)' the foundation of the line back to Kanva, and the Gangas are 
described as of the Kdnviyana gotra. A dynasty of Kanvas, we ha\'e 
already seen (p, 291), preceded the S'dtavahanas. Of the places men- 
tioned in connection with the Ganga possessions, Nandagiri can only 
be Najidi-durga, Kuvalala is Jvolar : but though the Gangas are called 
lords of Kuvaldla-piira, we know that from an early t>eriod their capital 
was at Talavana-pura n'a'«tki<j on the Kav^ri). The place given as 
the northern limit of Gangavadi I have been unable to identify,* but 
the other limits are well-known places, Tonda-ndd, a Forty-eight 
Thousand province, is Tonda-mandala, the Madras country to the east 
of Mysore ; the ocean for the western boundary seems to be a stretch 
of the imagination, as Gangnvddi, so far as we know, did not extend 
below the Western Ghats ; Chera corresponds with Cochin and 
Travancore ; Kongu, with Salem and Coimbaiore. 

The following is a uble of the Ganga kings of Mysore ; the dates 
before the seventh centur)*, though taken from inscriptions, are not 
certain : — 

' Kuned by [ndral>huli in hh SamavaMrhiaua (jw /«</. .4itf., XII. 10). 

* One or tn-o names someihing like it arc found in the north of the Kular District. 



I 
1 



GANGAS 



3it 



Kongunivarnia (Midhara) 
Kiriy^B Midhava 
Harivarma 
VUhnu-gopa 
Tadangala Midhnva 
Avinlta, Kongniii 
Durvinita, Kungani 
Mushkam, MoLkara 
S'rivikranui 

Bhurikrama, S'rt\-albliha 
S'humara (I), Nava Kama, 

I^riibuvi Kungarii 
Prithuvipati, Priihuj-as'aa 



103 

247, 366 

350 
425-47« 
47^-513 



679 

679-713 
726 



S'rlpcnislia, Mutlaram, 72^777 

Pcnnanatli, Piilluivi Kongaiji 

S'i^*aniara (11), SHigo;ta c. 7S0-814 

Vijayaclitya c 814-869 

R4chamalltt(I), Satj-avikya 869-S93 
Nitimirga (I), ? MaruU, 

Nanniya Ganga 893-915 

Ercj-apiw, Mahcndrinlaka 921 

Biitu^, Cianga Gdngeya 930-963 
Mdnisimhii, Nolniuliakulintaka 963-974 

Kichamalla [W). 974-9&t 

Kakkasa Gangs, Govindara 984 

Oanga I<aja 996-1004 



Kongui}i-varma was the first king, and this is a special title of all the 
Gangs kings to the end.^ To him is invariably ascribed the feat of 
cutting through the stone pillar with a single stroke of his sword : he is 
therefore the Madha\'a of the narrative before given, and in one place 
is described as but a boy at that time. The succession of kings, on the 
other hand, was through Oadiga, of whom it is said that with the 
Kaurava army he stopped the army of the Matsyaking. Supposing the 
founders of the Ganga dynasty to have come from Central India, and 
matured their plans at Perur, in Kadapa district, for the acquisition of 
Kolar and the midUind and southern parts of Mysore, they would soon 
encounter the opposition of the Mahdvali or Bdna kings, whose western 
boundary was probably the Palir, which is close to Kolar on the east. 
We accordingly find Konguni-vanna described as consecrated to con- 
quer the Hana mandala, and as a wild-fire in consuming the stubble of 
the forest called Bana. From the east the Ganga princes marched to the 
west, and are represented as engaged in leading an expedition to the 
Konkan or western coast, when they came to Manc'ali, near Shimoga, 
where, by the advice of Simhanandi, they established a chaityabya. 
Probably there was a considerable Jain element in the population of 
Mysore at the time, over whom Simhanandi exerted his influence to 
gain their acceptance of the Ganga rule. 

Dadiga's son, Kiri)*a Madhava, or the younger Madhava, succeeded 
to the tfironc.^ He is described as inclined to learning and skilled in 
polity. He wrote a commentar>' on the dattaka iutra or law of adop- 
tion. His son was Harivarma, who made use of elephants in war, and 
established the capital at Talak.i(J. Pre%'ious to this, according to an 
old chronicle, the capital was at Skandapura, which Lassen locates at 



* Kunipioiis also wntlen Kongnni, Kongiili, and Kongini. For the date assigned 
to him i« my Ep. Cam., Mysore I, Nj. no. 

• Dailiga's brother would therefore be properly distinguished as Hiriya Madha\ii. 



HISTORY 



Gnjalhatti, near Satyainangalam, on the old ghat road from MYsore tc 
Trichinopoly. But no reference to such a place is contained in the 
inscriptions. Two grants of the time of Harivarma have been found, 
both open to doubt. One' records a gift at Orekod, in the Maisur-nad 
Seventy, to a Brahman for overcoming in discussion a Bauddha who 
had affixed a challenge to the gate of the palace at Talakad, boasting of 
his learning, and maintaining the doctrine that annihilation was the 
highest happiness. The other' is a grant in some neighbouring part 
for an act of bravery in the battle of Henj'eru. Harivarma's son 
Vishnugopa is described as devoted to the worship of gurus, cows and 
Brahmans. His change of faith caused the five royal tokens given by 
Indra to vanish, as foretold in the original warning. He must have 
lived to a great age, as he is said to have retained his menial energy 
unimpaired to the end of life. His son was Tadangdla Madhava, whose 
arms were grown stout and hard with athletic exercises. He married a 
sister of the Kadamba king Krishnavarma, and is described as the 
reviver of donations for long-ceased festivals of the gods and Brahman 
endowments. A grant of his in an extraordinary jumble of alphabets* 
also records a gift for bravery at Henjeru. This, and the similar grant 
above, point to encounters with the Fallavas. 

Tadangdla Midhava's son, by the Kadamba princess, was Avinfta, 
who was crowned while an infant in his mother's lap. He married the 
daughter of Skandavarma, Raja of Punndd, who chose him, tlwugh 
betrothed by her father to another from her birth on the advice of his 
guru. Of him it is related that on coming to the Kdvcri he heard a 
voice say saia-jivi (a prediction that he would Kve for a hundred years), 
on which, to the consternation of his attendants, ho plunged into the 
river and crossed over in safety, lho\igh it was in full flood, thus 
acquiring the name of Churchuvayda Ganga. Both he and his son are 
said to have been like Manu in maintaining the castes and religious 
orders of the south. Two grants of his reign have been found, one of 
the twenty-ninth year,** making a grant to a Brahman, and one' record- 
ing a gift to Jainas in the Punnid Ten Thousand, by the minister 
of Akalavarsha (a Rishtrakdta king). The Punndd Ten Thousand 
formed the southern portion of Mysore, and seems to correspond with 
the Padi-nad or Ten nd(,l country of later inscriptions." Also with the 

' Ind. Ant., VIII, aia. * Ep. Cani.y Mysore I, Nj. im. 

* /rt^. .-*«/., VII, 172. * jA. V, 136. * iS. I, 363 ; Coorglm. No. I. 

' A grant of the PunnacI Raja.s, the date of which cannot lie clctcrmincrf, has lieen 
found, from which their capital seeins lo have Wen Kilthipum. It gives the follnwing 
succesdon of kin^s :— I^'lshiravarnta ; his sun Na^adaita; hU Sfjn Bhujnga, who 
married ihe daughter o{ .Singavarma ; their son Skandavarma ; his son the Pimiutu 
kija RavidatUL— /W. Ant., XII, 13 ; XVIII, 366. 




GANGAS 

Pounnuta of Ptolemy, where beryl was found.^ Avinila's son ^^-as 
Dur\'iniu. He had for his preceptor the author of the S'abdavatira, 
that is, the celebrated Jaina grammarian Pujyapdda. He thus acquired 
a literary taste which led him to write a commentar>* on part of the 
Kiracirjuniya, a well-known poem by Bharavi. He is probably, as 
the name is a ver>' uncommon one, the Durvinita named by Nripaiunga 
among the early Kannada authors, He seems to have extended the 
Oanga dominion to the south and east, for he is said to have waged 
sanguinary wars for the possession of Andari, A'lattiir (perhaps the one 
in Coimbatore district), Porulare, Pennagara (in Salem district), and 
other places, and is described as ruler over the whole of Pannad and 
Punnid, as if he had annexed them. He is also said to have wrested 
Ka«luvetti (Karveti-nagara, North Arcot district) from Jayasimha, the 
king of Kanchi, and made the son of his own daughter the governor. 
Two grants of his reign have been found, one of the third year^ and 
the other of the thirty -fiftli,* both recording gifts to Brahmans. 

His son was Mushkara or Mokkara, whu married the daughter of the 
Sindhu Kija. His son was S'rivikrama, who had two sons. BhxWik' 
rama and S'ii-amdra. Bhitvikrama, in a great battle at Vilanda, de- 
feated the Pallava king Narasimhapotavamia II., trodden to death in 
the charge of elephants, and subdued the whole of the Pallava 
dominions, acquiring the title of S rivallabha. According to the old 
chronicle he and his brother made their residence at Mukunda, 
apparently the present Mankunda, near Channapatna. The younger 
brother, S'ivamdra or Nava Kdma, had under his guardianship the two 
grandsoTis of the Pallava king, no doubt the one above mentioned. 
Their father, therefore, may have been taken prisoner and died in 
captivity. In a grant made in his thirty-fourth year,* this king signs 
himself s'ishta-pHyah, beloved of the good. 

Most of the Cianga grants omit mention of his son and pass on to 
his grandson. From the only grant that gives an account of him,'' the 
reason appears to be that the son was engaged in distant expeditions in 
which he was unfortunate and lost his life, or there may have been a 
spht in the family. He is called Prithuvijiati and Prilhuyas'as, but 
these can hardly be his names. He gave protection to certain chiefs, 
one of whom was a refugee from .\moghavarsha. He cut a piece of 
bone out of his body from a wound received in the battle of Vaim" 
balguli and sent it to the waters of the Ganges. He defeated the 



' CoL Vale's Map of Ancient India (Dr. Smith's Alias of Ancient Geog.). 
ID Cuiml«tore district produced berj-l (see Sttd, An/., V, 237). 
= /«rf. Auf., VII, 174. » lA. V, 138. 

* £/. Cam,, Mysore 1, Md. 113. * Sa/tm Manuai, II, 369. 



Padiyur 



3'4 



HISTORY 



Pindya king Varaguna in a battle at Sri Purambiyam, or Tim Puram- 
biyani (near Kumbhakonam), but lost his life in saving a friend. He 
appears to have had a son Mirasimha, of whom we hear no more. 

S'ripurusha, whose name was Muttara$a, was the grandson <or 
perhaps great grandson) of Sivamdra, and had a long and prosperous 
reign. His kingdom was called the S'ri-r:ij\-a- Numerous grants of his 
lime have Ijcen found, both on stone slabs and on copper plates, rang- 
ing from the first to the fiftieth year of his reign.' He seems at some 
time to have made Mdnyapura (Manne in Xebmangalataluq) the royal 
residence. He is stated to have a^jain conquered Kiduvetli, which had 
been recovered by the Pallavas, at the same lime capturing the Pallava 
umbrella and assuming the title of Permanadi, which he took away 
from the king of Kanchi. This title is ust»d of all subsequent Ganga 
kings, sometimes alone, without any distinguishing name. He also rein- 
stated the Hdna kingdom by placing Hastimalla on the throne. He is 
said, moreover, to have written a work on elephants called Gajas'Astra. 
His aons Sivam;ira and Duggam:ira appear as governors under him, also 
one named Lokddilya, apparently the youngest. 

He was succeeded by his son S'ivamira. sumamed Saigotta, and the 
latter had a son, Mdrasimha, who made a grant in 797 as yuva rdja, 
but is not again heard of. S'ivamara is said to have been the author of 
Gajashtika, a treatise on elephants, in which he imi)roved upon his 
father's system. Serious reverses Iwfell the Ganga kingdom in this 
reign. The R.-ishtrakiUas had gained a great accession of power, and 
Nirupama or Dharivarsha is said to have defeated and imprisoned the 
impetuous fianga, who had never been conquered before. The next 
king, Govinda or Prabhdtavarsh.a, on coming to the throne in about 
784, released Ganga from his long and painful captivity, hut had to 
confine him again on account of his hostility.* As he is represented as 
having defeated the combined royal army, commaiidcfi by RdshtrakiUa, 
Chalukya and Haihaya chiefs, at Murugundiir (perhaps Mudugundurin 
Mandya taluq), this attack may have led to his being again seized. 
During the interregnum the Rishtrakiltas appointed their own viceroys 
to govern the Ganga territories. In 802 Dharavarsha's son Kambliaor 
Rani\'aloka was the viceroy, and there are three inscriptions of his time.' 
In 813 we find Chdki Rdja in that office.* Eventually S'ivamara either 
made his peace with Govinda or, as seems more Ukely, the latter was in 
need of alhes, for that monarch, assisted by the Pallava king Nandi- 
varma, replaced him on the throne, the two binding the diadem on his 
brow with their own hands. A long war now took place between the 



I 



» Mys. !m. «nd Ep. Cam. > /m/. An/., VI, 69 ; XI, 161. 

• Ins. ai Sr. Bel.y Nn. 24 ; ihc Others un|niblishctl. " /m/. ,-/«/., XII, 18. 



i 



Pine 
biyai 
appe 

S'l 
perK 
reign 
time 
ing f 
time 
resid 
been 
umb 
from 
king: 
state 
said, 
His 
one 

H 
htte 
but i 
Gaji 
fathe 
reigr 
Niru 
imp( 
king 
784, 
conf 
havi 
Cha 
Mar 
Dun 
tog. 
Ran 
In 8 
mad 
neec 
var.i 
brov 



GAiVGAS 



3>5 



I 



¥ 



Eastern Chalukyas and the allied Gangas and Rattas, in which io8 
battles were fought in twelve years. S'ivamiira's successor on the 
throne was apparently his brother \'ijaydditya. 

With the accession of Rdchamalla Sat)'avakya the Gangas seem to 
have taken a fresh start in power, and these names form titles of all the 
subsequent kings. He is said to have recovered from the Rashtrakiitas 
ihe whole of the territory which they had seized and held too long. 
His yuva-nija in S70 was Biitarasa, and he had a son Rana Vikramayya^ 
who may be the same. But the son that was his successor is called 
Kitimlrga, who had a prosperous reign, and there are numerous in- 
scriptions of his time. His sister was manied to NolamhadhiiAja, 
who was ruling under him. His son Ereyappa was apparently asso- 
ciated with him in the government towards the close of his life. An 
interesting sculptured bas-relief of his death-bed scene has beeti dis- 
coi*ercd.' Ereyappa is called Mahendrantaka, or death to Mahendra, 
the NolamKi king. 

With Biituga considerable changes occurred in the (langa dominions. 
Ereyappa's eldest son Rdchamalla was the proper heir to the throne. 
But Biituga, another son, perhaps by a different mother, rusolved to 
possess himself of the crown, and defeated and slew Rachamalla. The 
Rishtrakiita king IJaddega or Amoghavarsha gave him his daughter in 
marriage, and he appears to have secured the kingdom for his brother-in- 
law Krishna or Kannara, though on B:iddega's death it had been seized 
by Lalliya. Kannara was soon after engaged in a war with the Chola 
king Rajdditya, when Biituga by some treacher>* killed the latter at a 
place called 'I'akkola, following it up by laying siege to the Chola 
capita] Tanjapuri (Tanjore) and burning Nalkote. For this important 
service Kannara made over to him the Banavase Twelve Thousand 
(Shimoga and North Kanara districts), in addition to his wife's 
dowr)-, the Belvola Three Hundred, the Furigere Three Hundred, 
the Kisukad Seventy, and the Baginad Seventy (all in Dharwar 
and neighbouring districts)."' BiUuga also subdued (he .Seven Malavas, 
and putting up boundar)' stones, ga\-e the country the name of 
(ianga Milava. His elder sister Pimbabbc, widow of Dorapayya, 
died in 971, after leading an ascetic life for thirty years. His son 
Manila Dcva is said to have married a daughter of Kannara. But his 
successor on the throne was his son Mdrasimha, called Nolambakulan- 
taka, from his having slain all the Nolambas. By direction of Kannara 
he made an expedition against Crurjjara or Gujarat, and is said to have 
been a terror to the Chalukya prince Rajdditya. From several in- 

1 £^ Conr., Mysore I. TN. 91. » niti. nr, Iml. 41 : Ef. /W., Ill, 175. 




3i6 



HISTORY 



scriptions towards the \tw^ of this reign it appears that the Gangas had 
then become feudatories of the Kashtrakiitas. 

But the latter were now finally overcome by the Chalukyas, and 
Mdrasimha's son Richamalla, who succeeded, was independent. This 
king's minister and general was Chamunda Kaya, who caused the 
colossal image of Gomata to be erected at S'ravana Belgola. The 
king's younger brother Rakkasa was a governor in Coorg, and finally 
succeeded to the throne. With tianga Raja wc come to the end of the 
independent Ganga rule. The Cholas, advancing in overwhelming 
force, invaded the Ganga territories, under the command of Rajendra 
Chola, son of the reigning king Rajardja, and in about 1004 
captured Talakad and overran all the south and east of Mysore. The 
GangaSr driven from their kingdom, took refuge with the Chdlukyas 
and with the Hoysalas, who were destined to succeed to their dominion 
in Mysore, attaining to positions of the highest honour under both. 

But the principal revival of their power as independent rulers was in 
Orissa, or rather in Ganjam and Vizagapatam districts, in alliance with 
the Cholas. ^\'e have already had occasion to mention the Ralinga 
Gangas. Several of their earlier inscriptions have been found,^ mostly 
issued from Kalinga-nagara (Ganjam district), and dated in the years of 
the Ganga family {Gdni^fya'Vanis'a'Samvaisara)^ an era not yet deter- 
mined. The kings profess to be worshippers of the god Gokarna-svdmi 
on the Mahcndra mountain (in Ganjam district), and rulers over the 
whole of Kalinga. Arranging the grants conjccturally, guided by the 
years and relationships givenj we obtain the following list : — - 



AnantAvarma 




Ananta\*arnui 




Devendravarma 


51 


Dcvcndravanna 


254 


Satyavarnia 


St 


Kajendrav'arinA 




Indravarma 91, 


122, 146 


Anantavanna 


3<H 


Rijciulravann.i 




Vajrahasta 




Defend ^a^■a^na 









On the other hand a very full and circumstantial genealogy 
Kalinga Gangas is given in a later grant' of 11 18, in which quite 
different names appear (except Vajrahasta), but of course it is possible 
they may be the same kings under other titles. The line is here traced 
from the god Vishnu through Vaydti and Turvasu, who is said to have 
obtained from the Gangd the son Gdngcya who was the progenitor of 
the (janga kings {see above, p. 309). A list of sixteen kings follows, 
whose names seem purely mythical, down to Kolahala, who is said to 

* /ift/.W«/.,Xni,XIV,XVni;J?/./i«/., Ill, 17,320. The grant of Devcndrm.wn 
nf Uiijcndra, is in my pos-scssiun, not yet puUlUhed. The year 128 has been supposed 
to }w a)»m 658 A.I*. ; 354 about 774 (/. .J., \III, 274). ' htd. Ant.^ XVIII, 165. 



I 




GANGAS 



317 



built the cily of KoUhala (Kolar) in the great Gangavddi countrj'. 
After his son Virochana and eighty more kings, not named and pro- 
bably imaginary, had held Koldliala, there arose in that line Vfrasimha, 
who had five sons, Kdmiirnava, Ddnrlrnava, Gunixnava, Mdrasimha, and 
Vajrahasta. The first of these/giving the kingdom to his maternal 
uncle, set out with his brothers to conquer the earth, and coming to the 
Mahendra mountain, worshipj>ed Ciokarnasvami, and obtained the crest 
of a bull and the symbols of sovereignty. He and his brothers subdued 
Baldditya, who had grown sick of war, and took possession of the 
(three) Kalingas. Giving Ambavadi to the third brother, S6da or Seda 
to the fourth, and Kantaka to the fifth, Kamarnava, with his capita^l at 
Jantavura, ruled over the Kalingas, nominating his brother Dandrnava 
as his successor. After these two, fifteen kings ruled, ending with 
Vajrahasta V, who married Vinaya-mahadevi of the Vaidumba family. 
His son was Rajaraja, who is said to have defeated the Dramilas, 
wedded Rdjasundari, daughter of the Chola king Rajcndra Chola, and 
saved the aged Vijayaditya from falling into the power of the Cholas, by 
upholding his authority in the west. Rajardja's son Anantavarma or 
Chola-Ganga was anointed king of Trikalinga in 1078, and re-instated 
the fallen lord of Utkala (Orissa) in the east, and the sinking lord of 
Vengi in the west. Grants of his have been found dating in 1081, 
II 18, and 1135-' 

The total of the years assigned to the reigns of these kings comes to 
about 350, which, deducted from 1078, the date of Chola-Ganga's 
accession, brings us to 728, and this is near about the period estimated 
for the later of the early kings previously mentioned. It is also the 
period in the annals of the Mysore Gangas where we find a break in 
the list, filled up by an alleged Prithuvipati, a word merely meaning 
king, who had a son Mdrasimha, of whom nothing more is heard. 
Putting these coincidences together, wc are tempted to suppose that 
Kaniamava, with his brother Mdrasimha and the others, who gave up 
their kingdom in Mysore to a relative and went forth from Kolar to 
found another in Kalinga, where a branch of the family had already 
been ruling for centuries, may possibly have been sons of the missing 
king who died in battle. 

Two inscriptions in Chikndj-akanhalli taluq refer to Chola-Ganga as 
the Odu-rdyindra, or great king of Orissa, and state that he was born in 
the Hejjaji Twelve of the Kadanur Seventy (both in Dod Ballapur 
taluq). The Ganga kings of Orissa or Kalinga, also called Gajapatis or 
elephant lords, beginning with Chola-Ganga, held the sovereignty of 
that country down to 1 534, soon after which it fell a prey to the Muham- 
madans. Of these kings -Vnanga Bhima Deva (1 175-1302) was a great 

' Loc. cit. 




3i8 -^^^^m- HISTOR Y 

ruler, and made a survey of his wliole kingdom, measuring it with reeds. 
He also built the present temple of Jagannath. Another king of 
interest was Purushottama I>eva (1479-1504). He sought in marriage 
the daughter of the king of Kdnchi, famed for her beauty. But on the 
ground of his performing the office of sweeper to Jagannath his suit 
was rejected. He therefore attacked Kanchi, and was at first repulsed. 
At length he captured it, and took the princess prisoner, whom he 
vowed in revenge should lie married to a sweeper. 'I*hc minister 
charged with the execution of this order kept the girl in concealment 
until the festi>-al of Jagannath, at which the king was accustomed to 
sweep the ground before the god ; and while he was engaged in that 
act placed her beside him, and they were married. 'I'hc reign of 
Pratipa Kudra (1504-1532) is remarkable for the reformation of the 
Vaishnava religion by the preaching of Chaitanya, whose views the 
king finally adopted; and Buddhism, to which he had previously 
inclined, was banished the country. I'ratapa Rudra is said to have 
extended his conquests southwards as far as Cape Comorin, and his 
name occurs in many local traditions in the east of Mysore. We also 
find that his son Virabhadra was invested with the government of Male 
Bennur (Davangere laluq) by Krishna Raya of V'ijayanagar. 

Certain other references to kings of the same connection may here 
be pointed out. The existence of constant intercourse between 
Kalinga and Ceylon from the earliest limes is well known, and we find 
a Chola-Ganga from Kalinga ruling in Ceylon in 1196.* There 
was also a line of Chola-Gangas in the east of Mysore in the thirteenth 
century. But it is not a little singular that we find a Karnataka dynasty 
set up in distant Nepal, apparently in 1097, which may have been of 
iianga origin. The founder, Nanya Deva (perhaps Nanniya Oeva), 
came from the south. He was succeeded by Ganga Deva and four 
others, the last of whom removed the capital to Katmandu, where the 
line came to an end^ 

Not yet, however, have we done with the (langas, for at about the 
time that their Orissa sovereignty came to an end, or the first part of the 
sixteenth century, a Ganga Raja returned to the scene of their former 
dominion, and established a principality at S'ivasamudram, the island 
at the Falls of the Kaveri, not far from Talakad. Ganga Raja, after a 
prosperous reign, was succeeded by his son Nandi Rija, who, to atone 
for some ceremonial offence, leaped into the cataract at (>agana C'hukki 
on horseback with his wife. His son, Ganga Raja U, enlarged the 
city greatly, and lived with much splendour. His two daughters were 
married, one to the chief of Kiliniale, near Satyagala, the other to the 
chief of Nagarakere, near Maddur. These marriages were very 
* Rh)'s I>a>-idK, Numismttta Orieutafia. • Set fas. from Krpal^ !>>■ Dr. G. Bttb< 



CMALUKVAS 



3>9 



unhappy, for the pride of the ladies gave their husbands constant dis- 
gust, and they were continually upbraided for not living in equal 
splendour with their father-in-law. They therefore united to attack 
Sivasamudra and humUle (langa Raja. The siege had lasted twelve 
^yean without their having been able to penetrate to the island, when they 
found means to corrupt the Dalavayi, or minister, of Ganga Riija. Ihis 
traitor removed the guards from iIik only ford, and thus permitted the 
enemy to surprise the place, while he endeavoured to engage his 
master's attention at a game of chess. The shouts of the soldiery at 
length reaching their ears, the prince started up from the game. I'he 
Dalavayi, who wished him to fall alive into the hands of his .sons-in-law, 
endeavoured to persuade hiui that the noise arose nierely from children 
at play, but the Raja, having drawn his sword, fu"st killed all his women 
and children, and then, rushing into the midst of his enemies, fought 
until he procured an honourable death. The sons-in-law, on .seeing 
this, were struck with horror, and immediately threw themselves into 
the cataract at Gagana Chukki ; and their example was followed by their 
wives, whose arrogance had been the cause of such disasters. 

Jagadeva R;iyal of Channapatua, and S'riranga Raja of Talakad, the 
tvo most powerful of the neighbouring Faldgors, then came and 
removed all the people and wealth of the place. 

Chalukyas. — This powerful line of kings was in the ascendant 
throughout the north-west of Mysore, and the Bombay and Haidarahad 
districts beyond, from the fifth to the eighth century, and from the 
latter part of the tenth to that of the twelfth. 'I'heir first appearance 
south of the Xerbudda was in the fourth century, previous to which 
they are said to have had fifty-nine predecessors on the throne of 
Ayodhyd, but of these nothing is known. On their entering the 
rDekhan they overcame the Rdshlrakti^as, but the Pallavxs effectually 
opposed ihem and the invader was slain, as previously related. His 
succe&sor, however, defeated the Pallavas and then formed an alliance 
with them, confirmed by his marriiigc with a Pallava princess. In the 
sixth century, Pulikes'i, whose chief city was apparently Indukanta 
(supposed to be AjantA or some neighbouring place), wrested \'dtapi 
(the modem Bidami in Bijapur district) from the Pallavas and made it 
his capital. His son KJrtivarma subdued the Mauryas (descendants of 
the ancient Mauryas of Pd^aliputra), ruling in the Konkan, and the 
Kadamlias of Banavasi, Another son, Mangales'a, conquered the 
Knlac)iur)'ns. The A'lupas or A'luvas, who ruled in Tulava or South 
Kanara, were also at some time overcome,' and the next king, Pulike/i 
II, came into contact with the Gangas, possibly in the time of Mush- 

• There are inscriptions of theirs at Kig in the Wcilern Ghals in Kop|Ki laluq, 
Afid at Man(^tire. 



320 



HISTORY 



kara, as there appears to liave been a Jain temple erected in his name 
at Puligere (I^fcshmos'vara in Dharftar district). In about 617 the 
Chaluk)'ai) separated into two branches, of which the Eastern Chalukyas 
made Vengi (near Ellore in the Goddvari district), taken from the 
Pallavas,and subsequently Rajamahendri, their capital, while the Western 
Chalukyas, with whom Mysore is chiefiy [ronL*ernc<i, continued to rule 
from Vatdpi and eventually from Kalydna (in the Ni2am's Dominions, 
about too miles west by north of Haidarabad). 

The Chaluk>-as were of the Sonia-vams'a or lunar line, and the 
Manavya-gotra. They claim to be sons of Hariii, nourished by the 
seven mothers. The boar was the principal emblem on their signet, 
obtained from Bhagavan Nilrayana (Vishnu), but their insignia included 
a jieacock fan, an ankus'a or elephant goad, a golden sceptre, and 
other symbols. The \Vcstcrn Chalukyas are styled the Satyds'raya 
kula^ from the name of the first king of this branch. The titles on 
their inscriptions, which are very numerous in Mysore, especially in 
the north-west, are nearly invariably as follows — Samasia/ihuvands'raya^ 
SripriihvlvaHahlia, AfahdnijiWiinija, Panifnes'vara^ Parama-bhattd- 
rak-jy StUyds raya-ku/a-tiiaka, Ckdlukydbharana. 

Although the above details are very circumstantial, the account of 
the origin of the Chalukyas is evidently puninic,' and the real source 
from which they sprang is far from clear. The name Chalukya bears a 
suggesti\e resemblance to the Greek name Seleukeia, and if the Pallavas 
were really of Parthian connection, as their name would imply, we 
have a plausible explanation of the inveterate hatred which inscriptions 
admit to have existed between the two, and tlieir prolonged struggles 
may have been but a sequel of the contests between Seieucida; and 
Arsacidffi on the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates. 

The succession of the Early and \^*estem Chalukya kings, during the 
period of their first ascendancy, is as follows- : — 



Jayosimha, ?\*ijayadilj'a 

Rdjaumlu, Ra^MU'^gA, ?VishnuvaTdl)ana 

Pulikes'i I, Satyis'raya, Rapavikrama 550 

Kirtivarma I, Kana^mrakrama 566-597 

Manf^lc-s'a. Ranavikriiila 597-60S 

Pulikes'i II, Satyas'ia}-a 609-642 

AMilya\"anna. 



Chandr^ditya, 

Vikramatlitya I, Ka^ansika 655- 
\'iiia)-^(iil}a, Kijdx'niya. 
Vijaydditya, Sama.stabhii\iin^'rA}-n 

Vikramadilya 11 733-746 

Kirlivarnm 11, Kripasimlia 74^757 



Jayasimha is said to have defeated and destroyed Indra, the son 
Krishna, the Rishtrakdta or Ratta king. He himself, however, was' 

' They are sUIl-J lo Imve miraculously sprung from the moisture or water in ih^ 
hollowed palm [thuluka^ chuhlti) of H:(riti's hand. According to another acco"»» 
from the libation to the gods poured from hij. gohlet {chtilla, ckuittia^ chafuka). 
Hiiriii. These stories seem evidently invented from the name. 

* C/.£p. Ind., III. 2. 



CHALUKYAS 



31T 



slain in an encounter with Trilochana Pallava. His queen, then 
pregnant, fled and took refuge with a Brahman called Vishnu Somayaji, 
in whose house she gave birth to Kijasimha. On growing up to man's 
estate he renewed the contest with the Pallavas, in which he was 
successful, and married a princess of that race. Pulikes'i was tlie 
most powerful of the early kings and performed the horse sacrifice. 
His eldest son, Kirtivarma I, subdued the Nalas, of whom we know 
no more, the Mauryas and the Kadambas. Mangales'a, his younger 
brother, conquered the island called Revati-dvfpa^ and the Matanj,'as : 
also the Kalachur>a king Buddha, son of Sankaragana, the spoils 
taken from whom he gave to the temple of MakutesVara, near 
Badami. He attempted to establish his own son in the succession, 
but Satyas'raya or Pulikes'i 11, the elder son of Kirtivarma, obtained 
the throne. 

Pulikes'i's younger brother Vishnu\ardhana, surnamed Kubja, on the 
capture of Vcngi from the Pallavas, there founded the separate line of 
Eastern Clialukyas, who remained in power in the Vengi and Raja- 
mahendri country till the eleventh century, when they were absorbed 
into the Chola family.* 

Satya.s-'raya or Pulikes'i 11. the first of the Western Chalukya line, 
was a great conrjueror and subdued all the neighlwuring nations. His 
most notable victor)' was over Harshavardhana or S'fladitya, king of 
Kany^kubja or Kanoj, the most powerful monarch in northern India. 
By this conquest h^ obtained the title of Parames'vara or supreme lord, 

• For convenience uf further reference the list tif Eastern Chalukyaslshere iiuvrtcH, 
a« given by Dr. Fleet (/W. Atti.^ XX, 283), who has gone ver>- fully into deiails in 
the preceding articles : — 



Kubja VUhnuvardhanA I 

615-633 

Jaymsimha -663 

Indra Bhattdraka (seven 

days) 663 

Vt^nuvanlhana II -672 
Maiigi Vu%*arija -696 
Jnyasimha II ~709 

Kokkili (six monlh<t} 709 
V'ishnuvaidhanalll -746 
V'ijayiditya Bhattaraka 

-764 
Vtshnuvudhaoa r\' -799 
Vljay^ditya If, Na»- 

endnimrtgarija -843 
KjiJi VUbnuvaidhona V 



Gunaka Vijayiditya III 

Chiluk>Ti Bhiiiux I -918 

Kollabhtganda Vi- 
jay^dit>'a IV' (six 
months} m. Me- 
UhiIkC gi8 

.\mma I, Vishnu- 
vardhanaVI, Kiija 
Mahen<ira -925 

Beta Vijayiditj-a V 
(fifteen days) 925 

Tidap« (one month) 925 

Vikramiditya II 
(eleven mtmlh-^) -026 

Bhima II (eight months) 
-927 



Vuddhamalla -934 

Chdlukya Bhima III. 
VLshnuvardhana \'II, 
Gunila Mahendra, 
ni. Lokamahddcvl -945 
Amma II, Vijnya- 
ditya W, Rija 
Mahendra -970 

Dindniava ~973 

(Interregnum of thirty 

years.) 

Saktivarma 1003-1015 

Vimalidilya, m. Kun* 

ilava-inahidevi of 

the Chola family -1032 



3*2 



msTOR y 



ever after borne by the ChalukjMS. The Chinese pilgrim Hiuen 
Tsiang has given interesting accounts of both Harshavardhana and 
Pulikfs'i, and of their limes. Of Pulikes'i's kingdom he says: — 
"The disposition of the people is honest and simple; they are tall 
of stature, and of a stern vindictive character. To their bene- 
factors they are grateful, to their enemies reletulcss. If they are 
insulted they will risk their life to avenge themselves. If they are 
asked to help one in distress they will forget themselves in their 
haste to render assistance. If they are going to seek revenge they 
first give their enemy warning ; then, each being armed, they attack 
each other with spears. When one turns to flee the other pursues 
him, but Ihey do not kill a man who is down (or submits). If a 
general loses a battle they do not inflict punishment but present him 
with woman's clothes, and so he is driven to seek death for himself. 
The country provides for a band of champions to the number of several 
hundreds. Each time they are about to engage in conflict they 
intoxicate themselves with wine, and then one man with lance in hand 
will meet ten thousand and challenge them in fight. If one of these 
champions meets a man and kills him, the laws of the country do not 
punish him. Every time they go forth they beat drums before them. 
Moreover they inebriate many hundred heads of elephants, and Liking 
them out to fight, they themselves first drink their wine, and then, rushing 
forward in mass, they trample everj'thing down, so that no enemy can 
stand before them. The king, in consequence of his possessing these 
men and elephants, treats his neighbours with contempt He is of the 
Kshattriya caste and his name is Puiakes'i (Pulo-ki-she). His plans 
and undertakings are widespread, and his beneficent actions are felt 
over a great distance. His subjects obey him with perfect submission. 
At the present time S'Oaditya Maharaja has conquered the nations 
from east to west and carried his arms to remote districts, but the 
people of this country alone have not submitted to him. He has 
gathered troops from the five Indies, and summoned the best leaders 
from all countries, and himself gone at the head of his army to punish 
and subdue this people, but he has not yet conquered their troops. So 
much for their habits. The men are fond of learning'." .... 

The city he calls Konkanapura, which he \-isited, may probably be 
Kopana (now Ropal) in the extreme south-west of the Nizam's 
dominions, or Kokanur close to it. Of its i>eople he says ; — "They 
love learning, and esteem virtue and talent." Arab annals, moreover, 
as pointed out by Dr. Fergusson,' state that Pulikes'i exchanged 
presents and letters with Khosru II of Persia, and the Persian 
' Beal's Si'j-U'ii, II, 256. " /. Jf. A, 5., XI, 155. 



I 




CNALUKYAS 

emDassy is supposed to be represented in one of the paintings in the 
Ajanta caves. The exact dale of the end of l»is reign is not known, 
and the history is not very clear until the accession of Vikranidditya. 
Before him there were his lirothcrs A'dityavarma and Chandrnditya. 
One inscription of the former is known,' but the latter is represented 
only by grants made by his queen, Vijayarnahddevi or Vija)'ab!iattA- 
riki.* She may therefore liave been a widow at the lime and reyent 
for a son who did not survive. I have also found a grant in 
Goribidnur taluq by Ambera, a son or daughter of Satyds'raya." It 
seems certain that after the death of Piilikes'i II. the Pallavas attacked 
and inflicted severe losses on the Chalukyas, driving them out of some 
of Iheir recently acquired possessions in the south. 

Vikramdditya restored the power of the Chalukj-as. Riding to 
battle on his splendid charger Chitrakantha, he was victorious over 
Pindya, Ch6la, Kerala, and Kalahhra {perhaps the Kalabhuryas or 
Kalachuryas), all of whom may have aided the Pallavas in their late 
hostilities. But his greatest achievement was the capture of Kdnchi 
and forcing the Pallava king, "who had never bowed to any other 
man," to kiss his feet with liis crown. Vinayaditya, his son, ca]}tured 
and destroyed the army of Trairdjya Pallava, the king of Kdnchi, was 
served by the Pallava, Kalabhra, Kerala, Haihaya, Vila, Mdlava, Chola 
and I'andya kings, as well as by the A'luvas and Gangas ; and levpng 
tribute from the rulers of Kavera, Pirasika, Simhala (Ceylon) and other 
islands, churned the king of all the north and seized the Pali dhvaja.^ 
His son Vijayaditya completed the conquests of the two preceding 
reigns, both in the south and the north, and in addition to the Pali 
dhvaja gained the Ganga and Yamuna dhvajas, which Iiad been 
possessions of the Guptas. His son Vikraradditya II gained an 
important victory in the Tund-lka province (Tond^ inandala) over the 
Pallava king Nandipotavarma, whom he put to flight and, capturing all 
the ro)'aI insignia,, made a triumphal entry into Kdnchi, which he 
refrained from plundering, but presented gifts of gold to the Raja- 
simhesVara and other temples. He then, after withering up Pandya, 
ChfSla, Kerala, Kalabhra and other kings, set up a pillar of victory on 
the shore of the southern ocean. His queen, Ix)kamahadcvi, of the 
Haihaya family, caused a temple at Pattadkal to be erected in com- 
memoration of his having three times defeated the Pallavas. His son 
Kirtivarma II, while yet yuva rija under his father, obtained permis- 
sion to make another expedition against the Pallava king, whom he 



» Ak/. Ani,, XI, 66. * ib. VII, 163 ; V]1I, 273. ^ i^^ yill, 89 ; IX, 304. 
* An arranyernent of flags which wems lo have been a recognited Jnina symttol of 
saprcme siirveteignty {iu hut. AnL^ XIV, 104). 

Y 2 



324 



HISTORl 



drove to take refuge in a hill fort, and dispersing his army, plundered 
his treasures. 

While the Western Chalukyas h.^d thus been engaged at a distance, 
in the direction of K.anchi, in destroying the power of the Pallavas, 
their other old enemies, the Rdshtrakutas, nearer home, had been 
watching for the opportnnity to free themselves. In this they were 
sucTcssful, untltT the kings Dantidurga and Krishna. The Western 
Chalukyas for about two centuries from this time disappear from view. 
Kings of their line named Kirtivarma, Tailapa, Bhhnaand Aj^ana, who 
is said to have married a daughter of the Rishtrakiita king Krishna, are 
named as ruling in succession, but the accounts are doubtful. 

Raahtrakutas.~Mean\yhilc our attention must be directed to the 
power which superseded them and which played an important part in 
Mysore during their eclipse, as testified by inscriptions throughout the 
northern and midland parts.' This was the Rdshtrakdjas or Rattas, 
connected perhaps with the Rdjput Rdlhors, and supposed to be 
represented by the modem Reddis. They may have existed in the 
Dekhan from very early times. Their territory at the period of which 
we are writing is often referred teas Rattaviiiji, and their capital, at 
first Mayilnikhandi (Morkhand in Nasik district) was, early in the ninth 
century, at Minyakheta (Malkhed in the Nizam's Dominions, about 
ninety miles west by south of Haidaral^ad). The earliest decided i 
mention of them describes Indra, the son of Krishna, as overcome by 
the early Chalukya king, Jayasimha, and coins supposed to belong to 
this Krishna have been found on the Bombay side. Then we have aj 
Govinda repulsed by Pulikes'i I. But the connected list of kmgs is as 
follows' : — 

Krishna II, Kannara, 

.Miabtvarstha, S'libliatiinga 8S4-913, 
Jagatlunga, Prabhuta^urxha, 

PralaiKivaluka 
Indra III, Nityavarsha, 

in. Vijimba 9I5~9I7 

(.jovinda V, Prabhuta\-arsha, 

Stivarnavarsha 9 1 S-^33 

Baddiga. Amo^hnvarsha, 

m. Kundnkndcvi 
Krishna HI, tConnara, 

Akilavarsha 939-96ff| 

Khtrftiga, Niiyavarsha 968-971^ 

Kakita II. KakkaU 

Amoghav-aKha, Nripatunga 



Dniitivarnia I 

Indra I 

Gw-inda I 

Karka or Kakka I 

Indra IE 

Dantidwrga, Dantjvamia I, 

Khu'lgavaloka 754 

Krishna I, Kannara, Akila>'ankha, 

S'libhatungn 
Dhruva, Niru|»rtina, ^hi^il^'arBha 
Govinda III, I'mbhuuvar&ha, 

Jagattunga, .'Ktis'aya-dhavala, 

m. L*dniundabt)e 782-8I4 

S'arvR, Nripatunga, Amoghavarsha 

815-877 Aniogiia\'ar&iia, Nripatunga 973-97J' 

I Their insKrijittons are often on cructform stones, very artistic tn appearance, and 
quite different from any olhcni. The upper ann is deeply bevelled, and a large 
plough cngiavctl from one end to the other of the cross tree, ^ (/. £f. Ind., Ill, 54, 



HASNTRAKUTAS 



325 



These kings very commonly had the title Vallablvij taken from the 
Chalukyas, In its Prdkrit fonn of Ballaha, which is often used alone 
in their inscriptions in Mysore, without any name, it furnishes the key 
by which to identify the powerful d}*nasty called Balharas by Arab 
travellers or the tenth century, and described by them as ruling from 
Mankir ( Manpkhcta). 

Indra II is said to liave married a Chalukya princess^ but Danti< 
durga, who died without issue, and Krishna I, his maternal uncle, who 
therefore came to the throne after him, were successful in overcoming 
the Chalukyas and establishing the supremacy of the Rishtrakiitas. 
The beautiful Kailisa temple of Elura was probably erected by 
Krishna. Dhruva, Uhora, Uharavarsha or Nirupama, though the 
younger son, superseded his brother Govinda and was a brave and 
warlike prince. He humbled the Pallava king of Kanchi and look 
from him a tribute of elephants. He also defeated and imprisoned 
the impetuous Ganga, who had never been conquered before. In the 
north he drove the king of the Vatsas into the desert of Marvad. 
Govinda or Praljhuta\^rsha, his son, was one of the most powerful 
kings of his line. He conquered the Keralas, Mdlavas, S'au^as, 
Gurjaras and the kings of Chitrakiija (in Bandalkhand) and took away 
from his enemies (the Chalukyas) the emblems of the Ganga and 
Yamuna. He rclca.sed Ganga from his long and painful captivity, but 
had to imprison him again on account of his hostility, and took tribute 
from Dantiga, the ruler of KdnchL On this latter expedition, in 804, 
be lulled at the tirtha of RAmes'vara, on an island in the Tungabhadra 
(Kuruva, about five mile.s south of Honnali), and had some sport with 
wild boars there. The kings of Anga, Vanga, Magadha, Malava and 
Vengi did homage to him, and the latter, probably the Eastern Cbalukya 
king \'ijayjditya Narendramrigardja, was compelled to build the walls of 
his fortress, apparently at Miinyakheta. The newly acquired province 
of I-^la (in Gujarat) he gave to his younger brother Indra. Eventually 
Govinda once more released the Ganga king (Sivamdra), and in con- 
junction with the Pallava king Nandivarma, replaced him on his throne. 

During the time the Ganga king was a prisoner, Mysore was governed 
by viceroys appointed by the Rashtrakiitas. The first of whom wc 
have any record is Kambharasa, Kambhaiya, or S'aucha Kambha, 
sumamcd Ranavaloka, who was apj^arently the son of Dharavarsha 
and brother of Govinda. Of his time there are three inscriptions,' one 
dated in 802. At a later date, 813, we have Chi ki Raja as viceroy,' 
whose sister was married to a Cbalukya prince named Yas'ovarma, 

> Al Mttltakerc (MeggntL-ideA-antvolc lalutj), Manne (Ndanuntriila lalttq), and 
tfm-njM. Bcisok (No. 24). ' Ind, Ati$., Xll, 18. 



I 



Nripatunga or Amogha\'arsha, his son, succeeded to the throne. He 
defeated the Chalukyas, who made peace with him at Vinguvalli. He 
presented the Konkan to Kapardi of the Silahara family, and after a 
prolonged reign of over sixty years, voluntarily retired from the throne. 
The celebrated Jinasendchary-a, author of the A'di Puninn, was his 
preceptor. Nripatunga evidently took a great interest in the Kannada 
country and literature, for to him we owe the Kavinijamirga, the 
earliest known work on metrical composition in that language. It is 
written in Kannada verse^ and in it he gives a glowing account of the 
countr)' and of the culture of the people, as the following quotations 
will show : — " The region which extends from the Kav^ri to the 
Godavari is the couhtry in which Kannada is spoken, the most 
beautiful land in the circle of the earth. . . . Apt are the people of that 
land in speaking as if accustomed to verse, and in understanding it 
when spoken : clever in truth are they, for they are ripely skilled in 
the usages of poetry without giving themselves up to its study. Not only 
students but others are all skilful in their speech, and know how to 
teach wisdom to young children and words to the deaf." 

Krishna or Kannara II, Akalavarsha, married a Haihaya princess 
belonging to the Kalachuri family, daughter of the king of Chedi, 
He seems to have been engaged in constant wars with the Eastern 
Chalukyas. Of his son Jagattunga Prabhiltavarslia, there is an inscrip- 
tion in Chcllakere taluq, undated, in which a Pallavadhiraja is repre- 
sented as governor under him. Of the succeeding kings, Govinda 
had an elder brother, Amoghavarsha, from whom he seems to have 
usurped the crown. Govinda was so liberal with his donations that he 
was called Suvamavarsha (raining gold). Owing to failure of heirs he 
was succeeded by his uncle Baddiga, and he by his son Krishna III 
Kannara or Akilavarsha. It was the latter who was assisted by the 
Ganga king Biituga, his brother-in-law, in securing the throne, as 
previously related. He, too, by the aid of Bdtuga, was victorious over 
the Cholas,and in return for this service made over the north-western 
parts of Mysore and districts beyond to the Ganga king.* It is not 
clear that some of these had not been occupied by the Gangas 
before, and several formed the dowry assigned to his bride. The 
dominions of the RashtrakiUas were in this reign at their utmost 
extension, the Chola territories in the south and Gujarat in the north 
being in their power. Krishna Rija's daughter was married to a son of 
Bdtugx But the relations between the Rattas and Gangas must have 
changed in the time of Nityavarsha, the brother who next came to the 
throne, as there are inscriptions of the Ganga king Marasimha Nolamha- 
^^^L ' See A'takur Inscription, Mandya taluq Ka 41, £/. Cara.t Mynre I. ^^^M 



ClfALUKYAS 

kuldntaka in which he appears as a feudatory of Nityavarsha. But 
the Ratfa supremacy was now drawing to a close. In 973 Kakka or 
Kakkala was defeated, and probably slain, by Taila of the Western 
Chalukya family, and the Rashtraki^^u empire came to an end. Taila 
married Kakkala's daughter, but the last representative of the 
Rashlrakiitas was Indra. a grandson of Krishna III, who died at 
S'ravana Belgola in 982.' 

Chalukyas {continued). — We left the Chalukyas, on their being 
superseded by the Rashlrakiitas, in order to follow the histor)' of the 
latter dynasty. Its downfall, however, restored the supremacy of the 
Chalukyas, and we may resume the annals relating to this line of 
Icings. It was in the time of Kfrtivarma H that the C'halukyas lost 
their power. He may have been succeeded by another Kirtivarma, but 
this is doubtful. The names of the subsequent kings of the inter\ening 
period are more reliable, namely, Taila, Vikramaditya, Bhima, A>7ana 
(who married a daughter of the Rashtrakitta king Krishna), and 
Vikramaditya IV (who married Bontha-devi, daughter of Lakshmana. 
of the Chedi or Kalachur^'a family). One Chalukya, named Jayasimha, 
fled to Anhalvara in Gujarat, the court of Bhoja Raja, the last of the 
Sauras. Here his son Mula Raja married the daughter of Bh<5ja 
Raja, and in 931 succeeded the latter on the throne, the Salic law 
being set aside in his favour. He ruled at Anhalvara for fifty-eight 
years, and his descendants occupied the throne of that country with 
great glory till 1 145. 

Meanwhile Tailapa, the son of Vikramaditya above mentioned, 
defeated the Rashtrakii^as in the person of the king Kakkala, and 
retrieved the Chalukya fortunes. He succeeded to the throne in 973, 
and transmitted to his posterity a kingdom which increased in 
splendour and prosperity under each succeeding reign for nearly 200 
years. The following is a list of the kings for this period* : — 



Tailapa, Ni^muHi Taila II, 

A'ha^-amallit 973-997 

Saty^'raya, Invaheilenga 997-1009 

Vikramaditya V, Tribhuvana- 

malla 1009-IO18 

Jayxkiiiiha 11, Jagadckamalla 101S-1042 
Somcf'vnrn I. Trailok)-anialla, 

A'ha^-amalla 1042-1068 

SonesS-ara II, Bhuvanaika- 

malU 1068- 1076 

The former kings of the Western Chalukya line had been largely 
occupied in the south in wars against the Pallavas, whose power they 



Vikramriditj-a VI, Tribhti\-ana- 

nialla, Pcrmdili 
Somc&'vara III, RhdUika- 

malla 
Jagadekamalla, Pcrmii 
Tailapa, N'urniacti Taila III, 

Trailokynnuilla 
Sonies\'ara IV, Tribbuvana- 

malla 



1076-1126 

1126-1138 
113S-11SO 

1 150- 1 182 

I182-1189 



!m. at Sr. Bti. No. 57. 



» (/. £f. fMd., Ill, 23a 



t 



ultimately brolce. The kings of the present period we shall find were 
equally engaged in that quarter in struggles with the Cholas. The 
thirty years' period of 973 to 1003, during which the Eastern Chalukya 
kingdom of Vengi was without a ruler, seems to have been a lime when 
the Cholas had overrun the country, having first acquired the territories 
of the Pallavas, including the city of Kinchi. We accordingly find 
Tailapa described as full of desire to fight wilh the Chola Raja, and as 
l)eing a destroying fire to the Cholas, He married Jakabbe, the 
daughter of Kakkala, the Rdshirakufa king whom he had subverted, 
and their son was Satyds'raya, who succeeded him, and against whom 
the Chola king Rajaraja fought Satyas'raya, by his wife Ambikadevi, 
had two sons, Vikrama and Das'avarma. He also, it is said, had a 
daughter, who was married to the Pallava king Iriva Nolambddhir^ja. 
Viknima came to the throne after his father's death, but, dying without 
issue, was succeeded b^ Jayasimlia, the son of Das'avarma and 
Bhdgala-devi. He is described as a Hon to Rajendra Chola, who was 
the sun and successor of Rajaraja, during whose reign he had over- 
thrown the Ganga kingdom, in about 1004, and established the 
authority of the Cholas tliroughout ihc south and east of Mysore. 
Jayasimha, or Jagadekamalla, in 1019, is said to have driven Chola into 
the sea. On the other hand, in 1021, he is said in Chola inscriptions 
to have turned his back at Mus'angi (possibly Uchchangi, in the south- 
west of the Bellary district'), and by 1026 Rajendra Chola is said to 
have taken the 7I lakh country of Ira(|apa<Ji (Rat^vddi) from 
Jayasimha. By 1039 the Cholas, under Rajadhirdja, are said to have 
burnt the jjalace of the Chalukyas at Kampili (on the Tungabhadra, 
in Bellary district). Jayasimha was succeeded by his son Somes'vara, 
'I'railokyamalla, or A'havamalla, who was exposed to a fornudable 
invasion by the (!hoIas, in which they burnt Pulikara nagara 
(I^kshmes'vara in I>hawrar district), and destroyed its famous Jain 
temples erected by Fetmadi Ganga, But he seems to have defeated 
them at Kakkaragond on the Tungabhadra, and driven them south- 
wards, though they claim a victorj- over him at Koppa on the Perdr 
(possibly Kuppam on the Prilar, in Kangundi, North Arcot"), and the 
plundering of his camp. This must have stopped his pursuit of them, 
on return from which he halted at Puliydr-pattana (i>erhaps Huliydr, 
Chiknayakanhalli taluq). It N^'as he who first made Kalydna the 
capital His chief queen was Mailala-devi, a Ganga princess, by 
whom he had two sons, who succeeded him, and who assume all the 
Ganga titles of Kongunivarma Satyavakya Pcrmadi, He must also 
have had a Pallava wife, his son by whom, Jayasimha, takes the 
> S£e Sfi. Ind. Im.^ II. 94. ■ it. I, 134. 



CHALUKYAS 



329 



Paliava and Nolamba lilies. He also had a wife of the Hoysain 
family, though no issue of this marriage is recorded, but he had 
another son, ^'ishnuvardhalla Vijayaditya, who is styled the lord of 
Vengi, and whose mother must have been of the Eastern Chalukya 
family. This is the prince described as alwut to sink into the ocean of 
the Chola-s whom Rajardja and Chola-Clanga of the Kalinga C.ungas 
maintained in power and caused to enjoy prosperity for a long time in 
the western region. Wc accordingly find him in 1064 and 1066 
ruling over the Nolambaviidi Thirty-two Thousand country (the 
B€Uar>' and Chitaldruog districts), with the seat of his government at 
Kampili (before mentioned). When the Cholas were driven out of the 
north of .Mysore, therefore, this province formed a bnrricr against their 
future encroachments. A'havamalla died in 1068 at Kuruvattt (on the 
Tungahhadia, in Bellary district, not far from Harpanhalli), and wa-s 
succeeded by his son Somes'vara II or Bhuvanaikanialla. He was 
ajjparently a weak prince and did not long retain possession of the 
crown. But he had a powerful minister and general in Uday^ditya of 
the (>anga family, who is said before 1071 to have defeated a secret 
conspiracy against the throne and against the guru. 

Vikrama in 1 076 expelled his brother, seized the throne and 
became one of the most powerful of the Chalukya monarchs. He set 
aside' the S'aka era, and from his accession established the Chalukya 
Vikrama era. which continued in use as long a-s the Chntukyas were in 
power. Many interesting particulars regarding him are contained in 
Bilhana's poem on his history." Previous to his accession to the 
liu-one he had gained so many important victories, chiefly against the 
Cholas and other powers south of the Tungabhadra, that his brother, 
moved by jealousy, sent forces into the Banavasi country (the Shimoga 
district) to seize him, but \'ikrama destroyed them. He seems, 
however, to have taken the precaution of strengthening him.sclf by 
alliances, for he married his daughter to Jayakes'i, king of the 
Kadambas, whose capital was then at (joa ; and formed a friendship 
with bis former enemy, the Chola Raja, receiving a Chola princess in 
marriage. The Chola king died soon after and his kingdom was 
thrown into a state of anarchy. On hearing this, Vikrama, who was 
still tarrjing on the Tungabhadra, at once started for the south, in order 
to place his wife's brother on the throne. He entered Kdnchi :md put 
down the rehels there; then did the same at Gangakunda (C.angai- 
kondas'olapuram in the north-east of Trichinoixjly district) and 
re-established the Chola power. But not long after his return he 

' lilonllf nihhni if eiit, as schoolboys nib r>ui ihc figures ihcy write in ihc sand. 
* Vikram^titO'dn% CAarifa, pubtiKhetl tjy r>r. (i. Biihlei in Bomlxiy. 



s$f> 



learned that his brother-in-law h:id lost his life in a fresh rebellion, and 
that Rajiga, the lord of Vengi, had taken possession of the throne of 
Kanchi. Vikrama at once prepared to niarch himself against the 
usurper ; but the latter opened negotiations with Somesvara, who, 
thinking a favourable opportunity had offered itself for the destruction 
of his hated brother, eagerly entered into the alliance. He followed so 
closely on Vikrama's march to the south, that when the latter came up 
with Kdjiga's army, Somes'vara's forces were encamped not far off in 
his rear. A terrible battle ensued, in which victory declared for 
Vikrama ; RiSjiga fled and Somcs'vara was taken prisoner. \''ikrama 
placed his younger brother, Jayasimha, in the government of Bana^-ase 
and repaired to Kalydna. He there heard that a svayamvara was 
prodaimcd for Chandraleklui or Chandala-devi, daughter of the 
Sil.ihara prince of Karahata, and possessed of marvellous beauty. He 
also ascertained that the lady, on hearing of his valiant exploits, had 
fallen in love with him, and therefore hastened to the festival, where he 
was cliosen as the bridegroom from among the assembled princes of 
Ayodhya, Chedi, Kanyakubja, Kdlinjara, Malava, (lurjara, &:c., who, 
though filled with anger at the result, were restrained from violence 
through fear of the great Chalukya.' Next year his brother Jayasimha 
rebelled, and collecting a large army advanced to the Krishna. 
Vikrama, being forced in self-defence to take the field against him, a 
battle was fought, in which Jayasimha was defeated and taken prisoner. 
The remainder of Vikrama's reign seems to have been peaceful, with 
the exception of an expedition in loSi against Kanchi and the 
Pallavas, and one north of the Narmada in 1083. But towards the 
close he was invaded by the Hoysala king, who was driven back by his 
general, Achyugi Ueva. In his celebrated law book, the Mitakshara, 
Vijnanes'vara, who lived at Kalyana at this period, says, "There has 
not been, there is not, and there will not be, on the surface of the 
earth, a uity like Kalydna ; and never was a monarch like the prosperous 
Viknirairka seen or heard of." * 

Soma, called Bhulokamalla, Vikrama*s son, succeeded in 1126 to a 
kingdom powerful and prosperous on every hand. To him all kings 
applied the name Sarvajna (all-wise), and he appears to have been of 
literar)' tastes, as he was the author of Mdnasollasa, on the policy and 
recreations of kings, in Sanskrit. Jagadekamalla, whose real name 
does not appear, is described as having taken possession of the Pallava 
territories. He also repulsed an invasion by the Hoysalas. 

Under Niirmadi Taila or Trailokyamalla, the Chalukya dynasty, 

' The names of five other wives of his occur in inscriptions. 
- Bhandukar's Earfy Hist, of the Dekhan. 




KALACHURIS 



33 « 



which bad reached its zenith with the last Vikrnmdditya, began rapidly 
to decline. A powerful noble named Bijjala, of the Kalachurya race, 
had been appointed general of the Chalukya armies, and the influence 
which he thereby obtained he turned against his sovereign and expelled 
him from the throne. This event occurred in 1157. The Chalukya 
king retired south and maintained himself in the Banavase countr)'. 
The religious feuds which raged at Kalydna in connection with the 
establishment of the Lingdyit creed kept the hands of the Kalachurj-as 
fully occupied. The Chalukya influericc, therefore, was not extin- 
guished, and Somes'vara, the last of his race, succeeded to the fallen 
fortunes of his house in 1182. He seems to have had his residence 
at Annigeri in Uharwad, and later at Kurgod, to the north of Bellary. 
What ultimately became of him does not appear, but t!ie Hoysalas of 
Doiasamudra from the south, and the W-idavas of Devagiri from the 
north, soon closed in upon the disputed duminions ; and the great and 
powerful Chalukya name disappears from fiistory as lliat of a dominant 
power, though certain descendants of the line apjicar to liavu ruled in 
some parts of the Konkan till the middle of the thirteenth centur)-. 

Kalaohuris.— The Kalachuris, or KaJabhuris, were one of the 
royal houses subjected by the Chalukyas on their first arrival in the 
south. They were apparently connected with the Haihayas in descent. 
The founder of the line was named Krishna, and is said to have b*_-en 
bom of a Brahroani girl by Siva. Professing to be a barber, " he slew 
in Kalanjara an e^il spirit of a king who was a cannibal, and taking 
possession of his kingdom, reduced the Nine-lakh country of Dahala 
(Chedi or Bandclkhand) to obedience and ruled in peace." A Chedi 
or Kalachuri era, dating from 349 a.d.,' is used in their inscriptions in 
the north, and is evidence of the antiquity of the family. Among the 
titles in their inscriptions iw My.sore, of which there are many in the 
north of ihc country, arc the following : — Lord of the city of Kalanjara 
(the well-known fortress in Bandclkhand), having the flag of a golden 
bull, S'anivara-siddhi, Giridurgamalla. 

Our history is concerned with the Kalachuris from the time of Bijjala, 
who supplanted the Chalukyas in 1 151, to 1182, when the line became 
extinct The period, though short, is of considerable importance and 
interest from having seen the birth of the I.ingayit religion, which so 
largely prevails throughout the Kannada-speaking countries. 

The following is the list of these kings : — 

Sankania, N'issankamnlla 1176-IT81 



Bijjala, Bijjana, Nhvinka- 

nuMa, Tnhhuvananuilla 1156-1167 
Riyminur;iri Siivi, Somes' vara, 

Bhuixnaikanuilb 1 167-1 176 



A'havam.alla, Apralimalla 
Singhana 



itSi-1183 
1183 



* A» determined by Professor Kielhom {jtet Ep. Ind., II, 299). 



3^ 



MTSTORY 



Bijjnla was a Jain. As has been related, he took advantage of his 

position as general of the Chalukya armies to usurp the throne. But 

for several years he did not assume the royal titles. It was not till the 

sixth year of his usurpation, or 1162 tliat he marched to the south, 

whither the Chalukya prince had retired, and then proclaimed himself 

supreme. During his reign, Basava, the son of an A'nidhya, came to 

settle in Kalyana, where he became the son-in-law of the chief 

minister. He had a very beautiful sister named Padmavati, whom 

Bijjala having seen, became enamoured of and married. Basava thus 

in course of time was appointed chief minister and general. The 

Raja gave himself up to the charms of his beautiful bride and left all 

power in the hands of Basava, who employed the opportunity thus 

afforded htm to strengthen his own influence, displacing the old 

officers nf state and putting in adherents of his own, while at the same 

time he sedulously cultivated the favour of tlie prince. By these 

means, and the promulgation of a new faith, as will be elsewhere 

described, he increased rapidly in power. At length Bijjala's fears were 

roused, and he made an attempt to seize Basava; but the latter 

escaped, and afterwards dispersed the party sent in pursuit. His 

adherents flocked to him, and Bijjala, advancing in person to quell the 

insurrection, was defeated and compelled to reinstate the minister in 

all his dignities. Basava not only resumed his former i><>wcr and 

authority, but formed a plot against the life of the king, probably in 

the hope of becoming supreme in the state as regent during the 

minority of his nephew, the son of Bijjala and Padmdvali. Accounts 

differ as to the mode in which the king was killed. According to 

the Jain acco\int, in the Bijjalattka Kdvya^ he was poisoned on the 

banks of the Bhima when reluming from a successful expedition 

against the Silalmra chief of Kolhapur : while the Basava Purdno 

of ibt' Lingayits stales that he was assassinated by three of Basava's 

followers. 

Rdyamur^ri S6vi, the son of Bijjala, resolved to revenge his father's 
death, and Basava fled to Ulive or \*rishabhapura on the Malabar 
coast. Thither the king pursued him and laid siege to the place. It 
was reduced to extremity, and Basava in despair threw himself into a 
well and was drowned. Bui according to the Lingdyits he disappeared 
into the linga at Sangames'vara, at the junction of the Malprabha 
and Krishna. 'I'he other three kings were brothers of S<ivi, and 
during this period the last Chalukya regained a certain portion of his 
kingdom, but the territories of both towards the south were absorbed 
into the dominions of the Hoysalas, who had by this time risen to 
power in Mysore. 




CHOLAS 

CholaB. — The Cliolas' were one of the most ancient dynasties known 
in ihc soutli. being mentioned along with the Pandyas in the edicts of 
As'oka. They were of the Siiryavams'a or Solar line. In the second 
century their capital was at Uraiydr (\Varriore near Trichinopoly), but 
from the tenth ceniurj' it was at Tanjore. They appear first to have 
come into contact with Mysore at about tlmt time, and, strange to say, 
there are hardly any earlier annals of the line. The following list 
contains nearly all that is known of the kings who reigned ac the time of 
their greatest power. They have a great number of titles, but as these 
apply to more tlian one king it U difficult to assign each to the right 
one. 

r&r.itiiaka Krijtniim, Rajailhinija 10161064 

Kaj&ditya - 950 Kuluitun^ I <to64l 1071 iitz 

950- I Vikiaiiii; III2-II27 

Rijaiaja 984-IOI6 Kutouiingn II 1127- 

Pardntaka, who was perhajw preceded by VijaydU)^! and A'dityavarma, 
had the titles Madiraikon<.ia (capturer of Madura) and K<5parakesari- 
\"arma, and is said to have married the daughter o\ the king of Kerala. 
He conquered the Rina, Vaidumha, T-inka and Pdndya kings, the 
latter being named Rdjasimha. Kajaditya it appears was Parantaka's 
son. As before related {p. 315) he was killed at Takkola by the Ganga 
king BUtuga, the brother-in-law of the Rdshtrakiita king Knnnarn, who 
had marched into the Mysore countrj' to repel this invasion by the 
Cholas. Kannara thus victorious, assumes in some Tamil inscriptions 
the titles Kachchiyun-Tanjaiyun-konda- (the capturer of Kanchi and 
Tanjore), and seems to have esuiblished his power for a time over these 
territories. The Chola succession for the period following Rajaditya's 
death is not clear until Rajanija, in whose time the Cholas successfully 
invaded all the south, up to Kalinga on the east and the 'I'ungabhadra 
on llie west. The Vcngi territory was without a ruler, probably as the 
consequence of their incursions, from 973 to 1003, In the end, the 
Chola king's daughter Kundava was married to the Eastern Chalukya 
king Vimaladityaand the Vengi territory virtually annexed. Meanwhile, 
the king's son Rdjendra Chola captured Talak.dd in about 1004 and 
overthrew the Ganga dynasty, taking in conseijuence the name of 
Gangaikont.ki-Chola. The whole of Mysore, south of the Ka\eri from 
Coorg, and east of a line from about Seringapatam to Nandidroog, was 
overrun and annexed. The policy of the Cholas seems to have been 
to impose llieir names upon all their conquests. The south of Ganga- 
vidi, or that part of the Mysore district, thus acquired the name of 

* In its Tiunit form the name is more properly !^'o;a ; in the Tclugu country*, Choria. 

• Sti papct I.iy Vciika>-j'a, Chr. Coil. Mag.t April 1892. 



334 



BISTORY 



Mu<Jikonrlachola-manda1a ; the north-west of the Bangalore district was 
the Vikramachola-mandala ; the Kolar district was the Nikarilichola- 
man-lala ; more to the north, and extending beyond Mysore, was the 
Irattapidikondachola-raantlaU. The subdivisions of these larger pri>y 
vinces were called valanid, that is, ojanad, or included district ThM 
the southern portion of the first above named was the (rangaikorKJa- 
chola-valanid, while that of the third was the JayankonrJachoU 
valandd. Towns were treated in the same way, so that Talakiil 
became Rijarajapura ; ManaMr (Malurpatna near Channapntna) 
became Nikarilicholapura, but Kolar seems to have retained itsorij^inal 
name of KuvaUIa. The list of Kajardja's conquests, that is, those made 
in his reign, as given in his inscriptions, are GangavAdi, Ra^tivatli, ' 
MalenaH, Nolambav^^di, Andhra, Kongii, Kalinga, and Pdndya, as wdt 
as Vengai, Tadikaipadi, Kollam (Quilon) and Hi (Ceylon). But of | 
course only portions of some of these were subdued. This king bod 
the title K.6virAjakesarivarma. 

He was succeeded by his son Rajcndra Chola, who had been his 
fathers principal general, aided by a brother, perhaps Rijadhirfja, 
unless this was a name assumed by himself in the latter pan of his 
reign. The conquests he claims to have made are : Yedatore, Vanai^asi, 
Kullipdki, and Manne (Nelamangala taluq). He also seized the crown 
of the king and queen of lid, together with a celebrated crown and 
necklace which the I'andya king had given up to them, and also took 
possession of a crown and necklace which were heirlooms worn by the 
Kerala kings, and another crown of pure gold which Paras'urdma had 
placed in one of the islands of the western coast He boasts of having 
put to Right the WVstcm Chalukya king Jayasimha at Mus'angi, 
as previously related. His daughter Ammanga was married to Ae 
Eastern Chalukya king Rajaraja,' who was the son of his sister. 
Later on, another daughter, Rijasundari, was married to the Kalinga 
Ganga king Rajaraja,' but this was not accomiMnied with submLssioa 
to the Chola power, though their son was called Chola-Ganga, 
Rijendra Chola had, among others, the title K6parakesarivarma aod 
Madhurantaka. 

Tlie next king was Kulottunga Chola. He was the son of 
Eastern Chalukya king Rajaraja and Ammangd, and was called 
Rajcndra Chola' before coming to the throne. He ruled at Vengi a1 
first, and did not take possession of the Chola throne till 107 1. Ht 
may possibly be the Rdjiga whose name is prominent in conneclior 
with the expeditions of the Western Chalukya prince Vikramiditya, as 

) Great confusion has arisen from the repetition of these same names in ttifrertnl 
families. 



J 




^ 



HISTORY 



HO YSALAS 



11^ 



I 



having attempted to esta!>Iish himself at KanchK If so, other claimants 
to the Chola throne must have existed, who eventually were removed 
and the way opened for his peaceful coronation. He married 
Madhunintaki, daughter of tlie Chola king Rijendm. Most of his 
inscriptions in Mysore begin thus: — "The goddess Fame shining upon 
him, the goddess Victory desiring him. the goddess Karih abiding with 
him, the goddess Fortune wedded to him ; the wearer of tlie diamond 
crown, having destroyed the Villavas (the Cheras), swaying his sceptre, 
having made a victorious coronation, seated on his throne together 
with his queen consort," expressions betokening a firmly trstahlished 
and j>eacerul sovereignty, which in this reign reached its zenith. 

His eldest son Vikrama Chola next came to the throne, but the 
younger sons had, in imitation of his own beginning, been appointed 
viceroys of Vengi. The second son Rdjaraja thus ruled there in 
succession to Vijayaditya for only one year, 1077 to 1078, as he did 
not like it and returned to the south. The third son VIra Chola was 
then appointed and remained there till at least iioo. It was during 
the time of Vikrama Chola, or before 1117, that the Hoysalas recovered 
Tabkad, driving out the Cholas from the Mysore countr)-. Kuloltunga 
Chola II, son of Vikrama, came to the throne in 1 127, but we are no 
further concerned with this line, whose power, indeed, now greatly 
declined and was never again what il had been. 

Hoysal&S. — This dynasty, hke that of the Kadambas, was essentially 
Mysorean, and ruled this country with great glory from the nth to the 
X4ih century. 'J'heir native place was Soseviir, or Sasakapum, which 
I have identified with Angadi in the Western (ihats, in the Manjarabad 
country (now in the south of Mudgere taluq). The earlier kings were 
Jains. They claim to be Vadavas, and therefore of the Lunar line. 
The founder of the family was Salo, and the exploit which raised him 
to a throne is related in numerous inscriptions, doing one day to 
worship Vasantika, his family goddess, whose temple was in the forest 
near Sasakapur.i, his devotions were interrupted by a tiger, which 
bounded out of the jungle glaring with rage. The yatt or priest of the 
temple, snatching up a sa/d^i (a slender iron rod), gave it to the chief, 
saying in the Kamataka language /mv Sa/a (strike, Sala !), on which 
the latter discharged the weapon with such force at the tiger as 10 kill 
him on the spot. From this circumsunce he adopted the name 
Hoysala,^ formed from the words of the yati's exclamation, and the 
dynasty so called, descended from him, had a tiger {uirtiiiUt) as the 
device on their flag. The following is the list of the kings, with their 
dates, as determined by me from inscriptions :- • 

* The older fcrm is I'oysala, which is the same word. 



$$6 



HISTORY 



SaIa, PoyuJA. !loysalA 
V'inftyiiiliiyAf Tribhuvana- 

malla 
Ballala I 
Hilli I>eva, Vishiiuvardhana, 

Vim GangR, Tril>hu%'ana- 

tnalla 
XJraiiimlm I 



too; 

1047-1100 

1101 1104 



1104-1141 
ti36 1171 



Ball.ila II 
Nanuimha II 
Somcs'vara 
Ninisinihs III 
hallila \\\ 
Ballala IV, 
BalliU 



Virt'ipiksha 



1172-1319 
1220 I2J5 
1233 1254 
1354-1391 
1291-1342 

t343 



Of the reign of Sala we have no very reliable records, except that 
Hoysala-mahidevi, probably a daughter of his, was in 1047 the queen 
of the Chalukya king Trail ok yam alia. We also know that the Hoysalas 
were at first ffudatories of the Chatukyas. Rut a narrative in the 
Macken/ie MSS. smtes that the tiger Sala killed had committed such 
ravage-s in the neighbourhood that the i>eople were afraid to assemble 
for the annual festival of Vdsantika. Being now freed from the scourge 
by the valour of Sala, they gladly agreed, at the instance of the yali, to 
pay a contribution to their deliverer of one fanam (4 as. 8 p.) a year 
for each family. This seemed so trifling a reward for the important 
senice rendered, that the second year it was doubled, the third year 
trebled, and so on for five years. Hoysala had faithfully placed what 
he received each year at the yati*s feet, and in the second year had been 
ordered to use the money in raising a small force. This having been 
increased by the end of the fifth year to a respectable number, Hoysala 
was directed to rebuild the ruined city of De^Tirapuri (? Dvarapuri), and 
was informed that he would discover a large treasure for the purpose 
among the ruins, lo be applied to fortifying it. This may have been the 
I)vara.samudra, 1 )orasamudra, or Dvaravati (now Halebid, Belur taluq), 
which became the Hoysala capital. 

Vinaydditya, Hoysala's sou, succeeded to the throne, and having 
conquered tlie Malarias, ruled o%er a territory bounded by Kookana, 
Alvakhecla, Bayalnad, Talakdd and Sdvimale.* Thfe title Malaparo)- 
ganda is assumed by all the Hoysalas and used alone on some of their 
coins. These Malapas or hill-chiefs may have been the Uanayaks of 
tradition, who, after the overthrow of the Ganga power, sought to 
establish a kingdom of their own in the south and west of Mysore. 
There were nine brothers, the Nava Handj-ak, and their stronghold was 
Bettadak6te on the (lOpdlswdmi hilL Bhima I^nayak, one of four of 
the brothers, the chief of whom was named Perumal Danayak, and who 

^ The uri|^iukl U KonkanadiUvQkheiiadahayalmh^a^ Sec If, as is naturul lo suppose, 
ftmr lioundaries arc meant, two, those nf the cast and west, must be found in these 
words. They may tx;* east, Konka^a and the A'jva tableland, i.r., the talileUnd of 
South Konara ; west, the plain country, I'.f., of Mysore. The hill SaWmate, which 
contiiiucil for a lon^ lime to Iw the Hoysala boundar)- on ihc north, has not been 
tdcntifie«l. Possibly ii had some connection with Si\-mniu. 



HOYSALAS 



337 



quarrelU'd with the other five, gained possession of Nagarapura 
(Nanjangud) and Katiiapuri (Hedxitale) and set up a separate govern- 
ment. After a time they returned to attack Bertadak^fe, which, after 
a siege of three years, was taken by stratagem. Mancha Danayak, who 
conducted the defence, seeing the citadel taken, leaped from the hill 
on horseback and was killed.* The four victorious Danayaks, placing 
a junior member of the family in the government of Bettadak6te, set 
forth on expeditions of conquest, in the course of which it is said that 
they penetrated as far as Goa on the north ; to Davasi-bej^ (the 
southern limit of Coorg) on the south ; to iheBisale C»hat (in the north- 
west of Coorg) on the west ; and to the pass of Satyamangala (north-east 
of the Nilagiris) on the easL Vinayadit>'a is said to have taken 
pleasure in constructing tanks and buildings, and in forming populous 
towns. The temples he built were on so large a scale that the pits dug 
for making bricks became tanks, mountains quarried for stone became 
le\cl with the ground, the paths by which the mortar carts went to and 
fro became ravines. This calls to mind the splendidly carved temples 
of Halebid, the principal one still remaining being the Hoysales'vara, a 
memoriaJ of the founder of the family. Vinaydditya's wife was 
Keleyabbe or Keleyald Devi, and they had a son, Ereyanga. 

The latter was appointed Yuvaraja in 1062, but seems to have held that 
position for thirty-three years and never to have come to the throne, as 
his father outlived him. Ereyanga is described as a right hand to the 
Chalukya king, and must have been a principal commander in the 
Chalukya army, for he is said to have burnt Dhani, the city of the 
Malava king ; struck terror into Chola, who was eager for war ; laid 
waste Chakragotta, and broken the king of Kalinga. Ereyanga's wife 
was Echala Oevi, by whom he had three sons, Ballala, Bitti Deva, and 
Udaydditya. Ballala succeeded his grandfather Vinayaditya, but did 
not live long, and Udaydditya died in 1123. Ereyanga's second son, 
Bitti Deva, came to the throne in 1 104 on the death of his elder 
brother, and proved to be one of the most powerful rulers of his time. 

His capacity had been early discerned by the valiant Chalukya 
prince Vikraniaditya, who is said to have remarked to his attendants, 
" Know the Hoysala alone to be invincible among all the princes." 
He soon set out on an extensive range of conquests over all the 
neighbouring countries. His general Ganga Raja, having captured 
Talakdd, the former capital of the Gangas, he drove out the Cholas 
and took possession of the Ganga kingdom, assuming the title of Vira 
Ganga. Southwards, he subdued Kongu (Salem)^ KoyatiSr (Coimba- 
tore), and Niladri (the Nilagiris) ; westwards, the Male and Tulu 

I Th« site of this leap is still pointetl out. 

/ 




3S» 



HISTORY 



couniries (Malabar and South Kanara) ; eastwards, Kolalapura, 
Nangali and Kanchipura ; northwards, Vcngiri, Uchchan§i, Virata, 
Polalu. Bankapura, and Banavase. In short, he is described as burning 
!o emulate the Sauvi'ra kings, as having "trodden the earth to dust with 
the squadrons of his Kamboja horse," and *' overwhelmed his enemies 
as if the great deep had been broken up, the coursers of the sun being 
borne away in the deluge, and all the points of the compass filled with 
the sounds of their neighing.'^ The boundaries of his kingdom in 
1 1 1 7 are thus stated, — the lower ghat of Nangali on the east ; Kongu, 
Cheram, A'namale on the south ; the Barkanur ghat road of Konkana 
on the west ; and Sivimale on the north. The provinces over whichfl 
he ruledt as named in numerous inscriptions, were Talakicl, Kongu, 
Nangali, Gangavidi, Nolambavddi, Masavadi (perhaps Morasavadi), 
Huligere, Halasige, Banavase and Hdnungal. Tliis includes the whole 
of Mysore, with most of Salem, Coimbatore, Bellary and Dharwar. 
Coins of his have been found bearing on the reverse the legends 
s ri-Ta/akd^u-gotii/4i and /ri-Nof^amMiViifigomfa. He virtually made 
himself independent, but in the north of their territory the Hoysalas 
continued to acknowledge the Chalukya sovereignty in their inscrip- 
tions until the time of Ballala II. 

An important event in his career was his conversion from the Jain _ 
faith to that of Vishnu by the apostle Raminujacharya, who had taken I 
refuge in the Hoysala territory from the persecutions of the Chola 
king, an uncompromising S'aiva. This step, accompanied by a 
change of his name to Vishnuvardhana, by which he is principally 
known, was probably uiken in about 1117. DilTcrent reasons are 
given for il. One is that he had a daughter who was possessed ; the 
Jains being unable to effect her cure, it was undertaken by Ramanuja, 
who cast out the evil spirit, and further, in eighteen days of public 
disputation, refuted the Jains and convicted them of heresy ; those 
who after this would not submit being ground in oil-mills. Another 
version is, that the king had a Vaishnava wife who, by instigation of 
RamAnuja, hinted to him that the Jain priests were so haughty they 
would not even accept food at his hands. He was indignant at the idea 
and resolved to put it to the proof. Now the king had lost a finger, 
a mutilation that would prevent the Jain priests from eating with him. 
Wien, therefore, he found himself dishonoured by a refusal of his 
invitation, he went over in resentment to the other side, and abandoned 
the Jains to persecution. Rimdnuja demolished nearly all Ine Jain 
temples at the capital, said to have been 720 in number, and used the 
stones in embanking the large tank. The succeeding kings professed 
both the Vaishnava and the S'aiva creeds ; but there was much religious 




HOYS A LAS 



339 



toleration and the Jains were often recipients of the royal favour. 
They were probably too numerous and influential lo be ignored. 

The character of the times and the government is illustrated by the 
following story : — Siva, it is said, appeared to a poor but holy Brahman, 
named Vishnus'arma, who was performing penance in the Chandradrona 
{Gaba Budan) mountains, and presented him with a vessel containing 
siiidnrasa (mercury), explaining lo him how ii would convert iron into gold. 
The poor man, delighted, went to the capital with his treasure tied up in a 
bundle, which he phtced for safely in a blacksmith's shop while preparing 
his meal But the heat of the forge caused the substance to melt, and a 
drop or two falling out on some iron converted it at once to gold. The 
blacksmith and his family thereupon examined the bundle, and discovering 
what it cont.aincd secretly removed it and set fire to the hut. Wlicn the 
Brahman returned to claim his bundle he was informed that everything had 
been burnt. Bui on his making the maner known to the king, ihe black- 
smith was ordered to be produced. He was beaten and tortured, but 
without effect, when the person in whose house the bundle had been con- 
cealed brought and laid it before the king, who ordered it to be at once 
restored to the owner. The Brahman, astonished at such generosity, 
made a present of it to the king, who in return gave liim a valuable estate. 
Vishnuvardhana, deeming himself now provided with the means of obtain- 
ing wealth lo any extent, sent for all the farmers and informed them that 
instead of the usual assessment he should require them in future to deliver 
up to him annually their old ploughshares, and on this condition ihey 
might cultivate lo any extent. (The well, it is said, may be pointed out 
into which ihe ploughshares used to be cast !) 

1 cannot help considering the story to have some reference to gold- 
mining. Though traces of this industry exist in so many parts, as 
pre\*iously described under Cieology, and although we know that vast 
sums of gold must have been obtained by the old governments, yet 
no mention of it is met with in the ihou.sands of inscriptions that I 
have examined. It was, therefore, no doubt a royal monopoly and 
kept secret. 

Vishnuvardhana's first wife was S'dntala Devi, a Jain, who died in 
1 131. apparently without any surviving male issue. He subsequently 
married Lakuma or Lakshmi Devi, who was the mother of Narasimha, 
the son who succeeded him. His death occurred at Bankapura in 
1 141. Narasimha, born apparently in t 736, seems to have been 
considered as on the throne from the time of his birth. He inherited 
a secure and peaceful kingdom, and except that some expedition may 
have been made in the direction of Devagiri, not much is said of 
events in his reign. On the other liand he is described as being like u 
god, enjoying the pleasures of the gods. His queen was Echala Devi, 
and they had a son Vira Ballala, who became one of the most 

L X 



340 



riSTORY 



distinguished of the Hoysab kings, and after whom they are sometimes 
called the BalUla kings. 

V(ra Balldla came to the throne in 1172. He gained important 
victories to the north over the Kalachurya and Yddava forces, and 
carried the Hoysala kingdom up to and beyond the Peddore or 
Krishna, estabh'shing his residence at Lokkigundi (Lakkundi in 
Dharwar). On the defeat of the Kalachuryas he assumed their titles 
of S'anivarasiddhi and fiiridurgamalla. He also defeated Jaitugi, son of 
the Yadava king, at Lokkigundi, and thus acquired the sovereignty of 
Kuntala. He moreover gained a great Wctory at Soratur over Sevnina, 
the general of jaitugi, and pursuing him to the banks of the Krishna, 
there slew him. He further reduced all the hill forts about the 
Tungabkidra, and subduing the Pandya who was ruling at Uchchangi, 
restored to him his power. Ballala's wife w.-is Padmala Devi, by whom 
he had a son, Narasimha, born in 1183, who succeeded him in 1220. 
The events of his reign are the overthrow of Pand)'a, who had takerj 
refuge with the K^dava (that is, the Pallava) army, and the subjuga- 
tion of the Kadava and Makara kings, with the setting on his throne 
of Chola, who had been covered up under the clouds of dust raised by 
his enemies : also the erection of a pillar of victory at Setu (Adam's 
Bridge). Whatever the transactions referred to were, the Hoysalas 
always after this call themselves upsetters of the Pandya kingdom and 
setters up of the Chola kingdom. The conquests of the previous 
reign beyond the Tungabhadra seem to have reverted to the Yddavas. 
Narasimha's wife was Lokambika^ and their son was Somes'vara. He 
is said to have fought against Krishna-Kandhara, who was a Vadava 
king, and whose general claims to have acquired the territory of the 
turbulent Hoysalas and to have set up pillars of victory as far as the 
Kaveri But Somes'vara's power was absolute to the south, where he 
took up his residence at Kannanur or Vikramapura in the Chola 
country, a place that has been identified as being close to Srirangam 
near Trichinopoly.^ The boundaries of his kingdom in 1237 are given 
as Kdnchi in the east, Velavura (Belur) in the west, the Peddore in the 
north, and Chalas'eravi (probably in the south of the Malabar district) 
on the south. By the Peddore is generally understood the Krishna, 
but as the name literally means only Big River, we must suppose i: to 
be used here ambiguously and to refer to the Tungabhadra. His chief 
queen was Hijjala Devi, hut he had a wife named Somala Devi when he 
went to live at Vikramapura, and also a wife Devala-mahddevi, a 
Chalukya princess.' 

He had two sons, between whom his territories seem to have been 

> By Dr. HnlUsch, Ep. Jnd., III. 9. " he. cii. 



HO YSALAS 



34 J 



divided, prolmbly by mutual agreement subsequent to his death. 
Narasimha III, his son by Bijjali, continued in the ancestral kingdom 
with his capital at Dorasamudra, while Ramanna or Rinianatha (who 
ruled from 1255 to 1294)5 his son by iJevala-mah.idevi, obtained 
the Tamil country on the south, together with the Kolar and prt of 
the Bangalore districts in the east of the Mysore country. His 
inscriptions are generally in Grantha and Tamil characters.^ The reigns 
of the two kings seem to have been peaceful, but it was the lull before 
the storm. In the reign of Ballala III, son of Narasimha, the Hoysala 
»wcr was brought to an end. The whole kingdom seems to have 
m united again under him, as he is credited with certain 
conquests, including Perundurai (which is in the Coimbatorc district). 
To account for the destruction which shortly befell the Hoysalas, the 
following story is related : — 

The king's sister, married to the S'enji raja, was now a widow. She there- 
fore came on a visit to her brother, accompanied by her two sons, Lakkana 
and Virana, who were very handsome young men. One of the king*s wives 
conceived a guilty passion for them, but her advances being alike repelled 
by each in turn, her love changed to hate, and she denounced them to the 
king as having made overtures to her. The king, justly enraged, ordered 
ihem to be at once impaled, and their bodies exposed like those of common 
malefactors at one of the cit)' gates. Hearing what had happened, their 
unfortunate mother hastened to the palace lo demand an inquiry and 
justice. But it was too late, the fatal order had been executed, and she 
\vas not only put out of the palace, but the inhabitants were forbidden to 
give her any assistance. In the agony of despair she wandered from street 
to street, invoking the vengeance of the Almighty on her brother, and 
predicting the speedy downfall of his empire. Arriving at the potters' 
street, worn with fatigue and sorrow, she requested and received a draught 
of water, in return for which act of kindness she declared that in the 
destruction of the capital that street should be spared. It is the only one 
that has survived. 



In 1310 the Hoysala dominions were invaded by a Muhammadan 
army under Kafiir, the general of .Ald-ud-Din, the second king of the 
house of Khilji or second Pathan dynasty. A great battle was fought, in 
which the Hoysala king was defeated and taken prisoner. Dorasamudra 
was sacked, and the enemy relumed lo Delhi literally laden with gold. 

From an inscription of 1316 it appears that Narasimha rebuilt the 
capital, having taken up his residence meanwhile at Belur. But in 
1326, another expedition, sent by Muhammad III, of the house of 
Toghlak, completely demolished the city. The king then retired to 

' Rinunitha's wife wts Kamali-dcvi, daughter of Arij^a-Pjllai, and she had a 
sister, Chitdta Sonula-dcvi. Kiinani,lha*s own m»Ict wan ronnambala-mahidevL 

w.. 111,9. 



342 



HJSTORY 



I 



Tondanur (Tonnur), north of Scringapatam, at the foot of the Yadava 
hills. In 1329, however, we find him residing at Unnatnale (Tiruvanna- 
inalai, Trinomalec, South Arcot district). There is a record of a son ■ 
of his, Vira Viriipiksha Balldla, said 10 have been crowned in 1J43. 
but as the Vijayanagar power arose in 1336, the Hoysalas now 
disappear from history. ■ 

Tadavas. — This line of kings claim descent from Krishna, through 
Subdhu, a universal monarch, who divided his empire between his 
four sons. The second son, Dridhaprahara, obtained the south, and 
his descendants ruled over the Seuna or Se\'una country, extending 
from Nasik to Devagiri. He was succeeded by twenty-two kings of 
his line, down to Bhillama.' who was contemporary with the Hoysala 
king Vfra Biillala II., and from whose time alone the history of Mysore ■ 
is concerned with the dynasty. They style themselves lords of^ 
Dvardvati (the capital of Krishna, not that of the Hoysalas), and their 
standard bore the device of a golden garuda. They overcame the 
Kalachuryas and became masters of all the western Dekhan, having 
their capital at Devagiri, the ancient Tagara, now known as Daulalabad. 
The following is the list of the kings : — 

Bhillama 1187-1191 

Jaitugi, Jaitrapala 1 191-1210 

Singhana 1 210- 1247 

Kandhara, Kanhani, Krishna 1247-1360 

We have already referred to the severe struggles that took place 
between the Hoysala and Yidava armies for the possession of the 
Chalukya-Kalachurya dominions, and how Vira Ballila, by a series of 
victories over the forces of Bhillama and Jaitugi, carried his conquests 
up to and beyond the Krishna. letter the Yddavas gained the advan- 
tage, and the Hoysalas were forced to retire to the south of the 
Tungabhadra. The earliest of the Yidava inscriptions in Mysore are 
of the time of Singhana, and he probably took advantage of Vira 
Ballala's death to extend his power to the south. In this and the 
succeeding reigns a portion of the north-west of Mysore was 
permanently in their possession. Kandhara was Singhana's grandson. 
He describes himself as thruster out of the Hoysala king and restorer 
of the Telunga king (danapati of Orangal). His general also boasts 
of subduing the Rat^, the Kadambas of the Konkana, the Pandyas 
ofGultt, and the turbulent Hoysalas, and setting up pillars of victory 
near the Kaveri. Mahadeva was Kandhara's younger brother, and 
attempted to establish his own son on the throne after him. But 
Rdmachandra, son of Kandhara, secured it. Tn his time the seat of 
the Yddava government in Mysore was at Bctur, near Davangere, 
» Cf. Bhamlarkar* Earfy Hist, of the Dekhan, 



Maha(1e\-a 

Rimachandra, Rima De\'a 

S'ankara 



1260-1271 
1271-1309 
1509-1312 



A 



i 



YADAVAS 

His general, Sdluva Tikkama, professes to have captured Dorasamudra, 
and obtained a tribute from it of all manner of wealth, esi>eciaUy 
horses and elephants. That he made a victorious uxpedition to the 
south is probable, but whether it extended so far is uncertain. 

It was in the time of Ramachandra that the Muhammadans first 
appeared in the Dekhan. Ald-ud-Din, nephew of Jalal ud-Din Khilji, 
the founder of the second Pathan dynasty, resolved in 1294 to attempt 
the conquest of the Dekhan, and in order to throw the enemy off their 
guard, pretended to leave his uncle in disgust. Suddenly changing 
his course to the west, he appeared before Devagiri. The Raja was 
quite unprepared, but hastily collected a small army, and after vainly 
trying to oppose the enemy near the city, retired to the fort, carrying 
in a great quantity of sacks belonging to passing traders, believed to 
contain grain, but really filled with suit. Aldud-Din plundered the 
town, levying heavy contributions on the merchants, and besieged 
the fort. He at the same lime gave out that a larger army was follow- 
ing, and thus induced Rama Deva to offer 50 maunds of gold to buy 
him off. Meanwhile, the Raja's son, S'ankara Deva, arrived with a 
large force, and, contrary* to his father's advice, attacked the Muham- 
madans. Though successful at first, he was defeated. AU-ud Pin now 
raised his demands, but the contest might have been prolonged had not 
the troops in the fort discovered to iheir surprise that their provision 
was sail and not gr